CN104126396B - A kind ofly breed the method for apple Qiaoization clone roundleaf Malus spectabilis from root anvil seedling - Google Patents

A kind ofly breed the method for apple Qiaoization clone roundleaf Malus spectabilis from root anvil seedling Download PDF

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CN104126396B
CN104126396B CN201410363710.0A CN201410363710A CN104126396B CN 104126396 B CN104126396 B CN 104126396B CN 201410363710 A CN201410363710 A CN 201410363710A CN 104126396 B CN104126396 B CN 104126396B
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malus spectabilis
sawdust
roundleaf malus
roundleaf
cuttage
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CN104126396A (en
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李高潮
韩明玉
李丙智
曹珊
王俊峰
范崇辉
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Northwest A&F University
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Abstract

The present invention relates to and a kind ofly breed the method for apple Qiaoization clone roundleaf Malus spectabilis from root anvil seedling, by roundleaf Malus spectabilis Cuttage Technique of Hard Branch, first breed roundleaf Malus spectabilis cuttage seeding, cuttage seeding is as you were, in this, as maternal plant, adopt the vertical planting of layer to set up roundleaf Malus spectabilis from root anvil seedling propagation by layering garden, annual batch breeding roundleaf Malus spectabilis is from root anvil seedling later; Roundleaf Malus spectabilis is after the vertical propagation by layering garden of root anvil seedling is built up, roundleaf Malus spectabilis can be gathered in the crops from root anvil seedling by 15-20 continuously, eliminate the operation that the breeding of roundleaf Malus spectabilis cuttage is carried out in annual rotation with looking for, for breeding the nursery land used that dwarfing interstock apple seedlings have saved more than 1/3.

Description

A kind ofly breed the method for apple Qiaoization clone roundleaf Malus spectabilis from root anvil seedling
Technical field
The present invention relates to and a kind ofly breed apple Qiaoization clone roundleaf Malus spectabilis from the method for root anvil seedling, belong to agriculture field.
Background technology
Roundleaf Malus spectabilis is the half standard size apple stock originating in China, also has distribution in Japan.Because its cuttage easily survives, Japan last century the nineties be widely used in apple production, the cultivation practices of more than 50 year proves, with roundleaf Malus spectabilis clonal rootstock seedling as base anvil, the dwarfing interstock apple seedling cultivated builds garden, have that growing way is strong, better resistance, output are high, fruit is even, product are of fine quality feature, particularly become flower variety Fuji apple effect better to difficulty.Roundleaf Malus spectabilis well developed root system, fibrous root is many, does not have obvious main root; Available cuttage is bred; Can the opposing low temperature of-19 DEG C, strong drought resistance, than the anti-spot defoliation of Mains micromalus, Malus sieversii and powdery mildew; Strong with the grafting affinity such as conventional dwarfing rootstock M26, M9 and major clique T337 thereof, grafting dwarfing interstock and again on dwarfing interstock after grafting apple variety, buddering, it is fast to send out seedling, nursery stock growing way is good, growing way is strong compared with Mains micromalus planting seed seedling grafting dwarfing interstock and apple variety, and regularity is high.Dwarfing interstock Apple Culture is the Main Patterns of the current Apple Dwarf Stocks intensive culture of China, and breeding clone Qiaoization is from root anvil seedling, significant to raising China's dwarfing interstock apple nursery stock quality (outward appearance regularity, genetic identity).
Tradition dwarfing interstock apple seedling is cultivated, with China's Main Apple Varieties stock seeds such as Mains micromalus, midget crabapple, Chinese catalpa, hupehensis Rehd, Malus sieversiis, rootstock seedling is cultivated by direct sowing method, cultivating seedlings and transplanting method, need seeding and seedling raising every year, require, in first 3 years of nursery lot breeding nursery stock, not breed fruit nursery stock, namely second crop soil nursery can not be used, so just need a large amount of soil, and sowing cost a large amount of manpower, financial resources and material resources, seedling cost is high.Owing to being seminal propagation base anvil seedling, interindividual variation is large, and highly, rugosity uniformity is poor, irregular, and the dwarfing interstock apple seedling cultivated in the future is irregular, and nursery stock builds that child's phase behind garden is long, result is late, garden looks are irregular.
The breeding of existing roundleaf Malus spectabilis adopts cuttage method, and its technical essential is: 1. cutting is collected and selected: dormancy aspire to by the end of December or early March gather cutting, growth selection stalwartness, full, the abundant maturation of eye, the normal current-year branch of color and luster; 2. cuttage material prepares: by the close classification of branch thick, 50 1 bundles, vertical individual layer wet-storage; When cutting fringe, every section of 10cm of lower more than tangent plane 8mm, lower cut is cut into the one side shape of a hoof, and in distance, bud about 1cm locates straight snips, and cuttings 50 1 bundles, seal up clip with clip sealing wax or consolidant; Root-growing agent dips in root process, prepares cuttage; 3. wholely with fertilising: cuttage ground should be smooth, irrigation is convenient and draining is good, uses sufficient the base manure that becomes thoroughly decomposed, realizes face, ridge film coating operation.Row spacing 50cm, high 25cm, length is depending on ground, garden, and 2 row are inserted on every ridge, line-spacing 30cm; 4. cuttage: open country carries out at the beginning of late March to 4 month, every ridge jack 2 row, cuttage spacing in the rows 15cm, about every mu of ground cuttage cuttings 12000-15000 root.5. manage after cuttage: mulch film will spread a little thin spongy soils.Carry out little water pouring after cuttage is complete, make thin spongy soils capping jack gap.Size flood irrigation is avoided in 1 month subsequently.Attention control damping off and aphid.
Existing technical scheme, breeding roundleaf Malus spectabilis rootstock seedling, all obtain every year again look for, whole, cuttage, operate loaded down with trivial details, time-consuming, take a lot of work.This technical scheme and the most similarity of the present invention are the foundation in the 1st year roundleaf Malus spectabilis cuttage seedbed.Innovative point of the present invention be the roundleaf Malus spectabilis cuttage seedbed set up for the 1st year for later roundleaf Malus spectabilis is from the vertical propagation by layering garden of root anvil seedling, 15-20 can be used in this garden, roundleaf Malus spectabilis within 2nd year, can be gathered in the crops from root anvil seedling, reproductive efficiency is high, and every mu of vertical propagation by layering garden can produce roundleaf Malus spectabilis every year more than the strain of root anvil seedling 120,000.
Summary of the invention
The object of the invention is: by roundleaf Malus spectabilis Cuttage Technique of Hard Branch, first breed roundleaf Malus spectabilis cuttage seeding, cuttage seeding is as you were, in this, as maternal plant, adopt the vertical planting of layer to set up roundleaf Malus spectabilis from root anvil seedling propagation by layering garden, annual batch breeding roundleaf Malus spectabilis is from root anvil seedling later; Roundleaf Malus spectabilis is after the vertical propagation by layering garden of root anvil seedling is built up, roundleaf Malus spectabilis can be gathered in the crops from root anvil seedling by 15-20 continuously, eliminate the operation that the breeding of roundleaf Malus spectabilis cuttage is carried out in annual rotation with looking for, for breeding the nursery land used that dwarfing interstock apple seedlings have saved more than 1/3.
The invention discloses and a kind ofly breed the method for apple Qiaoization clone roundleaf Malus spectabilis from root anvil seedling, comprise the garden construction of roundleaf Malus spectabilis cuttage stock and roundleaf Malus spectabilis builds two parts from root anvil propagation by layering garden.When cuttage stock garden is built, require the long 12-14cm of cuttings, cuttage 3 row in the wide furrow of rugosity 0.6-1.0cm, 0.75m, line-spacing 25cm, spacing in the rows 10cm; Every mu of stock garden needs cuttings 12000 ~ 15000, and steep cuttings 10 hours, cuttage survival rate 92.52%, late August, roundleaf Mmalus prunifolia height 80-120cm by the powerful root-inducing powder of 10% soluble powder 400 times of immersions, the diameter at the above 5cm place of cuttings reaches 8-11mm; Then not press strip, do not cover sawdust, allow roundleaf Malus spectabilis cuttage seeding grow up healthy and sound, form sturdy maternal plant.When building from root anvil propagation by layering garden, require, based on cuttage stock garden, to adopt the vertical planting of layer, in late Febuary to early March, by roundleaf Malus spectabilis maternal plant from 8-12cm cutting back on ground, every strain applies the sheepfold excrement 200g that becomes thoroughly decomposed, and impels indefinite bud on maternal plant to sprout and forms sub-strain.The covering wet saw powder material of " hold agglomerating, unclamp and namely fall apart " is mixed with according to " volume ratio 1: 1 of pure sawdust and loess; the pure sawdust in every side adds chlopyrifos granule 0.2kg, ' in wooden U.S. soil ' biological organic fungi-manure 40kg of insecticide 15%; add suitable quantity of water again ", sawdust and 1 earthing is covered by 4 times, regular sprinkling irrigation, sub-strain is taken root, can build up from root anvil propagation by layering garden, mid-November-mid-December or the coming year late Febuary-mid-March every mu can gather in the crops roundleaf Malus spectabilis from root anvil seedling 120000-150000 plant/acre.The propagation by layering garden that the present invention builds up from root anvil seedling, can obtain huge economic benefit by 15-20 batch efficient breeding roundleaf Malus spectabilis continuously.
The present invention is by roundleaf Malus spectabilis Cuttage Technique of Hard Branch, first breed roundleaf Malus spectabilis cuttage seeding, cuttage seeding is as you were, in this, as maternal plant, the vertical planting of layer is adopted to set up roundleaf Malus spectabilis from root anvil seedling propagation by layering garden, annual batch breeding roundleaf Malus spectabilis is from root anvil seedling later, these roundleaf Malus spectabilis to nourish and generate gained from root anvil seedling system, uniformity is good, use as the base anvil of breeding dwarfing interstock apple seedling, after breeding into dwarfing interstock apple seedling, nursery stock regularity is high, solve traditional dwarfing interstock apple nursery stock raising technology obtain the large problem of seedling quality difference, realize Jian Yuanhou garden looks neat, result early, the effect of high yield, roundleaf Malus spectabilis is after root anvil seedling propagation by layering garden is built up, roundleaf Malus spectabilis can be gathered in the crops from root anvil seedling by 15-20 continuously, eliminate annual rotation to sow apple rootstock cultivating seeds with looking for grow directly from seeds the operation of base anvil seedling, for breeding the nursery land used that dwarfing interstock apple seedlings have saved 1/3.
Embodiment
Hereinafter, will describe the present invention more fully now, show various embodiment.But the present invention can implement in many different forms, and should not be interpreted as being confined to embodiment set forth herein.On the contrary, provide these embodiments to make the disclosure will be thoroughly with completely, and scope of the present invention is conveyed to those skilled in the art fully.
Technical solution of the present invention:
1st year: roundleaf Malus spectabilis cuttage stock garden is built
(1), stock garden construction land prepares: traffic convenience, leeward on the sunny side, have irrigation conditions, soil layer is deep, fertile soil, sandy loam, loam, pH5.0 ~ 7.8; Roundleaf Malus spectabilis breeds in first 5 years from root anvil seedling, does not breed fruit nursery stock or builds apple orchard; Roundleaf Malus spectabilis cuttage breeds the October of the previous year, grade, and nursery lot uses sufficient base fertilizer, diammonium phosphate 100kg/ mu, become thoroughly decomposed 2 tons/mu, sheepfold excrement, spreads the chlopyrifos granule 1kg/ mu of insecticide 15%, plough deeply 40 ~ 50cm, leisure is also irrigated before frozen soil; Nursery lot subregion, every district area is no more than 15 mu, installs micro spray irrigation system, reserved 1, the wide road of 4m, is convenient to transport the field means of production;
(2), the cutting of roundleaf Malus spectabilis prepares:
The cutting that resting stage gathers is cut into long 12-14cm cuttings in late March to early April, and lower end is tiltedly cut, upper end straight snips, rugosity 0.6-1.0cm, 50 1 bundles, closes upper clip with seal and shear oil.
Every mu of cuttage garden prepares roundleaf Malus spectabilis cuttings 12000 ~ 15000, and wet-storage is for subsequent use;
(3) cuttings process before cuttage: the powerful root-inducing powder of the 10% soluble powder 400 times of liquid using Chongqing Si Bikang Science and Technology Ltd. to produce, soaks cuttings 10 hours.
(4), ground, stock nursery planning:
By the end of February-early March, nursery lot of raking, by line-spacing 0.75m unwrapping wire planning roundleaf Malus spectabilis cuttage furrow, every 0.75m is furrow, flat furrow wholely, every furrow, select 1.0m wide black film mulching one furrow, for cuttage roundleaf Malus spectabilis cuttings, the furrow not covering black mulch film are ventilating road; Plant without willow, Chinese scholartree, pine and cypress tree within 15m around nursery lot;
(5), roundleaf Malus spectabilis hard stem cutting fringe cuttage:
Cutting time: late March ~ early April;
Cuttage 3 row in the wide furrow of cutting density: 0.75m, line-spacing 25cm, spacing in the rows 10cm.
Cuttage mode: the hole of inserting dark 10-12cm with any hard bamboo pole slightly thicker than cuttings on mulch film, puts into cuttings.Require that cuttings is basseted 2cm, ensure 1-2 bud and expose.Every mu of cuttage cuttings 12000 ~ 15000.Spread fine earth after cuttage is complete and close jack gap.The complete rear micro spray irrigation 10-20 minute of cuttage.
(6), daily management and roundleaf Malus spectabilis skewer seedling growing state: weed a garden, strengthen moisture supply, pour water in time, nursery stock base portion day in May burns then to prevent cuttage, enriches foliage fertilizer; Forbidding weed killer herbicide.Early June is investigated, roundleaf Malus spectabilis cuttage survival rate 92.52%, and late June, cuttage seeding height reaches 40-60cm, the pinching when height of seedling 40cm, promotes cuttage seeding to increase thick; Late August, roundleaf Malus spectabilis height of seedling can reach 80-120cm, and the diameter at the above 5cm place of cuttings reaches 8-11mm.In September, remove mulch film; In December, before soil is freeze-up, water freeze-up water.So far, built seeding row spacing 10 × 25cm, the roundleaf Malus spectabilis cuttage stock garden that in furrow, 3 row are planted.
(7), sawdust prepare: the 1st year not press strip, do not cover sawdust, roundleaf Malus spectabilis cuttage seeding is allowed to grow up healthy and sound, form sturdy maternal plant, sawdust must be prepared to the 2nd year spring winter, after carrying out vertical press strip the 2nd year spring, cover sawdust breeding roundleaf Malus spectabilis from root anvil seedling, every mu of press strip garden needs sawdust 100-150m 3; Sawdust, based on paulownia, pine, must not use apple tree sawdust.
2nd year: roundleaf Malus spectabilis is built from root anvil propagation by layering garden
(8), propagation by layering garden is set up: before rudiment in spring, in late Febuary to early March, adopt the vertical planting of layer, by the roundleaf Malus spectabilis maternal plant in roundleaf Malus spectabilis cuttage stock garden from 8-12cm cutting back on ground, allow roundleaf Malus spectabilis maternal plant all indefinite buds retained in stem section sprout, each maternal plant can rudiment 20-30, the highest nearly 50.These rudiment young sprouts can cultivate into the sub-strain of roundleaf Malus spectabilis later---and roundleaf Malus spectabilis is from root anvil seedling.
(9), apply fertilizer after press strip: after roundleaf Malus spectabilis cutting back, apply along its both sides the sheepfold excrement that becomes thoroughly decomposed, adopt the way that ground is spread fertilizer over the fields, fertilizing amount 200g/ strain, the pure sawdust of covered ground one deck after fertilising, thickness about 5cm.Micro spray irrigation subsequently, make sawdust and ground moistening, meet moisture requirement needed for rudiment after roundleaf Malus spectabilis cutting back.
(10), covering sawdust is prepared: cover and with covering sawdust materials formula be: the volume ratio 1: 1 of pure sawdust and loess, the pure sawdust of every side adds chlopyrifos granule 0.2kg, " in wooden U.S. soil " biological organic fungi-manure 40kg of insecticide 15%, pure sawdust, loess, insecticide, organic fungi-manure are mixed, mix while add water mix wet saw end, sawdust is reached hold agglomerating, unclamp and namely fall apart, the sawdust materials mixed is for subsequent use.
(11) cover sawdust and water management: along with the growth of the rudiment after roundleaf Malus spectabilis cutting back and sub-strain, annually cover the sawdust materials that mixes again 4 times, earthing 1 time, cultivates into roundleaf Malus spectabilis rudiment young sprout from root anvil seedling.
The first tenday period of a month in late April to May, when roundleaf Malus spectabilis rudiment young sprout grows to more than 15-20cm, sawdust 5-10cm is covered 1st time at base portion, tamp the space on young sprout base portion and ground, cover sprinkling irrigation in latter every 3 days 1 time, keep sawdust moistening, now each roundleaf Malus spectabilis maternal plant can produce rudiment young sprout 20-30, the most nearly 50;
Late May, roundleaf Malus spectabilis rudiment young sprout height reached more than 35-60cm, covers sawdust, thickness 10-15cm the 2nd time to early June, covered sprinkling irrigation in latter every 3 days 1 time, kept sawdust moistening;
Late June, roundleaf Malus spectabilis rudiment young sprout height reached more than 55-70cm, and cover sawdust, thickness 15-20cm the 3rd time, gross thickness reaches 30-45cm to early July; Every day is carried out 1 time in sprinkling irrigation, keeps sawdust moistening;
Late July, the 4th covered sawdust to early August, thickness 10-15cm, and gross thickness reaches 40-50cm; Every day is carried out 1 time in sprinkling irrigation, keeps sawdust moistening; Roundleaf Malus spectabilis rudiment young sprout and sub-young plant height reach more than 70cm, and sub-strain base portion has taken root more than 8;
Late August, earthing 1 time, covers thin layer on sawdust the loess in ventilating road, plays moisture-keeping function;
In September-October, strengthen moisture supply, keep sawdust moistening.
So far, roundleaf Malus spectabilis is built from root anvil propagation by layering garden, mid-November-mid-December or the coming year late Febuary-mid-March can gather in the crops the sub-strain of roundleaf Malus spectabilis namely from root anvil seedling 120000-150000 plant/acre.
(12) the roundleaf Malus spectabilis extermination of disease and insect pest:
Rudiment in spring to by the end of July, keypoint control aphid, apple tip leaf roller and powdery mildew, rust; Keypoint control oriental moth and early defoliation disease after August.
(13) roundleaf Malus spectabilis is gathered in the crops from root anvil seedling:
Start November to gather in the crops the sub-strain of roundleaf Malus spectabilis namely from root anvil seedling, sub-strain takes root nearly more than 15; When sub-young plant is not fallen leaves, the urea water with 6% urges fallen leaves sheet; When gathering in the crops sub-strain, first scalp sawdust, expose sub-strain root system, then cut off the rhizome that sub-strain is connected with maternal plant, the sub-strain cut namely from root anvil seedling, or pushs sawdust aside, directly gets rid of sub-strain.Roundleaf Malus spectabilis presses rugosity 6-8mm, 8-10mm, 10-12mm classification from root anvil seedling, root aligns, every 50 strain a bundles, according to the principle that rhizome stays 20cm, terrestrial stem stays 30cm, keep from root anvil seedling total length 50cm, cut out and go from the unnecessary stem of root anvil seedling, vanning, hide with wet saw end is husky, be kept in the freezer of 0-3 DEG C.
Also can in the coming year late Febuary-mid-March gathers in the crops roundleaf Malus spectabilis from root anvil seedling.Utilize in vitro grafting method spring, budder or branch section at grafting apple dwarf interstock, press line-spacing 50cm, spacing in the rows 20cm after healing and transplant to nursery; Or roundleaf Malus spectabilis is pressed line-spacing 50cm, spacing in the rows 20cm from root anvil seedling transplant to nursery, budder with nested bud grafting method grafting apple dwarf interstock before rudiment, then cultivate the dwarfing interstock apple seedling going out garden for 2 years.
(14) the press strip garden management of roundleaf Malus spectabilis after root anvil seedling results:
Smooth press strip garden, roundleaf Malus spectabilis maternal plant covered sawdust about 5cm, squirted sawdust after root anvil seedling results autumn and winter or spring, continued breeding from root anvil seedling after the rudiment of roundleaf Malus spectabilis.
This roundleaf Malus spectabilis can gather in the crops roundleaf Malus spectabilis from root anvil seedling by 15-20 continuously from root anvil propagation by layering garden.
The foregoing is only embodiments of the invention, be not limited to the present invention.The present invention can have various suitable change and change.All any amendments done within the spirit and principles in the present invention, equivalent replacement, improvement etc., all should be included within protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (2)

1. breed apple Qiaoization clone roundleaf Malus spectabilis from a method for root anvil seedling, it is characterized in that:
Described method comprises the garden construction of roundleaf Malus spectabilis cuttage stock and roundleaf Malus spectabilis builds two parts from root anvil propagation by layering garden; When cuttage stock garden is built, the long 12-14cm of cuttings, cuttage 3 row in the wide furrow of rugosity 0.6-1.0cm, 0.75m, line-spacing 25cm, spacing in the rows 10cm; Every mu of stock garden needs cuttings 12000 ~ 15000, steeps cuttings 10 hours by the powerful root-inducing powder of 10% soluble powder 400 times of immersions; Late August, roundleaf Mmalus prunifolia height 80-120cm, the diameter at the above 5cm place of cuttings reaches 8-11mm; Then not press strip, do not cover sawdust, allow roundleaf Malus spectabilis cuttage seeding grow up healthy and sound, form sturdy maternal plant; When building from root anvil propagation by layering garden, based on cuttage stock garden, adopt the vertical planting of layer, in late Febuary to early March, by roundleaf Malus spectabilis maternal plant from 8-12cm cutting back on ground, every strain applies the sheepfold excrement 200g that becomes thoroughly decomposed, and impels indefinite bud on maternal plant to sprout and forms sub-strain; Covering wet saw powder material is mixed with according to " volume ratio 1: 1 of pure sawdust and loess; the pure sawdust in every side adds chlopyrifos granule 0.2kg, ' in wooden U.S. soil ' biological organic fungi-manure 40kg of insecticide 15%; add suitable quantity of water again ", sawdust and 1 earthing is covered by 4 times, regular sprinkling irrigation, sub-strain is taken root, and can build up from root anvil propagation by layering garden, mid-November-mid-December or the coming year late Febuary-mid-March every mu can gather in the crops roundleaf Malus spectabilis from root anvil seedling 120000-150000 plant/acre.
2. a kind ofly breed apple Qiaoization clone roundleaf Malus spectabilis from the method for root anvil seedling as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that described method comprises following concrete steps further:
1st year: roundleaf Malus spectabilis cuttage stock garden is built
(1), stock garden construction land prepares: traffic convenience, leeward on the sunny side, have irrigation conditions, soil layer is deep, fertile soil, sandy loam, loam, pH5.0 ~ 7.8; Roundleaf Malus spectabilis breeds in first 5 years from root anvil seedling, does not breed fruit nursery stock or builds apple orchard; Roundleaf Malus spectabilis cuttage breeds the October of the previous year, grade, and nursery lot uses sufficient base fertilizer, diammonium phosphate 100kg/ mu, become thoroughly decomposed 2 tons/mu, sheepfold excrement, spreads the chlopyrifos granule 1kg/ mu of insecticide 15%, plough deeply 40 ~ 50cm, leisure is also irrigated before frozen soil; Nursery lot subregion, every district area is no more than 15 mu, installs micro spray irrigation system, reserved 1, the wide road of 4m, is convenient to transport the field means of production;
(2), the cutting of roundleaf Malus spectabilis prepares:
The cutting that resting stage gathers is cut into long 12-14cm cuttings in late March to early April, and lower end is tiltedly cut, upper end straight snips, rugosity 0.6-1.0cm, 50 1 bundles, closes upper clip with seal and shear oil;
Every mu of cuttage garden prepares roundleaf Malus spectabilis cuttings 12000 ~ 15000, and wet-storage is for subsequent use;
(3) cuttings process before cuttage: use the powerful root-inducing powder of 10% soluble powder 400 times of liquid, soak cuttings 10 hours;
(4), ground, stock nursery planning:
By the end of February-early March, nursery lot of raking, by line-spacing 0.75m unwrapping wire planning roundleaf Malus spectabilis cuttage furrow, every 0.75m is furrow, flat furrow wholely, every furrow, select 1.0m wide black film mulching one furrow, for cuttage roundleaf Malus spectabilis cuttings, the furrow not covering black mulch film are ventilating road; Plant without willow, Chinese scholartree, pine and cypress tree within 15m around nursery lot;
(5), roundleaf Malus spectabilis hard stem cutting fringe cuttage:
Cutting time: late March ~ early April;
Cuttage 3 row in the wide furrow of cutting density: 0.75m, line-spacing 25cm, spacing in the rows 10cm;
Cuttage mode: the hole of inserting dark 10-12cm with any hard bamboo pole slightly thicker than cuttings on mulch film, puts into cuttings; Require that cuttings is basseted 2cm, ensure 1-2 bud and expose; Every mu of cuttage cuttings 12000 ~ 15000; Spread fine earth after cuttage is complete and close jack gap; The complete rear micro spray irrigation 10-20 minute of cuttage;
(6), daily management and roundleaf Malus spectabilis skewer seedling growing state: weed a garden, strengthen moisture supply, pour water in time, nursery stock base portion day in May burns then to prevent cuttage, enriches foliage fertilizer; Forbidding weed killer herbicide; Early June is investigated, roundleaf Malus spectabilis cuttage survival rate 92.52%, and late June, cuttage seeding height reaches 40-60cm, the pinching when height of seedling 40cm, promotes cuttage seeding to increase thick; Late August, roundleaf Malus spectabilis height of seedling can reach 80-120cm, and the diameter at the above 5cm place of cuttings reaches 8-11mm; In September, remove mulch film; In December, before soil is freeze-up, water freeze-up water; So far, built seeding row spacing 10 × 25cm, the roundleaf Malus spectabilis cuttage stock garden that in furrow, 3 row are planted;
(7), sawdust prepare: the 1st year not press strip, do not cover sawdust, roundleaf Malus spectabilis cuttage seeding is allowed to grow up healthy and sound, form sturdy maternal plant, sawdust must be prepared to the 2nd year spring winter, after carrying out vertical press strip the 2nd year spring, cover sawdust breeding roundleaf Malus spectabilis from root anvil seedling, every mu of press strip garden needs sawdust 100-150m 3; Sawdust, based on paulownia, pine, must not use apple tree sawdust;
2nd year: roundleaf Malus spectabilis is built from root anvil propagation by layering garden
(8), propagation by layering garden is set up: before rudiment in spring, in late Febuary to early March, adopt the vertical planting of layer, by the roundleaf Malus spectabilis maternal plant in roundleaf Malus spectabilis cuttage stock garden from 8-12cm cutting back on ground, allow roundleaf Malus spectabilis maternal plant all indefinite buds retained in stem section sprout, each maternal plant can rudiment 20-50; These rudiment young sprouts can cultivate into the sub-strain of roundleaf Malus spectabilis later---and roundleaf Malus spectabilis is from root anvil seedling;
(9), apply fertilizer after press strip: after roundleaf Malus spectabilis cutting back, apply along its both sides the sheepfold excrement that becomes thoroughly decomposed, adopt the way that ground is spread fertilizer over the fields, fertilizing amount 200g/ strain, the pure sawdust of covered ground one deck after fertilising, thickness about 5cm; Micro spray irrigation subsequently, make sawdust and ground moistening, meet moisture requirement needed for rudiment after roundleaf Malus spectabilis cutting back;
(10), covering sawdust is prepared: cover and with covering sawdust materials formula be: the volume ratio 1:1 of pure sawdust and loess, the pure sawdust of every side adds chlopyrifos granule 0.2kg, " in wooden U.S. soil " biological organic fungi-manure 40kg of insecticide 15%, pure sawdust, loess, insecticide, organic fungi-manure are mixed, mix while add water mix wet saw end, sawdust is reached hold agglomerating, unclamp and namely fall apart, the sawdust materials mixed is for subsequent use;
(11) cover sawdust and water management: along with the growth of the rudiment after roundleaf Malus spectabilis cutting back and sub-strain, annually cover the sawdust materials that mixes again 4 times, earthing 1 time, cultivates roundleaf Malus spectabilis rudiment young sprout into from root anvil seedling;
In the first tenday period of a month in late April to May, when roundleaf Malus spectabilis rudiment young sprout grows to 15-20cm, cover sawdust 5-10cm at base portion the 1st time, tamp the space on young sprout base portion and ground, cover sprinkling irrigation in latter every 3 days 1 time, sawdust is squirted, now each roundleaf Malus spectabilis maternal plant can produce rudiment young sprout 20-50;
Late May, roundleaf Malus spectabilis rudiment young sprout height reached 35-60cm, covers sawdust, thickness 10-15cm the 2nd time to early June, covers sprinkling irrigation in latter every 3 days 1 time, sawdust is squirted;
Late June, roundleaf Malus spectabilis rudiment young sprout height reached 55-70cm, and cover sawdust, thickness 15-20cm the 3rd time, gross thickness reaches 30-45cm to early July; Every day is carried out 1 time in sprinkling irrigation, and sawdust is squirted;
Late July, the 4th covered sawdust to early August, thickness 10-15cm, and gross thickness reaches 40-50cm; Every day is carried out 1 time in sprinkling irrigation, and sawdust is squirted; Roundleaf Malus spectabilis rudiment young sprout and sub-young plant height reach more than 70cm, and sub-strain base portion has taken root more than 8;
Late August, earthing 1 time, covers thin layer on sawdust the loess in ventilating road, plays moisture-keeping function;
In September-October, strengthen moisture supply, keep sawdust moistening;
So far, roundleaf Malus spectabilis is built from root anvil propagation by layering garden, mid-November-mid-December or the coming year late Febuary-mid-March can gather in the crops the sub-strain of roundleaf Malus spectabilis namely from root anvil seedling 120000-150000 plant/acre;
(12) the roundleaf Malus spectabilis extermination of disease and insect pest:
Rudiment in spring to by the end of July, keypoint control aphid, apple tip leaf roller and powdery mildew, rust; Keypoint control oriental moth and early defoliation disease after August;
(13) roundleaf Malus spectabilis is gathered in the crops from root anvil seedling:
Start November to gather in the crops the sub-strain of roundleaf Malus spectabilis namely from root anvil seedling, sub-strain takes root nearly more than 15; When sub-young plant is not fallen leaves, the urea water with 6% urges fallen leaves sheet; When gathering in the crops sub-strain, first scalp sawdust, expose sub-strain root system, then cut off the rhizome that sub-strain is connected with maternal plant, the sub-strain cut namely from root anvil seedling, or pushs sawdust aside, directly gets rid of sub-strain; Roundleaf Malus spectabilis presses rugosity 6-8mm, 8-10mm, 10-12mm classification from root anvil seedling, root aligns, every 50 strain a bundles, according to the principle that rhizome stays 20cm, terrestrial stem stays 30cm, keep from root anvil seedling total length 50cm, cut out and go from the unnecessary stem of root anvil seedling, vanning, hide with wet saw end is husky, be kept in the freezer of 0-3 DEG C;
Also can in the coming year late Febuary-mid-March gathers in the crops roundleaf Malus spectabilis from root anvil seedling; Utilize in vitro grafting method spring, budder or branch section at grafting apple dwarf interstock, press line-spacing 50cm, spacing in the rows 20cm after healing and transplant to nursery; Or roundleaf Malus spectabilis is pressed line-spacing 50cm, spacing in the rows 20cm from root anvil seedling transplant to nursery, budder with nested bud grafting method grafting apple dwarf interstock before rudiment, then cultivate the dwarfing interstock apple seedling going out garden for 2 years;
(14) the press strip garden management of roundleaf Malus spectabilis after root anvil seedling results:
Smooth press strip garden, roundleaf Malus spectabilis maternal plant covered sawdust about 5cm, squirted sawdust after root anvil seedling results autumn and winter or spring, continued breeding from root anvil seedling after the rudiment of roundleaf Malus spectabilis;
This roundleaf Malus spectabilis can gather in the crops roundleaf Malus spectabilis from root anvil seedling by 15-20 continuously from root anvil propagation by layering garden.
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CN104770225B (en) * 2015-04-27 2017-06-06 陕西超越农业有限公司 A kind of vitro grafting method from root anvil apple sprout
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