Summary of the invention
Many in order to make full use of north latitude 26～30 degree area rainwater, the soil is fertile, the environment of temperature between-8 ℃+38 ℃, the invention provides the cultivation method of a kind of cold-resistant eucalyptus of suitable north latitude 26～30 degree weathers, so that build large stretch of artificial eucalyptus woods fast, promote local economic development, improve the people's living standard.
For solving its technical problem, the inventor has found the cultivation method of a kind of cold-resistant eucalyptus woods of suitable north latitude 26～30 degree weathers at last through years of researches and experiment, and its method comprises the steps:
1, determine eucalypt species, according to data and practice, determine that at last Dunne eucalyptus and willow eucalyptus are best seeds, the reason of selecting Dunne eucalyptus is because it is the fastest a kind of large-scale deciduous species of Australia's growth, Gao Keda 50m, the diameter of a cross-section of a tree trunk 1.3 meters above the ground can reach 1.5m, trunk does not have branch below 30～35m, be fit to cold in winter, the weather that frost is arranged frequently, Brazilian test report Dunne eucalyptus is suitable for existence under-9 ℃ of weathers, and the growth of Dunne eucalyptus is fast, experiment according to two test sites in Guilin and Liuzhou of China shows: the life in 16 months of Dunne eucalyptus, and the average height of tree and average tree-walk reach 5.7m and 4.9 cm respectively; 4 years living Dunne eucalyptus mean height 13.4m-14.2m, average tree-walk 11.8cm～12.0cm; The material of Dunne eucalyptus is good, color U.S., and generally as sawn timber, Dunne eucalyptus woods of the low slurry of large-scale production material has all been cultivated by Australia, Brazil.Select Liu An to be because its growth is fast, cold-resistant, up to 55m, reach as high as 71m, it is perfectly straight to set 1/2～1/3 height entirely, for Australian important hard material, also is one of best papermaking material.When Hunan Province Liu An pilot forest 2 years is living, experienced-7.9 ℃ frost weather in 1999, cold-hartliness is near Dunne eucalyptus.
2, grow seedlings: through test, the present invention adopts clone to grow seedlings for slotting kind, breed with the method for seedling then, sprout the maternal plant of selected Dunne eucalyptus or Liu An is short earlier, promptly wide at its base portion band girdle 3～4cm, remove plant weeds shrub on every side, allow the band girdle place be shined upon, sprout to stimulate indefinite bud, treat that it sprouts (branch) bar length and adopt down behind semi-lignified, be cut into long one of 12～15cm or 3～4 joints, keep and transplant a cutting 2 leaves in top, and cut off blade 1/2, soak with the 100ppm root-inducing powder then and transplant a cutting bottom 2 hours, before inserting nutritious bag or nutritive cube are irrigated, make a call to one slotting again after drawing the hole in nutritious bag or alms bowl central authorities with little bamboo or waddy, it is good to take little shed cover with plastic film after inserting, keep 35 ℃ of following temperature in the shed, the humidity more than 90% was through 1～3 month grew, when slotting seedling grows tall to 12～25cm, just can go out canopy and transplant.
3, transplant: 1. choosing ground: according to the principle of " matching species with the site ", select soil layer deep, the red soil of fertile soil or laterite, soil neutral or slightly acidic planting site, the gradient is with below 35 °; 2. make preparation for ploughing and sowing: burn the mountain removal of impurities in annual 9～October, and hold the fire belt that is not narrower than 10m successfully; 3. dig pit, apply fertilizer to the subsoil: manually dig pit the density in hole: wide row * narrow strain=4 * 2m or 2 * 3m dig pit, and requiring the specification in hole is top 60cm * 40cm, bottom 50cm * 35cm, dark 40cm; Bury at the end in the hole and apply fertilizer to the subsoil, dried poultrymanure 1000g+ fused calcium magnesium phosphate 300g is executed in every hole; Or fused calcium magnesium phosphate 300g+ pig manure, sugarcane filter mud 5～7kg, the fertilising back is returned 1/3 soil and is mixed thoroughly, returns 2/3 soil in addition and makes it be higher than surface 5～10cm, becomes bread shape, plants seedling at last and waters.
4, transplant the back management: 1. tending [after young plantation: carry out after 3～4 months in plantation, weed with a hoe in conjunction with topdressing, uproot weeds in 50～80cm around the nursery stock, loosen the soil, aspect is opened a first quarter moon shape 10cm shallow ridges on nursery stock, every strain imposes the homemade composite fertilizer 300g that fertilizer adopts N:P:K=18:6:8, add urea 100g, mix back water and water; 2. tending management: after planting the 2nd year, around trees, weed with a hoe in 80～100cm, and ditching imposes homemade composite fertilizer between strain, every strain 400～500g+ urea 50～100g, other locally want the spray herbicide weeding on every side; Plant and refertilize 1 time the 3rd year, the 4th year every year, the 5th～6 annual ring cuts down once, and wheel cuts down the composite fertilizer 1500g of the every strain fertilising in back N:P:K=18:6:8.3. forest land protection: forest fires location and the broad valley vertical with the main air direction are easily taking place, and main ridge line will be provided with fire line or fire forest belt, and is equipped with the forest ranger, strengthens livestock and keeps an eye on, and prevents to damage forest.
5, the extermination of disease and insect pest: 1. to the shrivelled disease of eucalyptus, adopt spraying controls such as 0.125%～0.167% concentration captan, zineb, carbendazim, octicin solution, or with 0.67%～1.0% concentration copper-bath sprinkle, or drench with 60% fenaminosulf, 0.167% solution and to execute; 2. to eucalyptus butt canker, stem wipes off with scraper at trunk, impels the scar healing, brushes 10% equivalent bordeaux mixture or copper oxychloride 2% solution or wound preservative; 3. to the eucalyptus bacterial wilt, once discovery, root out immediately, the soil sterilization that limes in strain cave is destroyed diseased plant or is sprayed the control of streptomycin 0.14%～0.2% solution in the early stage; 4. to the eucalyptus verticillium wilt, in time cut down diseased plant, trees or the invalid body cut down are in time destroyed, or execute tree root, carry out soil disinfection with the pouring of 0..5% concentration formalin; 5. to the eucalyptus root rot, find diseased plant, pull out immediately, and take the forest land out of and concentrate and burn, in the place and the sterilization that limes on every side that disease takes place, control spreads, or with the topsin or the benzimidazole drip washing of 0.1% concentration; 6. pest control: ⑴ is to termite, mole cricket, big cricket, with Le Siben or Niran 0.2% solution soaking nursery stock prevent termite, or every strain is sprinkling upon nursery stock control on every side or cold with the fragrant stand of 50kg rice bran stir-fry with furans pellet, gram ground worm 20～25g, add 90% chlorophos crystal 1kg dilute with water and mix rice bran and be configured to poison bait, be placed on the hole trapping of loosening the soil; ⑵ to cockchafer subclass, grub category, and every strain is discharged with furans pellet, gram ground worm 20～25g mixings base manure, or with 40% dimethoate emulsifiable concentrate, 0.1% solution spray or spray; Or with 65% hot sulphur missible oil, 90% chlorophos crystal, 0.05%～0.1% solution perfusion root; ⑶ the reddish brown liquid moth of dialogue skirt: with 20% sumicidin missible oil, 0.02%～0.03% solution, or 2.5% enemy's insecticidal emulsifiable concentrate, 0.02%～0.03% solution, or the control of 90% chlorophos crystal, 0.033%～0.1% solution spray.
Compared with prior art, the present invention has following substantive distinguishing features and obvious improvement: 1, because the eucalypt species that the application adopts, itself is just cold-resistant than other kinds, substantially be suitable for the environment existence of weather more than-8 ℃, add the cuttage of seedling employing booth, and use that to contain nitrogenous fertilizer less, phosphorous, contain the more fertilizer of potassium, make the sapling stalwartness, during the plantation forest land, adopt and manually dig pit, in the hole and buried fertilizers such as more chicken manure of phosphorous potassium composition or pig manure are arranged is base fertilizer, after sapling survives, annually all manually use phosphorous many composite fertilizers, wooden composition prosperity, leaf does not overgrow, and resistivity is strong, supports to such an extent that live of short duration microthermal climate, therefore can be grown in the environment of north latitude 26～30 degree, that is to say that the eucalyptus woods had only the Guangdong on the south north latitude 26 degree originally, Hainan, the Australia area just has, and now the eucalyptus woods can be moved northward 4 degree, promptly can advance 400 kilometers area growth northwards, this is that eucalyptus was not gone through and met, and also is long-term the thirsting for of people and a successful difficult problem never.
2, because north latitude 26～30 degree one band is regional sunny, rainwater is many, rivers, reservoir, the pond is many, can satisfy eucalyptus happiness sun and the many characteristics of suction, manually execute fertilizer base manure such as more nitrogenous many chicken manures of phosphorous potassium or pig manure during plantation, survive the annual composite fertilizer that is fit to the eucalyptus growth that executes again in back, therefore can satisfy eucalyptus and inhale fertile many characteristics, add and contain the eucalyptus oil smell that general mosquito is all hidden in the eucalyptus leaves that make in the eucalyptus process of growth, damage by disease and insect is few, therefore this eucalyptus growth with the artificial plantation of this method is fast, the lumber recovery height, good in economic efficiency, according to planting experimentally, this eucalyptus on average grows tall 8～10 meters every year, the long thick 10～15cm of tree-walk just can cut down 100～150 cubic metres in per mu yield timber in general 4～5 years in batch.
3, add that its growth is fast because eucalyptus is an evergreen plant, photosynthesis is strong, ruined mountain range, deserted mountain that therefore can this area of fast greening, can absorb a large amount of carbon dioxide gas in its process of growth, discharge a large amount of oxygen, help improving the ecological environment, delay the trend of air temperature warming.
4, because the growth of eucalyptus is fast, wooden hard, can repeatedly cut down, purposes is wide; Not only can do furniture, make railroad tie, the prior still preferred materials of papermaking is planted eucalyptus in a large number, can alleviate the difficult problem that China's paper pulp lacks, and helps the raising of the national economic development and peasant's income.
[embodiment] the present invention is further described by the following examples.
The inventor utilizes 200 mu of deserted mountains to plant experimentally Dunne eucalyptus and willow eucalyptus in the Lixian County, Hunan Province, through the plantations in 3 years and management, now grown up to 13～15m height, large stretch of eucalyptus woods that 11～13cm is thick, riotous growth comes along fine at present, and its cultivation method comprises the steps:
1, seed selection: the selected eucalyptus kind tree of the inventor is for Dunne eucalyptus and Liu An, and is more cold-resistant because these two kinds of eucalyptus all grow soon, strong to environmental suitability, wooden good.
2, breeding station: the clonal mating system that the inventor adopts with seedling and cuttage and seedling culture.Wherein: with Miao Fanmiao is to form the seedbed cutting orchard with the nutritious bag seedling.Original tissue cultivating seedling (maternal plant) band bag is positioned in the booth, begins to cut its tender stem (8cm) cuttage when treating nursery stock length, short its multiple branch to the 12cm left and right sides.Side shoot is long to be begun to adopt during to the 8cm left and right sides and cuts, and is bundled into wisp with cutting the fringe bar of adopting, and soaks cuttage after lower end clip 1-2 hour with the 100ppm root-inducing powder, adopts in later per 7 days to cut 1 time, and the beta pruning bar is many more more, but every strain expanding propagation 10～20 strains in a year.
3, cuttage and seedling culture: with fine individual plant or the choiceness of electing, not by tissue culture, directly the branch cutting of sprouting with it obtains nursery stock, then with Miao Fanmiao, and expanding propagation.Its method: sprout maternal plant is short, promptly wide at base portion band girdle 3-4cm, remove plant weeds shrub on every side, the band girdle place can be shined upon, sprout to stimulate indefinite bud, or grow seedlings with tree crown middle part branch cutting.Treat that it sprouts branch length and adopt down behind semi-lignified, be cut into the cuttage bar of 3-4 joint of the long band of 12-15cm, keep 2 leaves in cutting top, and cut off blade 1/2, soaked the cutting bottom 2 hours with the 100ppm root-inducing powder then, before the cuttage nutritious bag matrix is irrigated, with little bamboo or waddy nutritious bag central authorities make a call to one draw the hole after cuttage again, it is good to take little shed cover with plastic film after inserting, keep 35 ℃ of following temperature, the humidity more than 90% in the shed, behind the cutting survival, be maternal plant, directly use the method production plugged ear cuttage seeding of miniature cutting orchard or field cutting orchard with these nursery stocks.
4, afforestation: 1. afforestation will be selected: Dunne eucalyptus selects below the height above sea level 800m, and Liu An selects below the 1000m, and is organic abundant, and the soil of thicker soil is as Eucalyptus Forestation ground; 2. planting density: by row * strain spacing is 3m * 2m, every mu 110～120 strain or 3m * 2.5m, and every mu 80～100 strain is planted.3. dig pit: cultivate wholely entirely in the mild place of the gradient and dig pit, the hole size is more than 60 * 60 * 60cm wholely; 4. basal dressing, with chicken manure or pig manure fertilizer, or with nitrogen 1: phosphorus 1: the composite fertilizer of potassium 0.5, every strain is 0.5 kilogram of fertilizing amount, in the hole of digging, will show earthen backfill 1/3, and fertilizer and table soil are fully mixed, backfill table soil fills up the cave again; 5. plant: will get cuttage seeding ready and directly plant in the hole, and when planting nutritious bag be broken, and plant then, and, drench normal root water if cloudy, fine.
5, tending management: will foster continuously 3 years after eucalyptus is planted, mainly be to loosen the soil, train the root and stem of certain plants, fertilising, control weeds, prevention and elimination of disease and pests,
1. 1 year, promptly afforestation because of eucalyptus is the strong positive seeds, will be uprooted in the two weeks after afforestation and comfort then, controls weeds on every side, does not convey it and fights for sunshine.Plant the back in the first month, and insects such as control chafer, grub avoid its stem is bitten broken, and when finding insect is arranged, the red medicine of dispensing furans is killed; Planted back 1 month, 0.1 kilogram in urea is executed in every strain, method is to make a call to 3 holes with spud around plant, urea is on average imposed in 3 holes, flow or blow over and cover completely, make transplanted seedling tree survive the back and just can absorb fertilizer with soil, after this often note the control weeds, the forest land of particularly cultivating entirely will be uprooted grass 3 times in 1 year, prevented assorted irritate careless sunshade and the intrusion of other root system.
2. the 2nd year, early spring to eucalyptus loosen the soil the training root and stem of certain plants, execute 0.1～0.2 kilogram in urea, and control weeds.
3. the 3rd year, only execute 0.1～0.2 kilogram in urea, the assorted grass of irritating of control.
4. the results showed that be 4-5 the length of time in eucalyptus, ploughs deeply fertilising, can facilitate the 2nd summit of growth of eucalyptus, economic benefit is fine, and 5-7 just grows up to large stretch of standing timber.