CN104686173A - Method for jointly planting osmunda and loquat in farmland - Google Patents

Method for jointly planting osmunda and loquat in farmland Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104686173A
CN104686173A CN201510107558.4A CN201510107558A CN104686173A CN 104686173 A CN104686173 A CN 104686173A CN 201510107558 A CN201510107558 A CN 201510107558A CN 104686173 A CN104686173 A CN 104686173A
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ridge
ground
loquat
fertilizer
year
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CN104686173B (en
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王寿南
胡刘满
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Hebei Wushi Runkang Animal Husbandry Co., Ltd.
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Anqing Ten Thousand Grass Thousand Wooden Agricultural Science And Technology Co Ltds
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C21/00Methods of fertilizing, sowing or planting
    • A01C21/005Following a specific plan, e.g. pattern
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/005Cultivation methods
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for

Abstract

The invention relates to methods for jointly planting selenium-enriched loquat and vegetables in the farmland, in particular to a method for jointly planting osmunda and loquat in the farmland. The method includes the following steps of farmland drainage and drying for 3 to 6 months, avoiding sowing crops and tilling 2 to 3 times during farmland drying, heaping a first ridge and a second ridge, filling the first ridge with improved soil obtained by mixing dry soil, peat soil, a selenium-rich mixer and fertilized soil, arranging a frame beside the first ridge, arranging a water spray pipe on the frame, arranging nozzles on the water spray pipe in a spaced mode, planting loquat and osmunda, pruning and fertilizing a selenium-enriched fertilizer to loquat, cultivating osmunda seedlings as well as fertilizing, irrigating and cultivating osmunda. By means of the technical scheme of the method for jointly planting osmunda and loquat in the farmland, the yield and the quality of osmunda can be improved significantly, the osmunda can be harvested each year after the third year, the yield of the interplanted loquat is high, the loquat is high in selenium content, and the economic efficiency of agriculture is improved.

Description

The method of a kind of rich selenium loquat of joint implant and vegetables in farmland
Technical field
The present invention relates to agricultural production, be specifically related to the method for a kind of rich selenium loquat of joint implant and vegetables in farmland.
Background technology
Common vetch dish, the purple dustpan of formal name used at school, belongs to perennial pteridophyte, has exist widely in mountain area, Dabie Mountain.Containing the various trace elements such as rich in protein, vitamin and potassium, calcium, squama in common vetch dish, common vetch dish not only can be made into delicious dish, have more the effects such as anticancer, heat-clearing, removing toxic substances, fat-reducing, beauty treatment, to the virus such as influenza, encephalitis B, there is obvious inhibitory action simultaneously, be long-term outlet, be in great demand overseas vegetables, is particularly exported to Japan.
At present, common vetch dish is field acquisition mostly, although also there is local experiment artificial planting, it yields poorly, and the common vetch dish stem of collection is thin, poor quality, and to pluck after one, two year common vetch dish will withered or no longer bract bud.
Summary of the invention
Object of the present invention is just to provide the method for a kind of rich selenium loquat of joint implant and vegetables in farmland, and it can effectively solve the problem, and the output of common vetch dish is high, and common vetch dish is sturdy, and quality better can be plucked for a long time, can not the underproduction.
For achieving the above object, present invention employs following technical scheme:
A method for the rich selenium loquat of joint implant and vegetables in farmland, refers to the method at farmland joint implant common vetch dish and loquat, specifically comprises following operating procedure:
Step 1: by 3 ~ June of agricultural drain dry field, do not sow crop during dry field and dig 2 ~ 3 times, in farmland ridging formed strip the first ridge with second ridge ground, first, two ground, ridges are interval-staggered in arrangement shape, the height on the second ground, ridge is greater than the height on the first ground, ridge, second ground, ridge is that dry land soil is formed, first ground, ridge adopts improvement soil to fill out whole forming, improvement soil is dry land soil, peat soil, rich selenium batch mixing and fiery loam obtain according to the weight ratio mixed preparing of 1:1:0.4:0.2 ~ 1.2:1:0.8:0.4, the paddy soils of dry land soil for getting after 3 ~ June of agricultural drain dry field, fire loam is stalk, tree branches and leaves, the fire ash that weeds burn till obtains according to the weight ratio mixed preparing of 1:2 ~ 3 with forest land soil, rich selenium batch mixing is 4kg green manure, 0.8kg lime, 4.0kg poultry muck, 0.5kg cake fertilizer and 5 ~ 10g sodium selenite obtain through compost maturity, first ground, ridge side arranges support, support is arranged the sparge pipe that horizontal shape is arranged, the pipe shaft of sparge pipe is arranged at intervals with shower nozzle, and the first ground, ridge is pointed in the water outlet direction of shower nozzle respectively obliquely,
Step 2: (1 year before First Year) autumn Mo in the first year excavates the dark kind plant hole of 0.6m in the second ground, ridge, 1.5kg weeds are thrown in kind of plant hole, then 0.2kg lime is used, 2.0kg poultry muck, the compacting of 1.0kg cake fertilizer, covering with plastic film becomes thoroughly decomposed, become thoroughly decomposed the liftoff film of recession, fertilizer in planting hole is stirred and spreads, winter Mo in the first year or the loquat sapling downgraded of planting in kind of plant hole at the beginning of the spring then, irrigate with water, loquat pumping young sprout turns the green rare rich water interval of aging rear one-level and waters fertile twice then, water interval 20d between fertilizer for twice, containing 2% urea and 0.5% potassium chloride in the rare rich water of one-level, spring, summer, autumn, winter takes out slightly secondary respectively, Post flowering carries out flower thinning, in the autumn in the same year, artificial propagation/wild common vetch dish seedling is located interval and planted bottom the first ridge on the ground the next-door neighbour ridge, dam, and pour water in furrow, and water surface elevation in furrow is at least lower than the ground level 18cm on the first ground, ridge, stop after the Frost's Descent irrigating and earth's surface bedding one deck leaf on the first ground, ridge,
Step 3: Second Year starts after the Waking of Insects (3rd solar term) to irrigate, and 4 ~ May, common vetch dish started bract bud, and after bract bud, night every day opens the spray painting that shower nozzle carries out 3 ~ 5min, and bract bud First Year is not plucked common vetch dish, loquat young sprout in spring turns the green rare rich water interval of aging rear secondary and waters fertile twice, water interval 20d between fertilizer for twice, containing 5% urea and 1% potassium chloride in the rare rich water of secondary, loquat to be pruned and tie rod makes loquat tree crown be globular model, angle between major branch and mobile jib is 50 ~ 55 °, Post flowering carries out flower thinning, Second Year Fertilizer In Autumn a poultry muck and composite fertilizer, the applied amount of poultry muck is 500 ~ 800kg/ mu, the applied amount of composite fertilizer is 200 ~ 250kg/ mu, Second Year broadcasts sowing Chinese milk vetch on the ground on the first ridge autumn, cut after Chinese milk vetch maturation receive with leaf together with bedding first ridge ground earth's surface, stop after the Frost's Descent irrigating, from Second Year, rich selenium clay fertilizer is spread fertilizer over the fields on the ground on the first ridge before annual Chinese milk vetch and leaf bedding, the amount of spreading fertilizer over the fields of rich selenium clay fertilizer be every mu of first ridge spread fertilizer over the fields 120 ~ 150kg, rich selenium clay fertilizer is 6kg green manure, 0.8kg lime, 4.0kg poultry muck, 3.5kg cake fertilizer and 3 ~ 5g sodium selenite obtain through compost maturity,
Step 4: from the 3rd year, be repeated below operation every year: start after the Waking of Insects (3rd solar term) to irrigate, and 3, apply April once to help bud fertile, after bract bud, night every day opens the spray painting that shower nozzle carries out 3 ~ 5min, 4 ~ May plucks 3 ~ 4 times common vetch dish, loquat new life slightly turned the green aging rare rich water interval of rear use three grades and watered fertile twice spring Mo, water interval 20d between fertilizer for twice, containing 8% urea and 1.5% potassium chloride in three grades of rare rich water, loquat is pruned and tie rod, the angle between newborn major branch and mobile jib is made to be 50 ~ 55 °, Post flowering carries out flower thinning, pluck really and use a poultry muck and composite fertilizer autumn respectively, each applied amount of poultry muck is 500 ~ 800kg/ mu, each applied amount of composite fertilizer is 200 ~ 250kg/ mu, loquat expanding stage applies fruit tree punching fertilising early stage, and loquat expanding stage sprays organic selenium fertilizer latter stage, autumn broadcasts sowing Chinese milk vetch on the ground on the first ridge, is cut receipts bedding together with leaf and, on the earth's surface on the first ground, ridge, stops irrigating after the Frost's Descent, help bud fertilizer to obtain for fiery loam and people's retention of urine liquid/urea mixed preparing after Chinese milk vetch maturation,
Poultry muck adopts following method to obtain: Chinese sorghum, wheat, soybean are pulverized according to the mass ratio of 6:3:1 and be hybridly prepared into fermentation substrate, according to the mass ratio of 1:5, yeast selenium and fermentation substrate are mixed, add water 28 DEG C of bottom fermentation process 70 days, the product of fermentation and feed are carried out being mixed for raising livestock and poultry, the feces of livestock and poultry of collection is poultry muck.
The height on the first ground, ridge is 25 ~ 30cm, and the width on the first ground, ridge is 40 ~ 50cm, and the height on the second ground, ridge is 45 ~ 50cm, and the width on the second ground, ridge is 1.4 ~ 2m.
The plantation of common vetch dish, topmost is exactly the control of liquid manure, and the happiness of common vetch dish happiness water is cloudy, but also water funk flood, and very harsh to soil for growth.The present invention is by the transformation in above-mentioned farmland, and the irrigation system that furrow is formed, can make the whole farmland of the irrigation of uniform fluid flow, the water lev el control simultaneously in furrow lower than the first ground, ridge earth's surface 18cm, ensure that the happiness water of common vetch dish is irrigated and there will not be waterlogging; Shower nozzle sprayed in short-term at night, Simulated rainwater sky, made the sparse spray of part rainwater on common vetch dish bud, promoted the growth of common vetch dish bud, made common vetch dish bud more sturdy; The improvement soil of above-mentioned preparation simultaneously, support in acidity and fertilizer the best demand more grown with common vetch dish to match, make common vetch dish more sturdy, Chinese milk vetch can be vegetated in the soil property on the first ground, ridge in addition, Chinese milk vetch, the leaf of harvesting cover, and common vetch dish can be survived the winter better, ensure that common vetch dish to germinate spore the coming year, rotting and helping the applying of bud fertilizer can be good at the fertility on supplementary first ground, ridge and regulate acidity of Chinese milk vetch, leaf, makes common vetch dish can both pluck every year.
And adopt above-mentioned improvement soil and rich selenium clay fertilizer to carry out common vetch colza to plant, Organic Selenium can effectively be absorbed by common vetch dish, it effectively can improve the Se content in common vetch dish, and in the dry common vetch dish of results, Se content about improves 3 ~ 4 times, and compost maturity is exactly the means of green manure compost maturity conventional in agricultural production.
In addition, adopt the loquat of such scheme plantation, survival rate 100%, loquat is all greenery throughout the year, forms the fence sheltered from heat or light in the periphery of common vetch dish, ensures that common vetch dish is to the demand of growing environment, shortens the cycle of whole forest land transformation simultaneously.In addition, the joint implant of loquat and common vetch dish, can improve the economic benefit of growing vegetables.The loquat sapling downgraded directly can be bought from nursery factory and obtain, can grow into forest fast, simultaneously, the fertilizer become thoroughly decomposed in advance can ensure that loquat sapling is to the demand of nutrient and prevent from fertilizer from becoming thoroughly decomposed being burnt to death by sapling root system, the fertilising changed year by year, also the growth demand according to loquat sapling Different periods sets, loquat First Year protects to survive, low concentration fertilizer is needed to water fertile and whole flower thinning, Second Year protects strong sprout, in needs, concentration fertilizer waters the fertile flower with removing 90%, 3rd year and be later protect output, higher concentration fertilizer is needed to water the fertile flower with removing 20 ~ 30%.In addition, the loquat of dwarfing, reduction loquat flower thinning, fruit thinning, bagging, the labour intensity of gathering, meanwhile, ensure rationally sheltering from heat or light of common vetch dish.
Certainly, independent the played Main Function of the above-mentioned just each factor of simple elaboration, by the mutual coordinative role of each factor, make common vetch dish all can carry out the harvesting of high yield every year, and the common vetch dish plucked is sturdy, quality better.
Detailed scheme is:
On the ground can plant tea tree on the second ridge after Second Year, tea tree and loquat interval-staggered.Help bud fertilizer to prepare for 50kg fire loam and 10L people's retention of urine liquid to obtain.Downgrading loquat branch also in great numbers, just as forming a hedge hurdle in the outside of furrow, now planting larger tea seedling within it, tea tree happiness is cloudy, can be good at growth, and many crop interplantings, improve whole economic benefit.
In addition, be rich in the applying that the feces of livestock and poultry of Organic Selenium and weeds, lime, cake fertilizer mixed compaction pile the fertile and fruit expanding period organic selenium fertilizer of the ripe rich selenium obtained, Organic Selenium effectively can be absorbed by loquat, makes the Se content in loquat be more than three times of ordinary least squares, becomes health fruit.Fruit tree rushes fertilising and should comparatively use before organic selenium fertilizer, and fruit tree punching fertilising effectively can promote that fruit tree is to the absorption of organic selenium fertilizer, also can play that hyperchromic increasing is sweet, premunition strong in addition, anti-fruit-cracking, ripe early, the effect such as mellow and full, the resistance to storage of fruit.
Technique scheme can significantly improve the yield and quality of common vetch dish, and the 3rd year can both pluck common vetch dish afterwards every year, and the loquat simultaneously planted also can realize high yield, improves the economic well-being of workers and staff of peasant.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is the structural representation behind whole ground, farmland;
Fig. 2 is the schematic cross-section in farmland.
Embodiment
In order to make objects and advantages of the present invention clearly understand, below in conjunction with embodiment, the present invention is specifically described.Should be appreciated that following word only in order to describe one or more concrete embodiments of the present invention, considered critical is not carried out to the protection domain that the present invention specifically asks.
Following embodiment 1 ~ 2 is carried out in my company (Anqing ten thousand grass thousand wooden agricultural science and technology Co., Ltds) with the cool breeze farm (Yuexi County lotus flower village cool breeze group) of Wuhu Heng Nuo Enertech Co., Ltd., Yuexi County Hong Sheng agricultural science and technology Co., Ltd joint development, gemma refers to and the common vetch dish root and stem of certain plants sends tender white gemma, gemma is plucked after growing up to common vetch dish, loose stool water behaviour retention of urine liquid and 2 times of water mixed preparing obtain, and urea water is that 100 ~ 200g urea and the preparation of 1L water obtain.The concrete amount of application of fertilizer do not clearly not stated in following embodiment 1,2, those skilled in the art can use in right amount according to the effect of fertilizer and use age, ensure reliably planting of crops, in addition, in whole planting process, all need to carry out weeding every year, loosen the soil, the operation such as desinsection.In the present invention if no special instructions, the percentage of component is mass concentration.
The cloud that the fruit tree punching fertilising that loquat expanding stage applies in earlier stage is the production of Zhengzhou Yun Geng agricultural science and technology Co., Ltd ploughs board fruit tree punching fertilising, and its using method executes drip irrigation for dilution 800-1200 doubly rushes, and every mu of dropper rushes executes 1.5 kilograms; The organic selenium fertilizer of loquat expanding stage sprinkling in latter stage is the source board fruit tailored version organic selenium fertilizer of the selenium that selenium carefree modern agriculture Science and Technology Ltd. in Anhui produces, its using method is dilution 500 times of liquid, evenly spray in crop leaf, interval sprays twice, every minor tick 7 days; The amount of spraying determine according to the tree-like and age of tree, tree-like, the age of tree greatly, the corresponding increase of the amount of spraying, generally every mu of 1L ~ 1.5L.The fruit tree punching fertilising that certainly other companies also can be adopted to produce and organic selenium fertilizer use, and obtain same effect.Poultry muck is the ight soil of raising livestock and poultry collection; According to the mass ratio of 6:3:1, Chinese sorghum, wheat, soybean are pulverized and be hybridly prepared into fermentation substrate, according to the mass ratio of 1:5, yeast selenium and fermentation substrate are mixed, add water 28 DEG C of bottom fermentation process 70 days, the product of fermentation and feed are carried out be mixed for raising livestock and poultry, the ight soil of livestock and poultry is collected.
Improvement soil used in embodiment 1,2 is obtained in embodiment 3 ~ 6, and rich selenium clay fertilizer is obtained in embodiment 7 ~ 9, and the improvement in farmland is concrete as shown in Figure 1, 2.
Embodiment 1
By 3 ~ June of agricultural drain dry field, do not sow crop during dry field and dig 2 ~ 3 times, in farmland, ridging forms the first ground, ridge 111 and the ground, the second ridge 112 of strip, first, two ground, ridges are interval-staggered in arrangement shape, the height on the second ground, ridge 112 is greater than the height on the first ground, ridge 111, second ground, ridge 112 is that dry land soil is formed, first ground, ridge 111 adopts improvement soil to fill out whole forming, improvement soil is dry land soil, peat soil, rich selenium batch mixing and fiery loam obtain according to the weight ratio mixed preparing of 1:1:0.4:0.2 ~ 1.2:1:0.8:0.4, the paddy soils of dry land soil for getting after 3 ~ June of agricultural drain dry field, fire loam is stalk, tree branches and leaves, the fire ash that weeds burn till obtains according to the weight ratio mixed preparing of 1:2 ~ 3 with forest land soil (forest land soil is preferably the woods soil of area, Yuexi, Dabie Mountain pine forests or the slope soil on hillside), rich selenium batch mixing is 4kg green manure, 0.8kg lime, 4.0kg poultry muck, 0.5kg cake fertilizer and 5 ~ 10g sodium selenite obtain through compost maturity, first ground, ridge 111 sides arrange support Z1, support Z1 is arranged the sparge pipe 114 that horizontal shape is arranged, the pipe shaft of sparge pipe 114 is arranged at intervals with shower nozzle, and the first ground, ridge is pointed in the water outlet direction of shower nozzle respectively obliquely, the height on the first ground, ridge is 25 ~ 30cm, and the width on the first ground, ridge is 40 ~ 50cm, and the height on the second ground, ridge is 45 ~ 50cm, and the width on the second ground, ridge is 1.4 ~ 2m, and the width of furrow is 15 ~ 20cm,
First Year excavates the dark kind plant hole of 0.6m in the second ground, ridge, 1.5kg weeds are thrown in kind of plant hole, then 0.2kg lime is used, 2.0kg poultry muck, the compacting of 1.0kg cake fertilizer, covering with plastic film becomes thoroughly decomposed, become thoroughly decomposed the liftoff film of recession, fertilizer in planting hole is stirred and spreads, winter Mo in the first year or the loquat sapling downgraded of planting in kind of plant hole at the beginning of the spring then, irrigate with water, loquat pumping young sprout turns the green rare rich water interval of aging rear one-level and waters fertile twice then, water interval 20d between fertilizer for twice, containing 2% urea and 0.5% potassium chloride in the rare rich water of one-level, spring, summer, autumn, winter takes out slightly secondary respectively, Post flowering is all extractd, in autumn in the same year the common vetch dish seedling 11a of artificial propagation is close on the first ground, ridge 111 and locates interval bottom the ridge, dam 12 and plant, the width of planting plant hole is 20 ~ 25 centimetres, size is 20 × 20cm, plant by spacing in the rows 15cm, during transplanting, common vetch dish seedling 11a answers transplantation with soil, do not hinder root system, normal root water is watered after cultivation, and in furrow, pour water that (pouring water and irrigating described in the present invention all refers in furrow Inner eycle interval retaining/pour water, that is pour water at every turn and last for another ten days, the each depth of water 5 ~ 8cm, discharge water after pouring water at every turn and drain 4 ~ 5 days, iterative cycles operation like this), and the water surface elevation in furrow is at least lower than the ground level 18cm on the first ground, ridge 111, after the Frost's Descent stop irrigate and first ridge ground 111 earth's surface bedding one deck leaf, the leaf that Za Shu can be selected to descend slowly and lightly and pine needle carry out bedding,
Second Year starts after the Waking of Insects (3rd solar term) to irrigate, and 4 ~ May, common vetch dish started bract bud, and what after bract bud, night every day opened that hole for water spraying carries out 3 ~ 5min spreads spray, and undertaken topdressing carrying seedling by loose stool water or urea water before gemma and after gemma, bract bud First Year is not plucked common vetch dish; Loquat young sprout in spring turns the green rare rich water interval of aging rear secondary and waters fertile twice, water interval 20d between fertilizer for twice, containing 5% urea and 1% potassium chloride in the rare rich water of secondary, loquat to be pruned and tie rod makes loquat tree crown be globular model, angle between major branch and mobile jib is 50 ~ 55 °, tie rod uses soft rope to leave behind along the reverse direction of shoot growth, the bamboo let that the other end ground of soft rope plugs is fixed, angle between adjustment major branch and trunk is 50 ~ 55 °, after branch is shaping, soft rope is taken off; Post flowering removes the flower of 90%, Second Year Fertilizer In Autumn a poultry muck and composite fertilizer, and the applied amount of poultry muck is 500 ~ 800kg/ mu, and the applied amount of composite fertilizer is 200 ~ 250kg/ mu; Second Year broadcasts sowing Chinese milk vetch autumn on the first ground, ridge 111, is cut receipts bedding together with leaf and, on the earth's surface on the first ground, ridge 111, stop irrigating after the Frost's Descent after Chinese milk vetch maturation; From Second Year, before annual Chinese milk vetch and leaf bedding, spread fertilizer over the fields rich selenium clay fertilizer on the ground on the first ridge, the amount of spreading fertilizer over the fields of rich selenium clay fertilizer be every mu of first ridge spread fertilizer over the fields 120 ~ 150kg.
From the 3rd year, be repeated below operation every year: start after the Waking of Insects (3rd solar term) to irrigate, and 3, April applies once to help bud fertile, undertaken topdressing carrying seedling by loose stool water or urea water before gemma or after gemma, what after bract bud, night every day opened that hole for water spraying carries out 3 ~ 5min spreads spray, 4 ~ May plucks 3 ~ 4 times common vetch dish, does not injure root during harvesting, executes loose stool water once after each harvesting; Loquat new life slightly turned the green aging rare rich water interval of rear use three grades and watered fertile twice spring Mo, water interval 20d between fertilizer for twice, containing 8% urea and 1.5% potassium chloride in three grades of rare rich water, loquat is pruned and tie rod, make the angle between newborn major branch and mobile jib be 50 ~ 55 °, Post flowering carries out flower thinning, plucks really and uses a poultry muck and composite fertilizer autumn respectively, each applied amount of poultry muck is 500 ~ 800kg/ mu, and each applied amount of composite fertilizer is 200 ~ 250kg/ mu; Loquat expanding stage applies fruit tree punching fertilising early stage, and loquat expanding stage sprays organic selenium fertilizer latter stage; Autumn broadcasts sowing Chinese milk vetch on the first ground, ridge 111, is cut receipts bedding together with leaf and, on the earth's surface on the first ground, ridge 111, stops irrigating after the Frost's Descent, help bud fertilizer to be that 50kg fire loam and the preparation of 10L people's retention of urine liquid obtain after Chinese milk vetch maturation.
Embodiment 2
By 3 ~ June of agricultural drain dry field, do not sow crop during dry field and dig 2 ~ 3 times, in farmland, ridging forms the first ground, ridge 111 and the ground, the second ridge 112 of strip, first, two ground, ridges are interval-staggered in arrangement shape, the height on the second ground, ridge 112 is greater than the height on the first ground, ridge 111, second ground, ridge 112 is that dry land soil is formed, first ground, ridge 111 adopts improvement soil to fill out whole forming, improvement soil is dry land soil, peat soil, rich selenium batch mixing and fiery loam obtain according to the weight ratio mixed preparing of 1:1:0.4:0.2 ~ 1.2:1:0.8:0.4, the paddy soils of dry land soil for getting after 3 ~ June of agricultural drain dry field, do not sow crop during dry field and dig 2 ~ 3 times, fire loam is stalk, tree branches and leaves, the fire ash that weeds burn till obtains according to the weight ratio mixed preparing of 1:2 ~ 3 with forest land soil, rich selenium batch mixing is 4kg green manure, 0.8kg lime, 4.0kg poultry muck, 0.5kg cake fertilizer and 5 ~ 10g sodium selenite obtain through compost maturity, first ground, ridge 111 sides arrange support Z1, support Z1 is arranged the sparge pipe 114 that horizontal shape is arranged, the pipe shaft of sparge pipe 114 is arranged at intervals with Bidirectional spray head, and first and second ground, ridge is pointed in two water outlet directions of Bidirectional spray head respectively obliquely, the height on the first ground, ridge is 25 ~ 30cm, and the width on the first ground, ridge is 40 ~ 50cm, and the height on the second ground, ridge is 45 ~ 50cm, and the width on the second ground, ridge is 1.4 ~ 2m, and the width of furrow L1 is 15 ~ 20cm,
Autumn Mo in the first year excavates the dark kind plant hole of 0.6m in the second ground, ridge, 1.5kg weeds are thrown in kind of plant hole, then 0.2kg lime is used, 2.0kg poultry muck, the compacting of 1.0kg cake fertilizer, covering with plastic film becomes thoroughly decomposed, become thoroughly decomposed the liftoff film of recession, fertilizer in planting hole is stirred and spreads, winter Mo in the first year or the loquat sapling downgraded of planting in kind of plant hole at the beginning of the spring then, irrigate with water, loquat pumping young sprout turns the green rare rich water interval of aging rear one-level and waters fertile twice then, water interval 20d between fertilizer for twice, containing 2% urea and 0.5% potassium chloride in the rare rich water of one-level, spring, summer, autumn, winter takes out slightly secondary respectively, Post flowering is all extractd, in autumn in the same year the common vetch dish seedling 11a of artificial propagation is close on the first ground, ridge 111 and locates interval bottom the ridge, dam 12 and plant, the width of planting plant hole is 20 ~ 25 centimetres, size is 20 × 20cm, plant by spacing in the rows 15cm, during transplanting, common vetch dish seedling 11a answers transplantation with soil, do not hinder root system, normal root water is watered after cultivation, and pour water in furrow, and water surface elevation in furrow is at least lower than the ground level 18cm on the first ground, ridge 111, stop after the Frost's Descent irrigating and earth's surface bedding one deck leaf on the first ground, ridge 111, the leaf that Za Shu can be selected to descend slowly and lightly and pine needle carry out bedding,
Second Year starts after the Waking of Insects (3rd solar term) to irrigate, and 4 ~ May, common vetch dish started bract bud, and what after bract bud, night every day opened that hole for water spraying carries out 3 ~ 5min spreads spray, and undertaken topdressing carrying seedling by loose stool water or urea water before gemma and after gemma, bract bud First Year is not plucked common vetch dish; Loquat young sprout in spring turns the green rare rich water interval of aging rear secondary and waters fertile twice, water interval 20d between fertilizer for twice, containing 5% urea and 1% potassium chloride in the rare rich water of secondary, loquat to be pruned and tie rod makes loquat tree crown be globular model, angle between major branch and mobile jib is 50 ~ 55 °, tie rod uses soft rope to leave behind along the reverse direction of shoot growth, the bamboo let that the other end ground of soft rope plugs is fixed, angle between adjustment major branch and trunk is 50 ~ 55 °, after branch is shaping, soft rope is taken off; Post flowering removes the flower of 90%, Second Year Fertilizer In Autumn a poultry muck and composite fertilizer, and the applied amount of poultry muck is 800kg/ mu, and the applied amount of composite fertilizer is 200kg/ mu; Second Year broadcasts sowing Chinese milk vetch autumn on the first ground, ridge 111, is cut receipts bedding together with leaf and, on the earth's surface on the first ground, ridge 111, stop irrigating after the Frost's Descent after Chinese milk vetch maturation; From Second Year, before annual Chinese milk vetch and leaf bedding, spread fertilizer over the fields rich selenium clay fertilizer on the ground on the first ridge, the amount of spreading fertilizer over the fields of rich selenium clay fertilizer be every mu of first ridge spread fertilizer over the fields 120 ~ 150kg.
From the 3rd year, be repeated below operation every year: start after the Waking of Insects (3rd solar term) to irrigate, and 3, April applies once to help bud fertile, undertaken topdressing carrying seedling by loose stool water or urea water before gemma or after gemma, what after bract bud, night every day opened that hole for water spraying carries out 3 ~ 5min spreads spray, 4 ~ May plucks 3 ~ 4 times common vetch dish, does not injure root during harvesting, executes loose stool water once after each harvesting; Loquat new life slightly turned the green aging rare rich water interval of rear use three grades and watered fertile twice spring Mo, water interval 20d between fertilizer for twice, containing 8% urea and 1.5% potassium chloride in three grades of rare rich water, loquat is pruned and tie rod, make the angle between newborn major branch and mobile jib be 50 ~ 55 °, Post flowering carries out flower thinning, plucks really and uses a poultry muck and composite fertilizer autumn respectively, each applied amount of poultry muck is 500 ~ 800kg/ mu, and each applied amount of composite fertilizer is 200 ~ 250kg/ mu; Loquat expanding stage applies fruit tree punching fertilising early stage, and loquat expanding stage sprays organic selenium fertilizer latter stage; Autumn broadcasts sowing Chinese milk vetch on the first ground, ridge 111, cut after Chinese milk vetch maturation receive with leaf together with bedding first ridge 111 earth's surface, stop after the Frost's Descent irrigating, help bud fertilizer to obtain according to the weight ratio mixed preparing of 100:5 for fiery loam and urea, prepare after front water dissolves urea and carry out mixed preparing with fiery loam again.
In above-described embodiment 1,2, the plantation amount of every mu of common vetch dish is 1800 ~ 2000 strains, produce about 315 kilograms fresh common vetch dishes per year for every mu, the length of plucking fresh common vetch dish is 15 ~ 20cm, the root diameter (RD) of fresh common vetch dish root is 0.8 ~ 1.2cm, the fibrosis of fresh common vetch dish is low, and the Se content in common vetch dish is high, and in obtained dry common vetch dish, Se content is about 3 ~ 4 times of common common vetch dish.
The plantation of tradition level land, the plantation amount of mu common vetch dish is 4500 ~ 6000 strains, and produce 300 kilograms of fresh common vetch dishes per year for every mu, the length of plucking fresh common vetch dish is 15 ~ 20cm, and the root diameter (RD) of fresh common vetch dish root is 0.3 ~ 0.6cm, and the fibrosis on fresh common vetch dish surface is high.
In addition, in embodiment 1,2, loquat mu carries 70 strains, and after the 3rd year, every strain loquat can gather in the crops 28 ~ 35 kilograms of loquats, and in loquat, Se content is more than three times of Se content in ordinary least squares.
Embodiment 3
Dry land soil, peat soil, rich selenium batch mixing and fiery loam are obtained improveing soil according to the weight ratio mixed preparing of 1:1:0.4:0.2, the paddy soils of dry land soil for getting after agricultural drain dry field June, do not sow crop during dry field and dig 2 times, fiery loam is stalk, fire ash that tree branches and leaves, weeds burn till and forest land soil (the woods soil that forest land soil is area, Yuexi, Dabie Mountain pine forests or the slope soil on hillside, lower with) obtains according to the weight ratio mixed preparing of 1:2; Rich selenium batch mixing is 4kg green manure, 0.8kg lime, 4.0kg poultry muck, 0.5kg cake fertilizer and 5g sodium selenite obtain through compost maturity, poultry muck adopts following method to obtain: Chinese sorghum, wheat, soybean are pulverized according to the mass ratio of 6:3:1 and be hybridly prepared into fermentation substrate, according to the mass ratio of 1:5, yeast selenium and fermentation substrate are mixed, add water 28 DEG C of bottom fermentation process 70 days, the product of fermentation and feed are carried out being mixed for raising livestock and poultry, the feces of livestock and poultry of collection is poultry muck.
Embodiment 4
Dry land soil, peat soil, rich selenium batch mixing and fiery loam are obtained improveing soil according to the weight ratio mixed preparing of 1.2:1:0.8:0.4, the paddy soils of dry land soil for getting after agricultural drain dry field March, do not sow crop during dry field and dig 3 times, fiery loam is stalk, fire ash that tree branches and leaves, weeds burn till obtains according to the weight ratio mixed preparing of 1:3 with forest land soil; Rich selenium batch mixing is 4kg green manure, 0.8kg lime, 4.0kg poultry muck, 0.5kg cake fertilizer and 10g sodium selenite obtain through compost maturity, poultry muck adopts following method to obtain: Chinese sorghum, wheat, soybean are pulverized according to the mass ratio of 6:3:1 and be hybridly prepared into fermentation substrate, according to the mass ratio of 1:5, yeast selenium and fermentation substrate are mixed, add water 28 DEG C of bottom fermentation process 70 days, the product of fermentation and feed are carried out being mixed for raising livestock and poultry, the feces of livestock and poultry of collection is poultry muck.
Embodiment 5
Dry land soil, peat soil, rich selenium batch mixing and fiery loam are obtained improveing soil according to the weight ratio mixed preparing of 1:1:0.8:0.4, the paddy soils of dry land soil for getting after agricultural drain dry field April, do not sow crop during dry field and dig 3 times, fiery loam is stalk, fire ash that tree branches and leaves, weeds burn till obtains according to the weight ratio mixed preparing of 1:2.5 with forest land soil; Rich selenium batch mixing is 4kg green manure, 0.8kg lime, 4.0kg poultry muck, 0.5kg cake fertilizer and 8g sodium selenite obtain through compost maturity, poultry muck adopts following method to obtain: Chinese sorghum, wheat, soybean are pulverized according to the mass ratio of 6:3:1 and be hybridly prepared into fermentation substrate, according to the mass ratio of 1:5, yeast selenium and fermentation substrate are mixed, add water 28 DEG C of bottom fermentation process 70 days, the product of fermentation and feed are carried out being mixed for raising livestock and poultry, the feces of livestock and poultry of collection is poultry muck.
Embodiment 6
Dry land soil, peat soil, rich selenium batch mixing and fiery loam are obtained improveing soil according to the weight ratio mixed preparing of 1.2:1:0.4:0.4, the paddy soils of dry land soil for getting after agricultural drain dry field April, do not sow crop during dry field and dig 2 times, fiery loam is stalk, fire ash that tree branches and leaves, weeds burn till obtains according to the weight ratio mixed preparing of 1:2.5 with forest land soil; Rich selenium batch mixing is 4kg green manure, 0.8kg lime, 4.0kg poultry muck, 0.5kg cake fertilizer and 8g sodium selenite obtain through compost maturity, poultry muck adopts following method to obtain: Chinese sorghum, wheat, soybean are pulverized according to the mass ratio of 6:3:1 and be hybridly prepared into fermentation substrate, according to the mass ratio of 1:5, yeast selenium and fermentation substrate are mixed, add water 28 DEG C of bottom fermentation process 70 days, the product of fermentation and feed are carried out being mixed for raising livestock and poultry, the feces of livestock and poultry of collection is poultry muck.
The improvement soil produced in above-described embodiment 3 ~ 6, the production of all very suitable common vetch dish of its acid-base value and fertility, therefore, the common vetch dish shoot survival percent of transplanting is high, fertilizer efficiency improves the output of common vetch dish lastingly, and wherein Organic Selenium can effectively be absorbed by common vetch dish, improves the organic selenium content in finished product common vetch dish.
Embodiment 7
Rich selenium clay fertilizer is 6kg green manure, 0.8kg lime, 4.0kg poultry muck, 3.5kg cake fertilizer and 3 ~ 5g sodium selenite obtain through compost maturity; Poultry muck adopts following method to obtain: Chinese sorghum, wheat, soybean are pulverized according to the mass ratio of 6:3:1 and be hybridly prepared into fermentation substrate, according to the mass ratio of 1:5, yeast selenium and fermentation substrate are mixed, add water 28 DEG C of bottom fermentation process 70 days, the product of fermentation and feed are carried out being mixed for raising livestock and poultry, the feces of livestock and poultry of collection is poultry muck.
Embodiment 8
Rich selenium clay fertilizer is 8kg green manure, 1.0kg lime, 4.0kg poultry muck, 3.5kg cake fertilizer and 3 ~ 5g sodium selenite obtain through compost maturity; Poultry muck adopts following method to obtain: Chinese sorghum, wheat, soybean are pulverized according to the mass ratio of 6:3:1 and be hybridly prepared into fermentation substrate, according to the mass ratio of 1:5, yeast selenium and fermentation substrate are mixed, add water 28 DEG C of bottom fermentation process 70 days, the product of fermentation and feed are carried out being mixed for raising livestock and poultry, the feces of livestock and poultry of collection is poultry muck.
Embodiment 9
Rich selenium clay fertilizer is 6kg green manure, 1.2kg lime, 6.0kg poultry muck, 3.5kg cake fertilizer and 3 ~ 5g sodium selenite obtain through compost maturity; Poultry muck adopts following method to obtain: Chinese sorghum, wheat, soybean are pulverized according to the mass ratio of 6:3:1 and be hybridly prepared into fermentation substrate, according to the mass ratio of 1:5, yeast selenium and fermentation substrate are mixed, add water 28 DEG C of bottom fermentation process 70 days, the product of fermentation and feed are carried out being mixed for raising livestock and poultry, the feces of livestock and poultry of collection is poultry muck.
After common vetch dish grows every year and gathers, larger to the loss of soil, therefore need to carry out fertility to soil every year to supplement and acid-base value adjustment, the rich selenium clay fertilizer produced in above-described embodiment 7 ~ 9, its acid-base value is comparatively higher than the normal growth conditions of common vetch dish, and use before bedding herbage and leaf, it can effectively regulate the acid-base value of soil, supplement fertility and Organic Selenium simultaneously, ensure the high yield output that rich selenium common vetch dish is annual.
The above is only the preferred embodiment of the present invention; should be understood that; for those skilled in the art; to know in the present invention after contents; under the premise without departing from the principles of the invention; can also make some equal conversion to it and substitute, these convert on an equal basis and substitute and also should be considered as belonging to protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (3)

1. the method for the rich selenium loquat of joint implant and vegetables in farmland, refers to the method at farmland joint implant common vetch dish and loquat, specifically comprises following operating procedure:
Step 1: by 3 ~ June of agricultural drain dry field, do not sow crop during dry field and dig 2 ~ 3 times, in farmland ridging formed strip the first ridge with second ridge ground, first, two ground, ridges are interval-staggered in arrangement shape, the height on the second ground, ridge is greater than the height on the first ground, ridge, second ground, ridge is that dry land soil is formed, first ground, ridge adopts improvement soil to fill out whole forming, improvement soil is dry land soil, peat soil, rich selenium batch mixing and fiery loam obtain according to the weight ratio mixed preparing of 1:1:0.4:0.2 ~ 1.2:1:0.8:0.4, the paddy soils of dry land soil for getting after 3 ~ June of agricultural drain dry field, fire loam is stalk, tree branches and leaves, the fire ash that weeds burn till obtains according to the weight ratio mixed preparing of 1:2 ~ 3 with forest land soil, rich selenium batch mixing is 4kg green manure, 0.8kg lime, 4.0kg poultry muck, 0.5kg cake fertilizer and 5 ~ 10g sodium selenite obtain through compost maturity, first ground, ridge side arranges support, support is arranged the sparge pipe that horizontal shape is arranged, the pipe shaft of sparge pipe is arranged at intervals with shower nozzle, and the first ground, ridge is pointed in the water outlet direction of shower nozzle respectively obliquely,
Step 2: autumn Mo in the first year excavates the dark kind plant hole of 0.6m in the second ground, ridge, 1.5kg weeds are thrown in kind of plant hole, then 0.2kg lime is used, 2.0kg poultry muck, the compacting of 1.0kg cake fertilizer, covering with plastic film becomes thoroughly decomposed, become thoroughly decomposed the liftoff film of recession, fertilizer in planting hole is stirred and spreads, winter Mo in the first year or the loquat sapling downgraded of planting in kind of plant hole at the beginning of the spring then, irrigate with water, loquat pumping young sprout turns the green rare rich water interval of aging rear one-level and waters fertile twice then, water interval 20d between fertilizer for twice, containing 2% urea and 0.5% potassium chloride in the rare rich water of one-level, spring, summer, autumn, winter takes out slightly secondary respectively, Post flowering carries out flower thinning, in the autumn in the same year, artificial propagation/wild common vetch dish seedling is located interval and planted bottom the first ridge on the ground the next-door neighbour ridge, dam, and pour water in furrow, and water surface elevation in furrow is at least lower than the ground level 18cm on the first ground, ridge, stop after the Frost's Descent irrigating and earth's surface bedding one deck leaf on the first ground, ridge,
Step 3: Second Year starts after the Waking of Insects (3rd solar term) to irrigate, and 4 ~ May, common vetch dish started bract bud, and after bract bud, night every day opens the spray painting that shower nozzle carries out 3 ~ 5min, and bract bud First Year is not plucked common vetch dish, loquat young sprout in spring turns the green rare rich water interval of aging rear secondary and waters fertile twice, water interval 20d between fertilizer for twice, containing 5% urea and 1% potassium chloride in the rare rich water of secondary, loquat to be pruned and tie rod makes loquat tree crown be globular model, angle between major branch and mobile jib is 50 ~ 55 °, Post flowering carries out flower thinning, Second Year Fertilizer In Autumn a poultry muck and composite fertilizer, the applied amount of poultry muck is 500 ~ 800kg/ mu, the applied amount of composite fertilizer is 200 ~ 250kg/ mu, Second Year broadcasts sowing Chinese milk vetch on the ground on the first ridge autumn, cut after Chinese milk vetch maturation receive with leaf together with bedding first ridge ground earth's surface, stop after the Frost's Descent irrigating, from Second Year, rich selenium clay fertilizer is spread fertilizer over the fields on the ground on the first ridge before annual Chinese milk vetch and leaf bedding, the amount of spreading fertilizer over the fields of rich selenium clay fertilizer be every mu of first ridge spread fertilizer over the fields 120 ~ 150kg, rich selenium clay fertilizer is 6kg green manure, 0.8kg lime, 4.0kg poultry muck, 3.5kg cake fertilizer and 3 ~ 5g sodium selenite obtain through compost maturity,
Step 4: from the 3rd year, be repeated below operation every year: start after the Waking of Insects (3rd solar term) to irrigate, and 3, apply April once to help bud fertile, after bract bud, night every day opens the spray painting that shower nozzle carries out 3 ~ 5min, 4 ~ May plucks 3 ~ 4 times common vetch dish, loquat new life slightly turned the green aging rare rich water interval of rear use three grades and watered fertile twice spring Mo, water interval 20d between fertilizer for twice, containing 8% urea and 1.5% potassium chloride in three grades of rare rich water, loquat is pruned and tie rod, the angle between newborn major branch and mobile jib is made to be 50 ~ 55 °, Post flowering carries out flower thinning, pluck really and use a poultry muck and composite fertilizer autumn respectively, each applied amount of poultry muck is 500 ~ 800kg/ mu, each applied amount of composite fertilizer is 200 ~ 250kg/ mu, loquat expanding stage applies fruit tree punching fertilising early stage, and loquat expanding stage sprays organic selenium fertilizer latter stage, autumn broadcasts sowing Chinese milk vetch on the ground on the first ridge, is cut receipts bedding together with leaf and, on the earth's surface on the first ground, ridge, stops irrigating after the Frost's Descent, help bud fertilizer to obtain for fiery loam and people's retention of urine liquid/urea mixed preparing after Chinese milk vetch maturation,
Poultry muck adopts following method to obtain: Chinese sorghum, wheat, soybean are pulverized according to the mass ratio of 6:3:1 and be hybridly prepared into fermentation substrate, according to the mass ratio of 1:5, yeast selenium and fermentation substrate are mixed, add water 28 DEG C of bottom fermentation process 70 days, the product of fermentation and feed are carried out being mixed for raising livestock and poultry, the feces of livestock and poultry of collection is poultry muck.
2. the method for the rich selenium loquat of joint implant and vegetables in farmland according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: the height on the first ground, ridge is 25 ~ 30cm, the width on the first ground, ridge is 40 ~ 50cm, and the height on the second ground, ridge is 45 ~ 50cm, and the width on the second ground, ridge is 1.4 ~ 2m.
3. the method for the rich selenium loquat of joint implant and vegetables in farmland according to claim 1, is characterized in that: help bud fertilizer to prepare for 50kg fire loam and 10L people's retention of urine liquid and obtain.
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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN107155694A (en) * 2017-07-07 2017-09-15 德阳市泰森农业科技有限公司 A kind of plantation frame for improving vegetables quality
CN107637478A (en) * 2017-10-16 2018-01-30 广东省农业科学院果树研究所 A kind of irrigation method of loquat
CN107637478B (en) * 2017-10-16 2020-11-06 广东省农业科学院果树研究所 Irrigation method of loquat trees
CN108617397A (en) * 2018-05-11 2018-10-09 铜陵美味经果林种植专业合作社 A kind of method that grape ecology encloses pond mound thin planting cultivation

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