CN101680631B - 照明装置 - Google Patents

照明装置 Download PDF

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CN101680631B
CN101680631B CN 200880014534 CN200880014534A CN101680631B CN 101680631 B CN101680631 B CN 101680631B CN 200880014534 CN200880014534 CN 200880014534 CN 200880014534 A CN200880014534 A CN 200880014534A CN 101680631 B CN101680631 B CN 101680631B
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light
station
waveguide
surface
reflector
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CN 200880014534
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CN101680631A (zh )
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约翰·保罗·摩根
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摩根阳光公司
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B19/00Condensers, e.g. light collectors or similar non-imaging optics
    • G02B19/0004Condensers, e.g. light collectors or similar non-imaging optics characterised by the optical means employed
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F21LIGHTING
    • F21SNON-PORTABLE LIGHTING DEVICES; SYSTEMS THEREOF; VEHICLE LIGHTING DEVICES SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR VEHICLE EXTERIORS
    • F21S11/00Non-electric lighting devices or systems using daylight
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B19/00Condensers, e.g. light collectors or similar non-imaging optics
    • G02B19/0004Condensers, e.g. light collectors or similar non-imaging optics characterised by the optical means employed
    • G02B19/0019Condensers, e.g. light collectors or similar non-imaging optics characterised by the optical means employed having reflective surfaces only (e.g. louvre systems, systems with multiple planar reflectors)
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B19/00Condensers, e.g. light collectors or similar non-imaging optics
    • G02B19/0004Condensers, e.g. light collectors or similar non-imaging optics characterised by the optical means employed
    • G02B19/0028Condensers, e.g. light collectors or similar non-imaging optics characterised by the optical means employed refractive and reflective surfaces, e.g. non-imaging catadioptric systems
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L31/00Semiconductor devices sensitive to infra-red radiation, light, electromagnetic radiation of shorter wavelength or corpuscular radiation and adapted either for the conversion of the energy of such radiation into electrical energy or for the control of electrical energy by such radiation; Processes or apparatus peculiar to the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof; Details thereof
    • H01L31/02Details
    • H01L31/0232Optical elements or arrangements associated with the device
    • H01L31/02327Optical elements or arrangements associated with the device the optical elements being integrated or being directly associated to the device, e.g. back reflectors
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L31/00Semiconductor devices sensitive to infra-red radiation, light, electromagnetic radiation of shorter wavelength or corpuscular radiation and adapted either for the conversion of the energy of such radiation into electrical energy or for the control of electrical energy by such radiation; Processes or apparatus peculiar to the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof; Details thereof
    • H01L31/04Semiconductor devices sensitive to infra-red radiation, light, electromagnetic radiation of shorter wavelength or corpuscular radiation and adapted either for the conversion of the energy of such radiation into electrical energy or for the control of electrical energy by such radiation; Processes or apparatus peculiar to the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof; Details thereof adapted as photovoltaic [PV] conversion devices
    • H01L31/054Optical elements directly associated or integrated with the PV cell, e.g. light-reflecting means or light-concentrating means
    • H01L31/0547Optical elements directly associated or integrated with the PV cell, e.g. light-reflecting means or light-concentrating means comprising light concentrating means of the reflecting type, e.g. parabolic mirrors, concentrators using total internal reflection
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B6/00Light guides
    • G02B6/0001Light guides specially adapted for lighting devices or systems
    • G02B6/0011Light guides specially adapted for lighting devices or systems the light guides being planar or of plate-like form
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B6/00Light guides
    • G02B6/0001Light guides specially adapted for lighting devices or systems
    • G02B6/0011Light guides specially adapted for lighting devices or systems the light guides being planar or of plate-like form
    • G02B6/0033Means for improving the coupling-out of light from the light guide
    • G02B6/0035Means for improving the coupling-out of light from the light guide provided on the surface of the light guide or in the bulk of it
    • G02B6/0038Linear indentations or grooves, e.g. arc-shaped grooves or meandering grooves, extending over the full length or width of the light guide
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B6/00Light guides
    • G02B6/0001Light guides specially adapted for lighting devices or systems
    • G02B6/0011Light guides specially adapted for lighting devices or systems the light guides being planar or of plate-like form
    • G02B6/0075Arrangements of multiple light guides
    • G02B6/0078Side-by-side arrangements, e.g. for large area displays
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/50Photovoltaic [PV] energy
    • Y02E10/52PV systems with concentrators
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T29/00Metal working
    • Y10T29/49Method of mechanical manufacture
    • Y10T29/49826Assembling or joining

Abstract

一种照明装置,具有光学波导台,光投射台光学连接到该光学波导台。照明装置从与所述光学波导台相连的诸如发光二极管或灯泡之类小型各向同性光源接收光。照明装置将光传播到广阔区域,同时还将该光准直以形成射束。光投射台和光学波导台由透光材料的薄板制成。

Description

照明装置

[0001] 对相关申请的交叉引用

[0002] 本申请要求于2007年5月I日递交的美国临时专利申请60/915,207、于2007年6月8日递交的美国临时专利申请60/942,745、和于2007年7月25日递交的美国临时专利申请60/951,775的优选权权益,上述申请的全部内容通过引用合并于此。

技术领域

[0003] 本发明一般地涉及准直光学器件。更具体地,本发明涉及用于照明器的光导准直器光学器件。

背景技术

[0004] 使来自各向同性源的光准直以形成光射束的照明器是已知的。照明器的光学元件可为透镜或反射镜,且各向同性光源可为白炽灯灯泡、荧光灯泡、或者发光二极管。光从灯泡沿所有方向射出并与光学元件相互作用,而且被重新导引以形成所有光线基本平行的射束。

[0005] 这类照明器的一种广泛应用是汽车前灯。在典型汽车前灯中,灯泡位于抛物面反射器的焦点处。光从灯泡中沿所有方向发射,并照在抛物面反射器上,抛物面反射器将光准直为射束。通常,这些汽车前灯具有相当大的深度,从而占据车辆中的空间。其它示例性应用包括各种产品,例如,舞台照明、手电筒、医用照明和牙科照明。

[0006] 抛物面反射器也可为向上20cm深,用于汽车前灯,且还需要罩来保护灯泡和反射器腔。另外,尽管汽车前灯一般通过聚甲基丙烯酸甲酯(PMMA)或聚碳酸酯注射成型而成,但透明聚合物必须被涂覆在反射镜涂层中以正确操作。用于制成这些组件的聚合物是可回收的并具有高回收价值,但镜涂层使回收处理复杂化并降低了回收价值。

[0007] 因此,希望提供一种准直照明器,其比现有光学器件显著轻便。还希望提供一种照明器,其不需要罩,且不需要任何镜涂层以发挥作用。

发明内容

[0008] 本发明的目的在于避免或减少前述照明装置的至少一个缺点。

[0009] 在第一方面中,本发明提供一种照明装置,其包括:光投射台,其具有至少一个光学输入孔、输出表面、和形成在所述至少一个光学输入孔与所述输出表面之间的光学元件。该装置进一步包括:光学连接到所述至少一个光学输入孔的光学波导台,该光学波导台具有用于接收光的输入表面以及用于将光从所述输入表面引导到所述至少一个光学输入孔的波导部分,所述光学元件将光从所述至少一个输入孔导引到所述输出表面,所述光作为射束从所述输出表面离开。

[0010] 在另一方面中,本发明提供一种照明装置,其包括:第一光投射台,其具有至少一个第一光学输入孔、第一输出表面、和形成在所述至少一个第一光学输入孔与所述第一输出表面之间的第一光学元件,该装置还包括:第二光投射台,其具有至少一个第二光学输入孔、第二输出表面、和形成在所述至少一个第二光学输入孔与所述第二输出表面之间的第二光学元件。该装置进一步包括:光学连接到所述至少一个第一光学输入孔和所述至少一个第二光学输入孔的光学波导台,该光学波导台具有用于从第一光源接收第一光的第一输入表面以及用于从第二光源接收第二光的第二输入表面。所述光学波导进一步具有波导部分,用于将所述第一光从所述第一输入表面引导到所述至少一个第一光学输入孔,所述第一光学元件将所述第一光从所述至少一个第一输入孔导引到所述第一输出表面,所述第一光作为第一射束从所述第一输出表面离开,所述波导部分还用于将所述第二光从所述第二输入表面引导到所述至少一个第一光学输入孔并引导到所述至少一个第二光学输入孔,所述第一光学元件和所述第二光学元件分别将所述第二光从所述至少一个第一输入孔导引到所述第一输出表面和从所述至少一个第二输入孔导引到所述第二输出表面,从所述第一和第二输出表面离开的所述第二光形成第二射束。

[0011] 通过以下结合附图对本发明的具体实施例的描述,本发明的其它方面和特征将对本领域技术人员而言变得明显。

附图说明

[0012] 现在将参照附图仅以示例方式描述本发明的各实施例,其中:

[0013] 图1示出本发明的光导准直光学器件的第一实施例;

[0014] 图2示出图1的实施例的放大图,其中光线进入准直台;

[0015] 图3示出图1的实施例,其中各向同性光源处于光学器件的中心;

[0016] 图4示出本发明的光导准直光学器件的回旋几何特性实施例的透视图;

[0017] 图5A示出图3的实施例,其中光线离开发射面;

[0018] 图5B示出图4的实施例处于壳体中的透视图;

[0019] 图5C示出简单的抛物面反射器聚光灯;

[0020] 图示出聚光灯的透视图;

[0021 ] 图6A示出图3的板式设计实施例的分解图;

[0022] 图6B示出图3的板式设计实施例的组装图;

[0023] 图6C示出图3的板式设计实施例的放大图;

[0024] 图7A示出图3的实施例的XZ平面的计算机模拟;

[0025] 图7B示出图3的实施例的YZ平面的计算机模拟;

[0026] 图7C示出图3的实施例的计算机模拟的强度势图;

[0027] 图7D示出图3的实施例的计算机模拟的强度分布图;

[0028] 图8A示出本发明的光导准直光学器件的实施例,其中光线在准直台中经历一次或两次反射;

[0029] 图8B示出图8A的实施例的完整视图;

[0030] 图9A示出本发明的光导准直光学器件的实施例,其中抛物面反射器被定向以在准直台中将光向下导引;

[0031] 图9B示出图9A的实施例的完整视图;

[0032] 图1OA示出本发明的光导准直光学器件的实施例,其中抛物面反射器被定向以在准直台中将光向上导引;[0033] 图1OB示出图1OA的实施例的完整视图;

[0034] 图1lA示出本发明的光导准直光学器件的实施例,其中采用小型功能元件;

[0035] 图1lB示出图1lA的实施例的放大图;

[0036] 图12A示出本发明的光导准直光学器件的线性几何特性实施例的透视图,其中采用图6的板式设计和管形光源;

[0037] 图12B示出图12A的实施例的剖视图;

[0038] 图13A示出本发明的光导准直光学器件的回旋几何特性实施例的透视图,其中采用图6的板式设计和图11的小型功能元件;

[0039] 图13B示出图13A的实施例的完整剖视图;

[0040] 图13C示出图13A的实施例的放大剖视图;

[0041] 图14A示出本发明的光导准直光学器件的宽射束实施例的透视图,其中线性几何特性表示功能元件,回旋几何特性表示波导台,并采用了图6的板式设计;

[0042] 图14B示出图14A的实施例的完整剖视图;

[0043] 图14C示出图14A的实施例的放大剖视图;

[0044] 图15A示出图14的实施例在XZ平面的计算机模拟;

[0045] 图15B示出图14的实施例在YZ平面的计算机模拟;

[0046] 图15C示出图14的实施例的计算机模拟的强度势图;

[0047] 图15D示出图14的实施例的计算机模拟的强度分布图;

[0048] 图16A示出本发明的光导准直光学器件的半宽射束实施例的透视图,其中表示回旋光学器件的二元性的圆弧与光导准直光学器件的圆周不同心,并采用了图6的板式设计;

[0049] 图16B示出图16A的实施例的完整剖视图;

[0050] 图16C示出图16A的实施例的放大剖视图;

[0051] 图17A示出图16的实施例的透视图,其中在发射面上具有柱面透镜;

[0052] 图17B示出图17A的实施例的完整剖视图;

[0053] 图17C示出图17A的实施例的放大剖视图;

[0054] 图18A示出本发明的光导准直光学器件的实施例的透视图,其中光学器件由图16的实施例的圆形部分构成,且各向同性光源安装在边缘;

[0055] 图18B示出图18A的实施例的完整剖视图;

[0056] 图19示出本发明的光导准直光学器件的实施例,其中复合反射器用于准直台中,并采用了图6的板式设计;

[0057] 图20示出本发明的光导准直光学器件的实施例,其中包含大型反射器的准直台叠盖波导台,并采用了图6的板式设计;

[0058] 图21示出本发明的光导准直光学器件的实施例,其中并入了高射束和低射束功能和图9的准直台中的角反射器;

[0059] 图22A示出本发明的光导准直光学器件的实施例,其中双色镜包围了各向同性光源;以及

[0060] 图22B示出图22A的实施例的放大图。具体实施方式

[0061] 总的来说,本发明是一种使用光导准直光学器件(light-guide collimatingoptic,LGC0)的照明器,其也可被称为照明装置。LGCO从诸如发光二极管(LED)或灯泡之类小型各向同性光源接收光,并将光传播到广阔区域,同时还将光准直以形成射束。其中所有光线基本平行。LGCO包括透光材料的薄板,该薄板具有:发射面,光从其中准直地发出;和较小的输入面,其位于LGCO的边缘上。在一个LGCO上可存在多于一个输入面。

[0062] LGCO具有两个台(stage),波导台(其也称为光学波导台,并包括波导部分)和准直台(也称为光投射台)。在输入面进入LGCO中的光在波导台中通过全内反射在内部被引导,并在LGCO上基本均匀地传播。然后光通过多个孔(也称为光学输入孔)到达准直台中,所述孔允许光射离波导台。LGCO可被切制为圆形、正方形或任何其它形状。光射束基本准直地发出。可替换地,光射束也可成形为各种形式,并形成为在一个平面或两个平面中以任何期望角度发散(diverge)。

[0063] 还可以构建LGCO而使其接收来自两个源的光,从而使得发出的光随每个源而不同。例如,可以形成高射束/低射束结构,由此,一个灯泡产生稍微向下的光射束,而另一灯泡在相同LGCO中产生水平的或稍微向上对准的射束。

[0064] 图1示出LGCO 100的第一实施例。光从分布在LGCO 100的边缘104 (也称为输入表面)上的各向同性光源102发射,并从发射面106 (也称为输出表面)准直地发出。LGCO100具有波导台108,来自各向同性源102的光110首先进入并被弓I导至波导台108中。LGCO100还具有成形和导引最终射束112的准直台114。波导台108和准直台可由任何合适光学材料116 (例如,PMMA)制成。波导台108在其后部具有一个面118 (也称为第一表面)并在其前侧具有多个界面120。面118是光学材料116与外部材料122的界面。外部材料122可为折射系数低于光学材料116的气体或其它材料。多个界面120使光学材料116与折射系数较低的其它材料或气体124分离。界面118形成对光110进行全内反射的反射器126。多个界面120也形成对光110进行全内反射的反射器128。后侧反射器126和多个前侧反射器128可基本平行。

[0065] 行进在波导台108中的光110到达孔130 (也称为光学输入孔),每个孔均为光从波导台108离开的位置。在每个随后的孔130处,波导台108变窄,使得波导台108从接近于灯源102的最厚处渐缩到波导台的外侧边缘132的最薄处。在每个孔130处,光110离开波导台108并进入准直台114。图2示出以不同角度通过孔130离开波导台108并进入准直台114的三条光线110。光线110到达具有抛物线形的界面134。界面134使包括准直台114的光学材料136与气体或较低折射系数材料124分离。界面134于是形成执行全内反射的反射器138,不过反射器138也可具有镜式表面。射在反射器138上的光线110可被准直(使其为平行的)并立即射出发射面106而离开LGCO 100。

[0066] 为了优化准直,反射器138为抛物线形的截面。然而,该反射器也可为圆形截面,或者任何其它合适的形状或最优抛物线形截面的圆形近似。对于抛物线形的情况,表示反射器138的抛物线140具有与孔130重合的焦点142,抛物线轴线144沿射束的输出方向指向,在这种情况下正交于LGC0100的发射面106。从孔130进入准直台114的光110可认为从抛物线140的焦点142发散,这是因为抛物线140的焦点142和孔130重合,且孔130很窄。抛物面反射器138使从其焦点142沿平行于抛物线140的轴线144的方向发散的光110准直。

[0067] LGCO 100可与如前所示的在一个边缘上的灯泡102 —起使用,或者与在LGCO 100的中心的灯泡102—起使用。这显示在图3中。图1-3的横截面可制成线性光学器件,在这种情况下,光110将沿光学器件104(图12中示出的示例)的整个边缘进入。

[0068] 图4示出形状类似圆盘146的回旋LGCO 100。横截面148在图中以点画法显示,与图1中相同。圆盘146在其中心具有可接纳灯泡的毂150。光110通过毂150的圆形壁152进入圆盘146。光110然后如前地传播并作为准直射束112射出发射面106而离开。

[0069] 在前述图1-3中,如果孔130变紧,则从抛物面反射器138方面而言,其更加近似于点源;因此从系统发出的光Iio将更为准直。如果孔130变宽,则会发生相反情况,并将从LGCO 100发出更发散的射束。这是可用于实现期望发散的设计工具。波导台108的渐缩取决于孔130的宽度,因此,较窄的孔130将使波导台108更平缓地渐缩,而较宽的孔130将使波导台108更迅速地渐缩。

[0070] 图5示出LGCO 100与简单抛物面反射器154之间的比较。这两种光学器件均产生准直射束112,但LGCO 100沿准直光112的光学轴线156显著地更为紧凑。图5B例示出这种紧凑性,其中使用聚光灯158和相同直径的壳体160中的LGCO的示例。

[0071] 实际上,可能难以将LGCO 100制造为如图1-4所示的单一件。通过注射成型、压制成形或其它适合方式模制LGCO 100的较容易的过程是将LGCO 100分为两个板,每个板均不具有底切,且两个板配合在一起。这些部分可干燥配合在一起且不需要焊接或光学结

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[0072] 这种分体结构在图6中示出,其中波导台108包括一个板162,准直台114包括另一板164。波导台108具有可供光100经过以射离的离开面166,且波导台108通过邻接于离开面166的注入面168连接至准直台114。离开面166和注入面168使孔130处于波导台108与准直台114之间。图6示出光110在离开孔130之后照在反射器138上并形成准直射束112。在本示例中,从准直台板164中的反射器138发出的射束112不会覆盖整个发射面106。存在死区170,在死区170中没有射束112离开LGCO 100。这形成了准直光带。在回旋LGCO的情况下,效果可以是从光学器件发出的光的同心环。但是在实践中,光的小程度的发散会导致在超过短距离时察觉不到所述环,且离开光学器件的光会呈现为均一、一致的射束。

[0073] 这种效果展示在计算机模型中,图7示出了这些结果。以20cm直径的回旋LGCO100作为模型,并分析在与光学器件100相距I米处的光射束的分布图174 ;图的尺寸用厘米表示,射束的强度为任意标度。通过分布图174和势图176清楚可见,射束大致为高斯型。根据有限数量的光线并且考虑到分布图174和势图176中的噪声,进行上述模拟。

[0074] 图8示出光线178和180在孔130处离开波导台108。离开波导台108并进入准直台114的光线可以经历在此描述的两个过程之一。光线178进入准直台114,立即照在反射器138上,然后离开LGCO 100。光线180进入准直台114并反射离开准直台114的底面182,随后离开反射器138并然后离开LGCO 100。面182平行于波导台108的后侧面118。面182是在光学材料136与气体或较低折射系数材料124之间的界面,其中气体或较低折射系数材料124处于准直台114与波导台108 (在图8中不可见但在图6C中清楚显示)之间。该界面182形成进行全内反射的反射器184。[0075] 图8还示出表示准直台114中的反射器138的抛物线140。该抛物线140具有其焦点142,该焦点142与使波导台108和准直台114相联的孔130的中心重合,抛物线140的轴线144沿射束112的方向指向。

[0076] 图9示出可如何通过改变用于表示反射器138的抛物线140来控制准直射束的方向。抛物线140的轴线144向下倾斜。如果此外还同时保持抛物线140的焦点142与孔130的中心重合,则结果形成的射束112将准直并向下倾斜。

[0077] 图10示出类似于图9的实施例,其不同之处在于,抛物线140的轴线144向上倾斜,相应的射束112也将准直并向上倾斜。

[0078] 通过使回旋LGCO 100上的抛物线轴线144倾斜来改变抛物面反射器138,其最终结果将为:从LGCO 100发射的射束112的发散度增大。如果光学器件为线性的,则反射器138上的这些改变的效果将使射束112向下或向上对准,而不会增大发散度。

[0079] 准直台中的圆形反射器可用于近似所述抛物面反射器,并且可产生基本准直的光。圆形反射器还可能被更容易地构建。这种情况也可适用于某些期望增大发散度的应用,这可通过选择其它形状(例如,圆的一部分)的反射器来实现。

[0080] 图11示出具有较小功能元件186的LGCO 100。功能元件186被限定为:反射器138、界面120、和包括离开面166和注入面168的孔130。在前述附图中已示出的光学器件已使用大型功能元件186以实现例示目的。实际上,功能元件186可以是小型的,并具有I微米至I毫米之间的周期188。在小于I微米时,光学干涉可能会影响光学器件100的性能,而在尺寸大于I毫米时,必要的金刚石加工变得异常昂贵。然而,较大尺寸是可以的并且具有其作用,而较小尺寸也可以在低于可见光的波长下起作用。

[0081] 此后的部分概述本技术的具体实施例。

[0082] 图12A和12B示出线性LGCO 190,其使用两部分的板复合而成,其中一个板162用于波导台108,另一板164用于准直台114。管形灯泡192,在本例中为荧光灯泡,沿光学器件的一个边缘延伸。从线性LGCO 190发出的光将在平面YZ中准直并在平面XZ中发散。本实施例应用在计算机显示和照明中。

[0083] 图13A-13C示出回旋LGCO 194。该光学器件将产生类似于图7中的射束。该LGCO194的直径为20厘米,LGCO 194在其最宽部位处的厚度为大约I厘米。毂150具有用于直径5_、高7mm的LED灯泡的空间,通过改变设计,其它灯泡尺寸也可适用。

[0084] 图14A-14C示出混合式线性/回旋光学器件198,其在此限定为宽射束光学器件。图11中的功能元件186显示出线性光学器件沿纵向轴线200的截面。波导台108的后侧面118回旋,用于灯泡的毂150处于LGCO 198的中心。该LGCO 198不如前述的光学器件194高效,这是因为由于内部散射而导致更多的光损失。LGCO 198使光在平面YZ中准直,同时使光在平面XZ中散开。这对于汽车前灯将是有用的,在这种情况下,希望对道路进行宽幅照射,但对道路上方的照射并不重要。LGCO 198产生与图12A-12C的LGCO 190类似的射束,不同之处在于,LGCO 198接纳小型点源灯泡,且不需要长管灯泡。

[0085] 这种宽射束LGCO 198的分布图210和势图212显示在图15A-1®中。

[0086] 存在许多实现宽射束光形状的方式。图16A-16C示出另一 LGCO 202,其被称为半宽射束光学器件。功能元件186表示在圆弧204和206上。圆弧与LGCO 202的圆周208不同心。在如图16A-16C所示的实施例中,表示圆弧204和206的圆的中心与LGCO 202本身的中心的距离相等。从LGC0202形成的射束看起来也非常类似于图15A-1®中所示,但在光学上比图14中的实施例198更为有效。

[0087] 图17示出回旋LGCO 194,其中,在发射面106上具有柱面透镜214。结果形成的LGCO 216也产生宽射束,该宽射束在YZ平面发散并在XZ平面准直。

[0088] 尽管光源(灯或LED)在先前显示处于LGCO的中心,不过也可以将灯泡安装在边缘。图18A-18B示出在这种情况下的光学器件的另一实施例。灯泡102位于LGCO 218的边缘。LGCO 218通过采取图17A-17C中的LGCO 216的圆形截面而形成。可进行这种截取以形成任何在边缘发光的实施例;而且,这种截取不必是圆形的,而可以是正方形、三角形或任何合适的形状。

[0089] 可以将准直台114中的反射器138制成为任何其它类的反射器,包括:如图19中所示的复合反射器220。这给出更多关于光形状的自由度。

[0090] 波导台板162在先前的附图中显示为渐缩至非常细的边缘。出于结构和制造的原因,波导台板162可能需要最小的厚度。图20示出较宽和较大的反射器222,其可叠盖波导台板162的外侧边缘224。

[0091] 图21示出高射束/低射束LGCO 226的截面设计。LGCO 226接收来自中心灯泡228和边缘安装灯泡230的光。光学器件226的上半部分236中的反射器138在图9之后形成模型;反射器138将光准直为向下指向的射束。LGCO 226的下半部分238上的反射器138将光水平准直。

[0092] 当中心灯泡228发射光232时,该光沿波导台108内的两个方向行进。该光到达反射器138而进入LGCO 226的上半部分236和下半部分238中。从LGCO 226发射的光232包括来自上半部分236的向下对准的光线和来自下半部分238的水平行进的光线。

[0093] 当边缘安装的灯泡230发射光234时,该光进入下边缘240处的波导台108,并在波导台108中仅向上行进。光234将避开所有孔130并通过LGC0226的下半部分238保留在波导台108中。这是因为,孔130仅在光沿波导台108的渐缩方向行进时才允许光离开波导台108。当光在波导台108中沿相反方向行进时,光无法在孔130处离开并继续传播。在LGCO 226的情况下,来自边缘安装灯泡230的光234将传播通过下半部分238并进入波导台108的上半部分236。光234然后以正确方式行进以穿过孔130并反射离开反射器138。由于光学器件226的上半部分236中的反射器138被定向为使光向下对准,因而结果形成的射束234将被向下导引。这样,仅当边缘安装的灯泡230被点亮时,LGCO 226才形成低射束,而当中心灯泡228被点亮时形成高射束。

[0094] 这些设计的灯泡部分没有详细论述,这是因为可采用任何灯泡。图22示出使用高热灯泡244的这种LGCO 242的示例性实施例。该图示出对这种光源的其它创新细节。反射红外辐射248的双色镜246用于使灯244与LGC0242分离。这样将红外辐射248朝向灯244向回反射,同时允许可见光250进入LGCO 242并成形为向前准直射束112。反射可见光250的第二双色镜252可放置在光源244之下,以允许红外辐射248射离灯泡壳体254,同时将可见光250阻挡在内部而使其可到达LGCO 242中。

[0095] 也可采用其它光阻挡方案,从而使光源与LGCO之间的连接最大化。最普遍的这类方案是,将镜面放置在灯泡或LED本身上以防止光沿不希望的方位射离。

[0096] 除了灯和灯泡,光可通过光纤器件到达任何上述光导准直光学器件中。[0097] 在前文的描述中,出于说明目的,提到了很多细节以提供对本发明实施例的全面理解。然而,对于本领域技术人员而言显然的是,实施本发明并不需要这些具体细节。在其它情况下,公知的电子结构和电路以结构图的形式示出以避免使本发明的重点不清。例如,未提供如下具体细节:在此描述的本发明实施例是否实现为软件程序、硬件电路、固件、或者它们的组合。

[0098] 本发明的上述实施例仅为示例。在不背离仅由所附权利要求书限定的本发明范围的情况下,本领域技术人员可以对特定的实施例进行替换、修改和变化。

Claims (7)

1.一种照明装置,包括: 准直台,包括透光材料的板并且具有多个注入面和输出表面,所述准直台进一步包括光学地位于所述多个注入面和所述输出表面之间的多个弯曲的反射器,每个弯曲的反射器由将所述准直台的透光材料与折射系数比所述准直台的所述透光材料的折射系数低的材料分开的界面形成,所述弯曲的反射器的截面为抛物线形的截面,并且具有对称轴线和沿所述对称轴线布置的焦点:和 波导台,该波导台包括与所述准直台分开和光学连接的透光材料的板,所述波导台具有第一表面,所述第一表面是后侧反射器,所述后侧反射器与多个前侧反射器结合进行全内反射操作,所述第一表面在所述波导台的后部上,并且所述前侧反射器在所述波导台的前侧上,所述波导台进一步包括与所述准直台的所述注入面邻接的多个离开面以形成位于所述波导台和所述准直台之间的多个光学输入孔,每个抛物线形的截面的焦点在一个所述光学输入孔中,所述多个离开面中的每个离开面位于两个相邻的前侧反射器之间,该波导台进一步包括从光源接收光的输入表面,所述波导台通过多重全内反射将来自所述输入表面的光引导朝向所述光学输入孔,并且在所述波导台的横截面中,所述波导台从所述输入表面渐缩到所述波导台的外边缘,从而所述波导台在所述外边缘处最薄,并且所述波导台在所述输入表面处最厚; 所述准直台的所述弯曲的反射器通过全内反射将由所述光学输入孔接收的射到所述弯曲的反射器上的光反射到所述输出表面,所述光作为多个射束从所述输出表面离开所述照明装置,所述弯曲的反射器中的每一个的截面的形状使得经过所述抛物线形的截面的焦点并且被所述弯曲的反射器反射的光具有与所述弯曲的反射器的所述对称轴线平行的输出方向;和 所述光源被光学连接到所述波导台的所述输入表面。
2.如权利要求1所述的装置,其中所述波导台的所述多个前侧反射器平行于所述波导台的所述第一表面。
3.如权利要求1所述的装置,其中所述多个光学输入孔的所述离开面中的每一个位于所述波导台的相邻的所述前侧反射器之间。
4.如权利要求1所述的装置,其中所述波导台的所述输入表面具有光输入区域,且所述准直台的所述输出表面具有光发射区域,所述光输入区域小于所述光发射区域。
5.如权利要求1所述的装置,其中所述多个弯曲的反射器沿平行的线相互分开。
6.如权利要求1所述的装置,其中: 所述多个弯曲的反射器沿同心的圆弧相互分开;并且 所述输入表面成形为与所述弯曲的反射器基本同心的圆弧。
7.如权利要求1所述的装置,其中所述光作为准直射束离开所述准直台。
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