CN110140608B - Method for cultivating roselle twice a year - Google Patents

Method for cultivating roselle twice a year Download PDF

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CN110140608B
CN110140608B CN201910525012.9A CN201910525012A CN110140608B CN 110140608 B CN110140608 B CN 110140608B CN 201910525012 A CN201910525012 A CN 201910525012A CN 110140608 B CN110140608 B CN 110140608B
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roselle
water
transplanting
seedling
hymexazol
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CN110140608A (en
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赵艳红
唐兴富
李初英
侯文焕
廖小芳
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Guangxi Zhuang Nationality Autonomous Region Academy of Agricultural Sciences
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for
    • A01G22/05Fruit crops, e.g. strawberries, tomatoes or cucumbers

Abstract

The invention relates to the field of agricultural planting, and particularly discloses a method for cultivating roselle twice a year, which comprises the cultivation of fruit making in spring and the cultivation of fruit making in autumn, wherein the cultivation of fruit making in two seasons comprises the following steps: (1) preparing a seedling cup, (2) growing seedlings, (3) preparing soil, (4) transplanting in a field, (5) managing water and fertilizer, (6) preventing and treating main diseases and insect pests, and (7) picking and storing. Wherein, the spring fruiting cultivation is carried out by short-day treatment when the roselle turns green to 5-6 true leaves. The invention realizes the double-cropping cultivation method of the roselle in one year by adopting the measures of seedling raising in advance, short-day treatment, line changing and field planting in autumn and the like. The yield per mu of the fresh fruits with two ripeners per year is increased by 1.49 percent compared with the fresh fruits with one ripener per year, and the spring fruits are listed in the market at staggered peak periods, so that the method has obvious price advantage, greatly improves the economic effect and provides the multiple cropping index of the land. The method is particularly suitable for popularization and planting in the areas south of the Yangtze river in China.

Description

Method for cultivating roselle twice a year
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the field of agricultural planting, and particularly relates to a method for cultivating roselle twice a year.
Background
Hibiscus sabdariffa L is a plant of Hibiscus genus of Malvaceae family, also called Hibiscus sabdariffa, Solanum torvum Linn, and Prunus persica K. Tropical and subtropical short-day economic crops with various nutritional values, medicinal values and health-care functions. The dry or fresh calyx of the roselle has the commercial value, the fresh calyx has a fleshy structure and is succulent, the roselle calyx contains abundant proteins, organic acids, vitamin C, various amino acids and mineral substances required by human bodies, such as iron, calcium, phosphorus and the like, and the roselle calyx contains hibiscus acid, anthocyanin, reducing sugar and the like which have important medicinal and health-care effects on human bodies. The sepals of the roselle in the mature period are rose or purple red, have high ornamental value, are suitable for being used as ornamental flowers, are fond of warm light and early frost, and are suitable for being cultivated in the south area of the Yangtze river in China.
Roselle belongs to typical short-day crops, and in southern areas, the roselle flowers and fruits only begin to blossom and bear fruits when the roselle seeds enter short day in 9 months no matter in spring or summer, namely the roselle seeds are all ripe once a year in the positive season in southern areas, and generally appear on the market in 10-11 months. In order to improve the yield, the economic benefit and the multiple cropping index of land of the roselle and further promote the popularization and the planting of the roselle, the situation that the roselle is sold on the market and has low price in one-year-one-harvest mode needs to be broken.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to provide a method for cultivating roselle which is ripe once and two times a year, thereby overcoming the defect that roselle is ripe once and is intensively marketed once a year.
In order to achieve the aim, the invention provides a method for cultivating roselle twice a year, which comprises the following steps:
and (3) cultivating the roselle in spring:
(1) preparing a seedling cup: sterilizing the nutrient soil by hymexazol, and then filling the nutrient soil into a seedling culture container for later use;
(2) seedling culture: 3, seedling in late ten days, namely, watering the nutrient soil in the seedling container thoroughly, sowing roselle seeds, and placing the seedling container in an artificial climate chamber at the temperature of 25-27 ℃ for culture;
(3) land preparation: applying base fertilizer after deep ploughing and harrowing, ditching at a row spacing of 0.8m, and finally spraying hymexazol to the whole planting field for soil disinfection;
(4) transplanting in a field: transplanting in shade when the seedling grows to 4 true leaves, removing the seedling container during transplanting, transplanting with soil according to the specification of 0.8m multiplied by 0.8m of plant-row spacing, and watering enough root fixing water after transplanting;
(5) short-day treatment: when the roselle turns green and grows to 5-6 true leaves, a small arched shed is erected above the planting plot, a black film is covered for shading treatment, the sunshine time is 10-11.5h, the shading treatment is carried out for 20-25d, and the black film is removed after the roselle buds;
(6) and (3) water and fertilizer management: performing water and fertilizer management according to the growth vigor of roselle, replenishing water to the soil in the field with a relative water holding capacity of 70-80% for a long time, and draining water in time if water is accumulated in case of rainstorm; after the seedlings turn green, applying 15-15-15 kg of ternary compound fertilizer in an application amount of 10-20 kg;
(7) the main pest control: the main diseases in the growth process of roselle are southern blight and damping off, and the southern blight adopts carbendazim wettable powder 800-; the rhizoctonia disease is irrigated to roots by mixing hymexazol with the mass content of 99% and water by 3000 times, wherein each plant contains 200ml of hymexazol, and the rhizoctonia disease is irrigated once every 7 days for 3 times continuously;
(8) picking and storing: picking a first batch of fresh fruits and fresh sepals in the last ten days of the month, and picking a second batch of fresh fruits and sepals after 6-10 days; timely removing kernels after the fresh fruits are cut and harvested, and separately airing the kernels and sepals;
and (3) cultivating roselle in autumn:
(9) preparing a seedling cup: sterilizing the nutrient soil by hymexazol, and then filling the nutrient soil into a seedling culture container for later use;
(10) seedling culture: starting seedling culture in late ten days of 5 months, watering the nutrient soil in the seedling culture container thoroughly, sowing roselle seeds, and placing the seedling culture container in an artificial climate chamber at the temperature of 25-27 ℃ for culture;
(11) land preparation: applying base fertilizer after deep ploughing and harrowing, ditching at a row spacing of 0.8m, and finally spraying hymexazol to the whole planting field for soil disinfection;
(12) transplanting in a field: line changing and field planting are carried out at the beginning of 7 months, and summer planting lines and spring planting lines are staggered; transplanting in shade, removing seedling container during transplanting, transplanting with soil according to the specification of 0.8m × 0.8m, and watering sufficient root fixing water after transplanting;
(13) and (3) water and fertilizer management: performing water and fertilizer management according to the growth vigor of roselle, replenishing water to the soil in the field with a relative water holding capacity of 70-80% for a long time, and draining water in time if water is accumulated in case of rainstorm; after the seedlings turn green, applying 15-15-15 kg of ternary compound fertilizer in an application amount of 10-20 kg;
(14) the main pest control: the main diseases in the growth process of roselle are southern blight and damping off, and the southern blight adopts carbendazim wettable powder 800-; the rhizoctonia disease is irrigated to roots by mixing hymexazol with the mass content of 99% and water by 3000 times, wherein each plant contains 200ml of hymexazol, and the rhizoctonia disease is irrigated once every 7 days for 3 times continuously;
(15) picking and storing: picking fresh fruits and fresh sepals in batches in the last 10 th month; the core of the fresh fruit is removed in time after the fresh fruit is cut and collected, and the core and sepals are separately aired. Picking is generally carried out at intervals of about one week, and picking is carried out about 4 times according to the growth condition of roselle.
Management not described in the present application is performed by a conventional method. The cultivation method is particularly suitable for popularization and application in southern areas of China or areas with similar climatic conditions.
Preferably, in the steps (1) and (9), 99% of hymexazol disinfection nutrient soil is adopted, and every 1g of hymexazol and 15kg of nutrient soil are mixed with soil for disinfection. The nutrient soil can be purchased from the market. Through the disinfection of the nutrient soil, the occurrence of soil-borne diseases is reduced, and the cultivation of healthy seedlings is facilitated.
Preferably, in the steps (3) and (11), 400-420kg of base fertilizer is applied to each mu of land, wherein the base fertilizer is prepared by mixing 15-15-15 parts of ternary compound fertilizer and organic fertilizer according to the weight ratio of 1: 20 are mixed together. The organic fertilizer can adopt decomposed animal excrement.
Preferably, in the step (3), 250 ml of hymexazol water solution with the mass content of 15 percent and 800ml of mixed water are sprayed to the whole planting field per mu for soil disinfection. Reduce the occurrence of plant diseases and insect pests.
Preferably, in the step (4), the outdoor temperature is stabilized at 15-20 ℃ during transplanting.
Preferably, in step (5), the black film is covered at 18:30 pm and uncovered at 7:30 am the following day.
Preferably, in the step (6), 5 kg/mu of potash fertilizer is additionally applied after budding of roselle in the step (6).
Preferably, in step (10), roselle begins to flower in the last 9 months, and sepals begin to be picked 10 days after flowering. At this time, the sepals are of the best quality. Meanwhile, picking is carried out in batches, so that the quality and commodity of sepals are guaranteed.
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the following beneficial effects:
according to the method, seedlings are grown in advance in a greenhouse in spring, the seedlings are transplanted when the outdoor temperature is stable above 15 ℃, short-day treatment is carried out after the seedlings are turned green, and fresh fruits and fresh sepals of the roselle in spring are harvested at the bottom of 6 months and in the early 7 months. After the harvest is finished in the beginning of 7 months, transplanting the roselle seedlings growing to 4-6 true leaves (growing seedlings about 30 days in advance), and carrying out line changing and field planting, wherein summer planting lines and spring planting lines are staggered. In autumn, roselle blooms and fruits in 9 months, and fresh fruits and fresh sepals are picked in batches in 10 months, so that the cultivation method of the roselle which is ripe once a year and twice is formed. The yield of fresh fruits per mu in two spring ripeness in one year is 366.53kg, and the fresh sepals are 202.95 kg; 736.69kg of fresh fruits produced in autumn, 461.80kg of fresh sepals, and 1103.22kg of the total yield of the fresh fruits produced in autumn per mu; 664.75kg of fresh sepals; the yield per mu of the fresh fruits which are ripe once a year is 1086.81kg, and the yield of the fresh sepals is 772.12kg (Table 1). The yield per mu of the fresh fruits with double cropping in one year is increased by 1.49 percent compared with the yield per mu of the fresh sepals with double cropping in one year, and the yield per mu of the fresh sepals with double cropping in one year is slightly lower than that of the fresh sepals with single cropping in one year. The fresh spring roselle has price advantage and greatly improves economic benefit. Therefore, the two cropping in one year not only improves the land multiple cropping index, but also improves the economic benefit.
Detailed Description
The following detailed description of specific embodiments of the invention is provided, but it should be understood that the scope of the invention is not limited to the specific embodiments.
Example 1
In this example, the cultivation method was carried out in 2017 at a test site of Guangxi academy of agricultural sciences with a planting area of 5 mu, and included the following steps:
cultivation method of spring roselle
(1) Preparing a seedling cup, mixing 99% of hymexazol by mass according to the proportion of 1g and 15kg of nutrient soil, disinfecting, and then using a paper cup with the volume of 200ml for cup filling for later use.
(2) And (5) seedling culture, wherein the seedling culture is carried out in 21 days in 3 months. And (3) thoroughly watering the seedling raising cups, sowing 2 seeds in each nutrition cup, culturing in an artificial climate chamber at the temperature of 25-27 ℃, and transferring the seedlings into a field when the seedlings grow to 4 true leaves.
(3) Preparing soil, ploughing deeply, applying 15-15-15 g of ternary compound fertilizer and 400kg of organic fertilizer as base fertilizer per mu, and ditching at a row spacing of 0.8 m. Finally, spraying 800ml of hymexazol with 15 percent of water agent and 800ml of mixed water to the whole planting field for soil disinfection.
(4) Transplanting in field, when the seedling grows to 4 true leaves, transplanting in shade, removing paper cups when transplanting, transplanting with soil according to the specification of 0.8m multiplied by 0.8m, transplanting 1042 plants per mu, and watering enough rooting water after transplanting.
(5) And (3) short-day treatment, namely when the roselle turns green and grows to 5-6 true leaves, erecting a small arched shed above the planting plot, covering a black film for shading treatment, wherein the sunshine duration is 10-11 hours, namely covering the black film at 18:00-18:3000 in the afternoon, uncovering the black film at 7:00-8:00 in the afternoon on the next day, and stopping shading treatment until the roselle has buds.
(6) Water and fertilizer management, namely performing water and fertilizer management according to the growth vigor of roselle, supplementing water in time until the relative water holding capacity of field soil reaches 70-80% in a vigorous growing period and a flowering and fruiting period, and draining water in time if water is accumulated in case of rainstorm; and simultaneously, properly topdressing, namely topdressing 15-15-15 of the ternary compound fertilizer per mu, wherein the application amount is 20 kg.
(7) And (3) pest control, wherein main diseases in the growth process of the roselle are southern blight and damping off. Adopting 50 percent carbendazim wettable powder 800-fold liquid and 1000-fold liquid for treating southern blight; the rhizoctonia disease is irrigated with 3000 times of 99% hymexazol mixed with water, each plant is 400ml, and the rhizoctonia disease is irrigated once every 7 days for 3 times continuously.
(8) Picking and storing, wherein the first batch of fruits is picked about 30 days after beginning to flower in late 5 months, and the second batch of fruits is picked about 7 days later. In order to avoid influencing the planting of the next batch of roselle, the method generally suggests that the roselle is harvested twice in spring, and the picking is completed in the early 7 months at the bottom of 6 months. The fresh fruits are cut and harvested, the kernels are timely removed, the kernels and the sepals are separately aired, and the sepals are timely stored in a moisture-proof manner after being aired.
And (3) cultivating roselle in autumn:
(9) preparing a seedling cup, mixing 99% of hymexazol by mass according to the proportion of 1g and 15kg of nutrient soil, disinfecting, and then using a circular flowerpot with the diameter of 20cm and the depth of 10cm for later use.
(10) And (4) seedling raising, namely starting seedling raising in 23 days after 5 months, watering seedling raising pots thoroughly with bottom soil moisture, sowing 2 seedlings in each pot, keeping the proper humidity of the flowerpot at ordinary times, and moving the seedlings into the field when the seedlings grow to 4-6 true leaves.
(11) Preparing soil and base fertilizer, deep ploughing, applying 15-15-15 g of ternary compound fertilizer per mu, applying 20kg of organic fertilizer 400kg as base fertilizer, and ditching at a row spacing of 0.8 m. And (3) spraying 250 ml of hymexazol water solution and 800ml of mixed water with the mass content of 15 percent to the whole planting field for soil disinfection before transplanting.
(12) Transplanting in field, changing rows and planting in the beginning of 7 months, wherein the rows planted in summer and the rows planted in spring are staggered. Transplanting in cloudy days, removing paper cups when transplanting, transplanting with soil according to the specification of 0.8m multiplied by 0.8m, transplanting 1042 plants per mu, and watering enough rooting water after transplanting.
(13) Water and fertilizer management, namely performing water and fertilizer management according to the growth vigor of roselle, supplementing water in time until the relative water holding capacity of field soil reaches 70-80% in a vigorous growing period and a flowering and fruiting period, and draining water in time if water is accumulated in case of rainstorm; and simultaneously, properly topdressing, namely topdressing 15-15-15 of the ternary compound fertilizer per mu, wherein the application amount is 10 kg.
(14) And (3) pest control, wherein main diseases in the growth process of the roselle are southern blight and damping off. For southern blight, 1000-fold 1500-time liquid of 80% mancozeb wettable powder is adopted for root irrigation; the rhizoctonia disease is irrigated with 3000 times of 99% hymexazol mixed with water, and each plant is irrigated with 400ml of 200-400ml of water, once every 7 days. This was continued for 3 times.
(15) Picking and storing, wherein the fruits begin to bloom in the last ten days of 9 months, the fruits begin to be picked in batches in the last ten days of 10 months, and the fruits are picked once every 7 days for 4 times. 30d after blooming is the optimal sepal picking period, and the sepals are picked in batches in order to ensure the quality and commodity of the sepals. The fresh fruits are cut and harvested, the kernels are timely removed, the kernels and the sepals are separately aired, and the sepals are timely stored in a moisture-proof manner after being aired.
The yields of fresh fruits and fresh sepals of the roselle cultivated by the method of twice-cropping in one year are shown in the table.
Figure 73467DEST_PATH_IMAGE001
As can be seen from Table 1, the yield per mu of the two-cropping fresh fruits per year is increased by 1.49% compared with the yield per mu of the one-cropping fresh calyx, while the yield per mu of the two-cropping fresh calyx is slightly lower than the yield per mu of the one-cropping fresh fruits per year. The price of the fresh spring roselle is superior, the average price of the fresh spring roselle is 40-50 yuan/kg, which is 12-20 yuan/kg higher than that of the fresh spring roselle when the fresh spring roselle is centrally listed, and each kg of the fresh spring roselle is about 20-30 yuan higher than that of the fresh spring roselle. Greatly improving the economic benefit. Therefore, the two cropping in one year not only improves the land multiple cropping index, but also improves the economic benefit.
The foregoing descriptions of specific exemplary embodiments of the present invention have been presented for purposes of illustration and description. It is not intended to limit the invention to the precise form disclosed, and obviously many modifications and variations are possible in light of the above teaching. The exemplary embodiments were chosen and described in order to explain certain principles of the invention and its practical application to enable one skilled in the art to make and use various exemplary embodiments of the invention and various alternatives and modifications as are suited to the particular use contemplated. It is intended that the scope of the invention be defined by the claims and their equivalents.

Claims (8)

1. A method for cultivating roselle in two crops per year is characterized by comprising the following steps:
and (3) cultivating the roselle in spring:
(1) preparing a seedling cup: sterilizing the nutrient soil by hymexazol, and then filling the nutrient soil into a seedling culture container for later use;
(2) seedling culture: 3, seedling in late ten days, namely, watering the nutrient soil in the seedling container thoroughly, sowing roselle seeds, and placing the seedling container in an artificial climate chamber at the temperature of 25-27 ℃ for culture;
(3) land preparation: applying base fertilizer after deep ploughing and harrowing, ditching at a row spacing of 0.8m, and finally spraying hymexazol to the whole planting field for soil disinfection;
(4) transplanting in a field: transplanting in shade when the seedling grows to 4 true leaves, removing the seedling container during transplanting, transplanting with soil according to the specification of 0.8m multiplied by 0.8m of plant-row spacing, and watering enough root fixing water after transplanting;
(5) short-day treatment: when the roselle turns green and grows to 5-6 true leaves, a small arched shed is erected above the planting plot, a black film is covered for shading treatment, the sunshine time is 10-11.5h, the shading treatment is carried out for 20-25d, and the black film is removed after the roselle buds;
(6) and (3) water and fertilizer management: performing water and fertilizer management according to the growth vigor of roselle, replenishing water to the soil in the field with a relative water holding capacity of 70-80% for a long time, and draining water in time if water is accumulated in case of rainstorm; after the seedlings turn green, applying 15-15-15 kg of ternary compound fertilizer in an application amount of 10-20 kg;
(7) the main pest control: the main diseases in the growth process of roselle are southern blight and damping off, and the southern blight adopts carbendazim wettable powder 800-; the rhizoctonia disease is irrigated to roots by mixing hymexazol with the mass content of 99% and water by 3000 times, wherein each plant contains 200ml of hymexazol, and the rhizoctonia disease is irrigated once every 7 days for 3 times continuously;
(8) picking and storing: picking a first batch of fresh fruits and fresh sepals in the last ten days of the month, and picking a second batch of fresh fruits and sepals after 6-10 days; timely removing kernels after the fresh fruits are cut and harvested, and separately airing the kernels and sepals;
and (3) cultivating roselle in autumn:
(9) preparing a seedling cup: sterilizing the nutrient soil by hymexazol, and then filling the nutrient soil into a seedling culture container for later use;
(10) seedling culture: starting seedling culture in late ten days of 5 months, watering the nutrient soil in the seedling culture container thoroughly, sowing roselle seeds, and placing the seedling culture container in an artificial climate chamber at the temperature of 25-27 ℃ for culture;
(11) land preparation: applying base fertilizer after deep ploughing and harrowing, ditching at a row spacing of 0.8m, and finally spraying hymexazol to the whole planting field for soil disinfection;
(12) transplanting in a field: line changing and field planting are carried out at the beginning of 7 months, and summer planting lines and spring planting lines are staggered; transplanting in shade, removing seedling container during transplanting, transplanting with soil according to the specification of 0.8m × 0.8m, and watering sufficient root fixing water after transplanting;
(13) and (3) water and fertilizer management: performing water and fertilizer management according to the growth vigor of roselle, replenishing water to the soil in the field with a relative water holding capacity of 70-80% for a long time, and draining water in time if water is accumulated in case of rainstorm; after the seedlings turn green, applying 15-15-15 kg of ternary compound fertilizer in an application amount of 10-20 kg;
(14) the main pest control: the main diseases in the growth process of roselle are southern blight and damping off, and the southern blight adopts carbendazim wettable powder 800-; the rhizoctonia disease is irrigated to roots by mixing hymexazol with the mass content of 99% and water by 3000 times, wherein each plant contains 200ml of hymexazol, and the rhizoctonia disease is irrigated once every 7 days for 3 times continuously;
(15) picking and storing: picking fresh fruits and fresh sepals in batches in the last 10 th month; the core of the fresh fruit is removed in time after the fresh fruit is cut and collected, and the core and sepals are separately aired.
2. The cultivation method as claimed in claim 1, wherein in steps (1) and (9), 99% by mass of hymexazol disinfecting nutrient soil is adopted, and each 1g of hymexazol is mixed with 15kg of nutrient soil for disinfection.
3. The cultivation method as claimed in claim 1, wherein in steps (3) and (11), 400-420kg of base fertilizer is applied per mu of land, wherein the base fertilizer is prepared from ternary compound fertilizer 15-15-15 and organic fertilizer according to the weight ratio of 1: 20 are mixed together.
4. The cultivation method as claimed in claim 1, wherein in step (3), 250 ml of hymexazol water solution with a mass content of 15% is sprayed with 800ml of water to the whole planting field for soil disinfection.
5. The cultivation method as claimed in claim 1, wherein in the step (4), the outdoor temperature is stabilized at 15 to 20 ℃ at the time of transplanting.
6. The cultivation method as claimed in claim 1, wherein in step (5), the black film is covered at 18:30 pm and the black film is uncovered at 7:30 am the following day.
7. The cultivation method as claimed in claim 1, wherein in the step (6), a potash fertilizer is applied 5 kg/mu after roselle buds appear.
8. The cultivation method as claimed in claim 1, wherein in step (10), Hibiscus sabdariffa begins to flower in the first 9 th month, and fresh sepals begin to be picked 30d after flowering.
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CN107043298A (en) * 2017-04-18 2017-08-15 青岛市农业科学研究院 A kind of romaine lettuce plantation fertilizer and romaine lettuce implantation methods
CN108029499A (en) * 2017-12-21 2018-05-15 四川格睿园林科技有限公司 The cultivation that red sage is several times a year bloomed and chemical regulation method
CN109566403A (en) * 2019-01-20 2019-04-05 咸宁市农业科学院 A kind of hybrid pumpkin seed production method in two seasons of one year

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