CN107242032A - Walnut industrial fast breeding method and consolidant - Google Patents

Walnut industrial fast breeding method and consolidant Download PDF

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Publication number
CN107242032A
CN107242032A CN201710313564.4A CN201710313564A CN107242032A CN 107242032 A CN107242032 A CN 107242032A CN 201710313564 A CN201710313564 A CN 201710313564A CN 107242032 A CN107242032 A CN 107242032A
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stock
grafting
walnut
seedling
water
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杜黎平
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SICHUAN YINSHANHONG AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY Co Ltd
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SICHUAN YINSHANHONG AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY Co Ltd
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/005Cultivation methods
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C1/00Apparatus, or methods of use thereof, for testing or treating seed, roots, or the like, prior to sowing or planting
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C1/00Apparatus, or methods of use thereof, for testing or treating seed, roots, or the like, prior to sowing or planting
    • A01C1/08Immunising seed
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01NPRESERVATION OF BODIES OF HUMANS OR ANIMALS OR PLANTS OR PARTS THEREOF; BIOCIDES, e.g. AS DISINFECTANTS, AS PESTICIDES OR AS HERBICIDES; PEST REPELLANTS OR ATTRACTANTS; PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS
    • A01N37/00Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing organic compounds containing a carbon atom having three bonds to hetero atoms with at the most two bonds to halogen, e.g. carboxylic acids
    • A01N37/06Unsaturated carboxylic acids or thio analogues thereof; Derivatives thereof
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01NPRESERVATION OF BODIES OF HUMANS OR ANIMALS OR PLANTS OR PARTS THEREOF; BIOCIDES, e.g. AS DISINFECTANTS, AS PESTICIDES OR AS HERBICIDES; PEST REPELLANTS OR ATTRACTANTS; PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS
    • A01N37/00Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing organic compounds containing a carbon atom having three bonds to hetero atoms with at the most two bonds to halogen, e.g. carboxylic acids
    • A01N37/10Aromatic or araliphatic carboxylic acids, or thio analogues thereof; Derivatives thereof
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01NPRESERVATION OF BODIES OF HUMANS OR ANIMALS OR PLANTS OR PARTS THEREOF; BIOCIDES, e.g. AS DISINFECTANTS, AS PESTICIDES OR AS HERBICIDES; PEST REPELLANTS OR ATTRACTANTS; PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS
    • A01N43/00Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds
    • A01N43/02Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds having rings with one or more oxygen or sulfur atoms as the only ring hetero atoms
    • A01N43/04Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds having rings with one or more oxygen or sulfur atoms as the only ring hetero atoms with one hetero atom
    • A01N43/14Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds having rings with one or more oxygen or sulfur atoms as the only ring hetero atoms with one hetero atom six-membered rings
    • A01N43/16Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds having rings with one or more oxygen or sulfur atoms as the only ring hetero atoms with one hetero atom six-membered rings with oxygen as the ring hetero atom
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01NPRESERVATION OF BODIES OF HUMANS OR ANIMALS OR PLANTS OR PARTS THEREOF; BIOCIDES, e.g. AS DISINFECTANTS, AS PESTICIDES OR AS HERBICIDES; PEST REPELLANTS OR ATTRACTANTS; PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS
    • A01N43/00Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds
    • A01N43/34Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds having rings with one nitrogen atom as the only ring hetero atom
    • A01N43/36Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds having rings with one nitrogen atom as the only ring hetero atom five-membered rings
    • A01N43/38Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds having rings with one nitrogen atom as the only ring hetero atom five-membered rings condensed with carbocyclic rings
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01NPRESERVATION OF BODIES OF HUMANS OR ANIMALS OR PLANTS OR PARTS THEREOF; BIOCIDES, e.g. AS DISINFECTANTS, AS PESTICIDES OR AS HERBICIDES; PEST REPELLANTS OR ATTRACTANTS; PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS
    • A01N61/00Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing substances of unknown or undetermined composition, e.g. substances characterised only by the mode of action

Abstract

The present invention proposes a kind of walnut industrial fast breeding method, has divided stock fast breeding garden, cutting orchard, has wakened room, intelligent greenhouse grafting room, healing room and grafting cultivation crop field Ji great functional areas.According to walnut grafting cycle connection function area, the transhipment of the factory management means of production and labour.Prepared by stock and fringe bar prepares efficient combination to grafting streamline, and it is equipped with the consolidant for promoting grafting Wound healing, improve grafting success rate, reasonable link transplants hardening process, effective cutting operation step, accurately calculates the independence and cooperative relationship between recruitment time and the growth time of each step, abundant data mining duty area, reasonable arrangement production batch, forms batch production fast breeding.

Description

Walnut industrial fast breeding method and consolidant
Technical field
The present invention relates to walnut raising technology field, more particularly to a kind of walnut industrial fast breeding method method and Consolidant.
Background technology
Walnut is the Ecological Nonwood Forestry woody oil tree species being loved by people, and its nutty taste is delicious, nutritive value pole It is high;The grain of wood is attractive in appearance, and quality is carefully tough, is top-grade furniture and the rare material of glued board veneer;Tree performance is attractive in appearance, root system hair Reach, economic value is high, be develop local economy, hill farmer shake off poverty and set out on the road to prosperity and water and soil conservation fine tree species.
Since reform and opening-up, the walnut production and scientific research cause of China obtain fast development, and Indoor Temperature is developed in succession The breeding new technologies such as bed scion grafting, seedling grafting, bud connect, micro- grafting and multiple young promoting root growth cuttage.Carry out walnut vegetative propagation Development & production and popularization and application, have greatly promoted China's Walnut Industry to be developed from extensive operation to intensive culture direction, promote The Highly Effective cultivation skill for being adapted to different ecological condition and different economic uses is released in the progress of walnut cultivation technique, development Art.
Mainly take open country grafting and breeding and indoor hotbed grafting and breeding technology both at home and abroad at present, the former is with conventional When graft technology is bred, there is that grafting cultivation period is long, walnut breeding coefficient is low, it is graft survival rate, emergence rate, wooden Change degree is all than relatively low, and the grafting period is too short, the shortcomings of natural weather is uncontrollable.Although the latter's grafting time shifts to an earlier date, but it is artificial Humiture is controlled, but lacks systematic operations, graft is stirred often, is unfavorable for root growth, and luxuriant easily comes off. That is, existing conventional seedling-raising technique can not meet great demand of the industry development to seedling, and walnut grafting technical requirements are high in addition, Difficulty is big, and survival rate is low, greatly hinders the development of Walnut Industry.
The content of the invention
The present invention improves walnut grafting survival rate, emergence rate, it is proposed that a kind of walnut to solve breeding walnut fast breeding Industrial fast breeding method and consolidant.
The technical scheme is that:A kind of walnut industrial fast breeding method, sets up stock fast breeding garden, adopts fringe Garden, stock fringe bar refrigerating chamber, stock fringe bar waken room, intelligent greenhouse grafting room, graft healing culturing room, hardening area, each Region proceeds as follows flow:
1) select within convenient illumination abundance, water source, meta-alkali or alkalescence loam or sandy loam, 10-15 ° of the gradient, it is above sea level It is numerous by stock to the seed of breed rootstock in stock fast breeding garden area as stock fast breeding garden within height 500-700m Educate flow to be bred, treated in cutting orchard area and breed the seed of fringe bar and breed flow by fringe bar and bred;
2) stock to be grafted and fringe bar that breed maturation are put into stock fringe bar refrigerating chamber cold storing and fresh-keeping, it is husky using cellar The method of Tibetan, ground hole Tibetan and fresh-keeping chamber;
3) carry out in the stock fringe bar room of wakening stock and fringe bar before to be grafted again wakens work;
4) stock after wakening and fringe bar are transferred to intelligent greenhouse grafting room and carry out grafting processing, using stiff wood grafting, tender Branch cleft grafting, bud connect any one or several combined type graftings of three kinds of grafting methods, and the temperature control of intelligent greenhouse grafting room is 22 DEG C between 30 DEG C, humid control is 75% to 85%;
5) graft after grafting is smeared or soaks consolidant and be put into graft healing culturing room and carried out 10-15 days Healing culture;
6) graft of the culture of healing after full 10-15 days is moved into hardening area, hardening area simulation natural climate;
7) open country is cultivated, and removes the simulation facility in hardening area, or graft is moved into outdoor planting environment, if winter transfers Connect when transplanting more early or late frost is seriously regional, simple shed should be also built after transplanting seedlings, to improve ground temperature, prevent low temperature, late frost promotees Enter seedling growth.
Further, aforesaid operations flow 1) described in stock to breed flow as follows:
A, selection has a good transport service, illumination is sufficient, water source is convenient, the meta-alkali of soil physical chemistry shapeliness or alkalescence loam or sand Within loam, 10-15 ° of the gradient, the nursery lot within height 400-600m above sea level;
B, select J. sigillata true seed, it is desirable to control within 40-48/jin, Single seed weight 8g or so, without empty seed, Without going mouldy, color and luster is bright and new, damaged without nucleocapsid, and benevolence is full, and viability is strong, do not dry up, breakage rate is controlled within 1%;
C, with being not less than 15 DEG C, not higher than 35 DEG C of hot water, the walnut kind that will grow directly from seeds is poured into tun, then pours into hot water Seed is flowed or blow over and cover completely, water temperature refills hot water when being less than 15 DEG C, by the methyl support of the Walnut Seed after hoting water treatment of seeds after soaking 7-9 days Cloth Tianjin or carbendazim and sterilization ling carry out disinfection sterilization treatment, then clean once;
D, the seed after sterilization is placed under the sun and dried, is shone to natural breach, a small amount of seed of non-breach need to continue day Shine;
E, using the combination of one layer of sand, one layer of seed, spreads 5-6 layers of seed, and the humidity of wet sand rests in that pinched with hand can be into Group, loosing one's grip to dissipate is advisable, and wet sand ventilative grasp is layered on centre with sharp ventilative with a small amount of straw again after 3 layers of seed of paving, prevent mould Become, then with polyethylene film cover, it is desirable to check a germination daily;
F, conventional fine site preparation makees bed, removes debris, uses sufficient after base fertilizer, start on the sunny side, furrow width is not less than 35cm, bedside 1.5m, bed it is long according to physical features depending on, hillside fields along slope ditch with sharp draining,
G, the bed performed is covered with black mulch film, and lid is tightened surrounding with soil after film on the spot, with Anti-blow-open mulch film, Punched on the film of unregistered land by seeding row spacing 25x30cm, depth is advisable with the three times of Walnut Seed diameter, depth is no more than 11cm,
H, by the Walnut Seed through wet sand vernalization, down, bud upward, is placed in the hole accomplished fluently root, and the direction of bud is put Put consistent, emerged neatly, be then covered with fine earth with profit, lid reality;
I, stem, leaf, moisture content are high when coming up, and seedling stem does not form lignifying, keep soil water-containing appropriateness, unsuitable Fertilising too early, whne seedling stem is wooden basically form when, start micro applied nitrogen, principle is that duty is applied, on a small quantity;
J, after then increasing fertilizer application amount after the wooden complete formation of seedling stem, can carry out foliage dressing, with 0.3% urea or di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate Hydrogen potassium sprays blade face, is sprayed once per 7-10 days;
K, pours water depending on soil moisture content in nursery stock fast growing period and imposes instant nitrogenousfertilizer 2-3 times, and mu applies each 20kg of urea, and moderately Potassium, phosphate fertilizer 2 times and tillage and weeding are imposed, intertillage depth is 2-4 centimetres, the later stage can progressively deepen 8-10 centimetres, and intertillage number of times can It is determined on a case-by-case basis, grasps 3-4 times and be advisable;
L, the stump time, after mid or late October Juglans all fallen leaves, you can stump, stump method, in Juglans Base is at least up to more than 0.8 centimeter, when being fully able to meet grafting, in liftoff 30cm position stump,
M, seedling taking method is shoveled or with agricultural hoe along at least 30cm under shovel (digging) around sapling with proper tree during seedling taking, protected Demonstrate,prove main root and good and fibrous root it is many and it is good completely;
N, stock management, will rise after seedling rootstock seedling carry out assortment, size fractionation, reject disease pest seedling, mechanical damage seedling, By being wakened after label on every 50 plants bundled yarn of often packing into the stock room of wakening, when wakening, observe at any time, temperature control is 22 DEG C between 30 DEG C, humid control is 75% to 85%;
O, transhipment, treats that walnut rootstock seedling root system has and shows money or valuables one carries unintentionally a little, and stock cane has adequate water, and bast can be very with xylem Walnut rootstock seedling after being wakened when peeling off (being commonly called as from skin) well produces to be grafted in batches, not up to wakens the continuation temperature of requirement Humid control is wakened.
Further, aforesaid operations flow 1) described in fringe bar to breed flow as follows:
A, is irrigated, it is ensured that (soil is filled with enough winter water, time before freezing for rudiment water (being poured 15 days or so March) and water of surviving the winter Be advisable between November) etc. 2 times irrigation, hereafter, 1 water was poured every 15 days, specifically depending on soil moisture content, whole year pours 6-7 water, 8 The first tenday period of a month moon start increasing and watered interval, promote fringe bar lignifying;
B, fertilising, base manure is using the organic fertilizer fully become thoroughly decomposed, dig pit or ditch at the beginning of mid-September to 10 months basal dressing, 1-5 Every plant of raw walnut tree applies 10-20 kilograms of high-quality organic fertilizer, and raw every plant of 6-10 applies 30-80 kilograms, and life in 10 years is set every plant above and applied 80-100 kilograms is advisable, and imposes chemical fertilizer, annual to carry out 2-3 times, for the first time in late March to early April, based on available nitrogen, Account for the 50% of annual total amount, for the second time by the end of May at the beginning of 6 months, based on nitrogen, account for annual amount 30%, third time by the end of July, with phosphorus, potassium Based on, topdressing to apply with cave (hole) is advisable, and imposes 0.2-1.0 kilograms of chemical fertilizer 1-5 raw walnuts every plant of year of tree, and raw every plant of 6-10 is applied 1.0-2.0 kilograms, 10 years raw every plant of above are applied 2.0-2.5 kilograms and are advisable;
C, tillage and weeding, walnut growth period, with reference to timely intertillage of pouring water, whole year is carried out 4-5 times, often keeps soil It is loose without weeds state;
D, tree body management, tree body shaping, tree-like holding natural open centre shape, three major branch natural open centre shapes and evacuation layering shape three Kind, fixed dry requirement is done surely in nursery stock away from cutting back at the 60-70cm of ground, promotes the following sprouting of lateral bud of section, is selected and remain between the upper and lower away from suitable Preferably, remaining bud and branch on wrong 3-5 major branch in order, trunk of erasing;Tree body is trimmed, by trimming, regulates and controls tree vigo(u)r, balances fringe Bar grows, and spring carries out heavy pruning, promotes to sprout more fringe bars, branch stays 2 fringe bars, and sturdy branch stays 3-4 fringe bar, stays the original of branch Should then hold it is strong, pick it is weak, stay medium, it is ensured that stay a homoepitaxial, in good time pinching, pinch, promote fringe bar sprout full;Except flower Go fruit, to concentrate nutrition, cultivate more high-quality kind fringe bars, late April to May the first tenday period of a month tree body spray 500ppm ethene Profit, to urge fallen flowers, fruit;
E, PCO technology is main to use physical control and chemical prevention to put prevention first, and preventing and controlling are to enter Garden was turned over before winter, it is main prophylactico-therapeutic measures to clean dry branches and fallen leaves and cleaning tree body, the thing such as trunk is white, rhizome portion winding straw rope Prevention pika, which gnaws, to bite, and Growing season combination medicine carries out chemical prevention work, in disease initial phase, the larval phase and emergence period of insect Prevented and treated;
F, fringe bar collection, stiff wood fringe bar requires long 60-100cm, and thick 1.0-1.5cm lignifying is preferably, sprout development fills Real full, no disease and pests harm shoot then, should select full sprout, no disease and pests harm, the spray then with 3-5 full buds; Adopt the fringe time, stiff wood fringe bar:Dormant wood can all be gathered in whole rest period, but to be preferred at the beginning of last month of spring in winter;Acquisition method, using people Work, using the acquisition mode being combined, using ladder collecting seeds or climbs up a tree with ladder collecting seeds, then is trimmed with shrub and hedge trimmer or averruncator, Clip will be put down, it is necessary to stayed 2-3 bud (except male flower bud) persistently to adopt fringe with realization in the bottom of fringe bar branch, adopted more and more;
G, fringe bar processing and storage, distinguish bailing, every 30 or 50 a bundles hang mark according to fringe bar length, thickness Label, indicate kind and collecting location and time, preserve, dormancy fringe bar, which must be preserved, passes the winter, and is stored using fresh-keeping chamber, optimal temperature For 0-5 DEG C;
H, according to production requirement, is wakened in the stock fringe bar room of wakening, and according to demand and is transported after the completion of wakening.
Further, aforesaid operations flow 4) described in grafting handling process be:By stock more than rhizosphere 4-6cm Place is cut, and is removed top, is wiped out long lateral root, is cut flat because lifting digs disconnected wound, is retained 15-20cm main root;Selection with The equal or close scion of stock rugosity, cuts 10-12cm of growth, the branch section with 2-3 full buds, notes being sure not misuse Male flower bud or the excessive scion of medulla, one centimeter away from eye or so of top will be whittled at stock rhizosphere with scion bottom with flat chisel The horse ear shape bevel of 4-6cm length, indulges partial application, 1-2cm of depth at two bevel tops about 1/3;By respective short lingual surface The joint-cutting of other side is inserted, respective long lingual surface is covered in the whole tangent plane of other side.
Further, aforesaid operations flow 5) described in healing culture idiographic flow be:Immersion, grafting region is soaked In consolidant, kept for 5 second time, take out and place;Succeeding planting in a row in healing management, seedbed, seedling in the ranks fills wet saw end, The micro- dew in top, planting density is 500-600 Zhu/㎡, and temperature-sensitive control head is inserted in seedbed, and regulation temperature controller is to 28 DEG C, and heat up seedling Bed, the insulation control such as cover film is wet;Temperature and Humidity Control, 10-15 days is the grafting of a cycle during graft heals Body healing culture, temperature control is at 23.5-29.5 DEG C;Humid control is in 75-90%;Ground temperature controller control is more than 25 DEG C.
Further, aforesaid operations flow 7) described in open country cultivate idiographic flow be:
First, site preparation makees bed, the long 10-15m of bed, width 3.5m, and early spring, every mu was applied to carrying out secondary site preparation in bed and using sufficient base fertilizer Farm manure 2500kg, Diammonium phosphate (DAP) 50kg, starts on the sunny side, furrow width 15cm, bedside 1.5m, bed it is long according to physical features depending on, hillside fields Shun Po Trench digging is with sharp draining;
2nd, plantation density:Planting density is line-spacing 50cm, spacing in the rows 15cm;
3rd, seedling treatment:Before field planting, (1 gram of+33 kilograms of root-inducing powder is extremely with root-inducing powder 300ppm to 500ppm for seedling root 20 kilograms of water) decoction root dipping, duration 30 seconds;
4th, method for planting:The nursery stock healed is erased this anvil rudiment after plant in ditch, be once filled with enough root water, treat After oozing under water, then with soil in the ranks nursery stock is buried sternly, earthing 2-3cm at the top of scion, it is in that fish is carinate to make whole seedling row, if winter transfers Connect when transplanting more early or late frost is seriously regional, simple shed should be also built after transplanting seedlings, to improve ground temperature, prevent low temperature, late frost promotees Enter seedling growth;
5th, the middle and later periods of seedling growth, to strengthen soil fertilizer and water management and prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control work, want tillage and weeding 2- every year 3 times, often keep loose and without weeds state with making garden, to be poured water in time when meeting arid, supplement soil moisture, Seedling Stage will also Male and female flowering and young fruit are extractd in time, to reduce unnecessary nutrient consumption;
6th, late June is survived after stabilization, and every mu imposes urea 10-15kg, and late July applies peroxophosphoric acid for every mu to mid-August Calcium or potassium dihydrogen phosphate 10kg, to promote nursery stock robust growth, in the whole season of seedling growth, will note carrying out pest and disease damage Preventing and controlling.
A kind of consolidant for above-mentioned mating system, its key component includes:Indolebutyric acid, heteroauxin, bactericide, Oxygenation agent, acrylic acid, sucrose and α-naphthylacetic acid.
Further, each component percentage by weight of above-mentioned consolidant is:Indolebutyric acid 30%-36%, heteroauxin 20%-24%, bactericide 8%-13%, oxygenation agent 6%-11%, acrylic acid 6%-8%, sucrose 6%-10%, α-naphthylacetic acid 6%-10%;By the water-soluble mixing of above-mentioned substance, consolidant is made after stirring.
Compared with prior art, the advantage of the invention is that:Planning is reasonable, according to batch production streamline layout requirements, draws Divide stock fast breeding garden, cutting orchard, waken room, intelligent greenhouse grafting room, healing room and the grafting cultivation several big work(in crop field Can area.According to walnut grafting cycle connection function area, the transhipment of the factory management means of production and labour.By stock prepare and Fringe bar prepares efficient combination to grafting streamline, and is equipped with the consolidant for promoting grafting Wound healing, improves grafting success rate, Reasonable link transplants hardening process, and effective cutting operation step accurately calculates recruitment time and the growth time of each step, filled The independence and cooperative relationship divided between data mining duty area, reasonable arrangement production batch form batch production fast breeding.
Embodiment
The invention discloses a kind of walnut industrial fast breeding method and consolidant, based on the implementation in the present invention Example, the every other embodiment that those of ordinary skill in the art are obtained under the premise of creative work is not made is belonged to The scope of protection of the invention.
A kind of walnut industrial fast breeding method, set up stock fast breeding garden and cutting orchard breeds area, stock fringe Bar refrigerating chamber, stock fringe bar waken room, intelligent greenhouse grafting room, graft healing culturing room, hardening area, are carried out such as in each region Lower operating process:
1) select within convenient illumination abundance, water source, meta-alkali or alkalescence loam or sandy loam, 10-15 ° of the gradient, it is above sea level It is numerous by stock to the seed of breed rootstock in stock fast breeding garden area as stock fast breeding garden within height 500-700m Educate flow to be bred, treated in cutting orchard area and breed the seed of fringe bar and breed flow by fringe bar and bred;
2) stock to be grafted and fringe bar that breed maturation are put into stock fringe bar refrigerating chamber cold storing and fresh-keeping, or it is husky using cellar Hide or ground hole hide or with fresh-keeping chamber preservation method;
3) carry out in the stock fringe bar room of wakening stock and fringe bar before to be grafted again wakens work;
4) stock after wakening and fringe bar are transferred to intelligent greenhouse grafting room and carry out grafting processing, using stiff wood grafting, tender Branch cleft grafting, bud connect any one or several combined type graftings of three kinds of grafting methods, and the temperature control of intelligent greenhouse grafting room is 22 DEG C between 30 DEG C, humid control is 75% to 85%;
5) graft after grafting is smeared or soaks consolidant and be put into graft healing culturing room and carried out 10-15 days Healing culture;
6) graft of the culture of healing after full 10-15 days is moved into the hardening area for simulating natural climate;
7) open country is cultivated, and removes the simulation facility in hardening area, or graft is moved into outdoor planting environment, grafting in the winter time When transplanting is more early or late frost is seriously regional, simple shed should be also built after transplanting seedlings, to improve ground temperature, low temperature is prevented, late frost promotes Seedling growth.But it is certain it is noted that sheltering from heat or light and divulging information, to prevent occurring phenomenon of burning day.
Wherein above-mentioned process step 5) described in the key component of consolidant that is applied on graft include:Indoles fourth Acid, heteroauxin, bactericide, oxygenation agent, acrylic acid, sucrose and α-naphthylacetic acid.
Further, aforesaid operations flow 1) described in stock to breed flow as follows:
A, selection has a good transport service, illumination is sufficient, water source is convenient, the meta-alkali of soil physical chemistry shapeliness or alkalescence loam or sand Within loam, 10-15 ° of the gradient, the nursery lot within height 400-600m above sea level;
B, select J. sigillata true seed, it is desirable to control within 40-48/jin, Single seed weight 8g or so, without empty seed, Without going mouldy, color and luster is bright and new, damaged without nucleocapsid, and benevolence is full, and viability is strong, do not dry up, breakage rate is controlled within 1%;
C, with being not less than 15 DEG C, not higher than 35 DEG C of hot water, the walnut kind that will grow directly from seeds is poured into tun, then pours into hot water Seed is flowed or blow over and cover completely, water temperature refills hot water when being less than 15 DEG C, by the methyl support of the Walnut Seed after hoting water treatment of seeds after soaking 7-9 days Cloth Tianjin or carbendazim and sterilization ling carry out disinfection sterilization treatment, then clean once;
D, the seed after sterilization is placed under the sun and dried, is shone to natural breach, a small amount of seed of non-breach need to continue day Shine;
E, using the combination of one layer of sand, one layer of seed, spreads 5-6 layers of seed, and the humidity of wet sand rests in that pinched with hand can be into Group, loosing one's grip to dissipate is advisable, and wet sand ventilative grasp is layered on centre with sharp ventilative with a small amount of straw again after 3 layers of seed of paving, prevent mould Become, then with polyethylene film cover, it is desirable to check a germination daily;
F, conventional fine site preparation makees bed, removes debris, uses sufficient after base fertilizer, start on the sunny side, furrow width is not less than 35cm, bedside 1.5m, bed it is long according to physical features depending on, hillside fields along slope ditch with sharp draining,
G, the bed performed is covered with black mulch film, and lid is tightened surrounding with soil after film on the spot, with Anti-blow-open mulch film, Punched on the film of unregistered land by seeding row spacing 25x30cm, depth is advisable with the three times of Walnut Seed diameter, depth is no more than 11cm,
H, by the Walnut Seed through wet sand vernalization, down, bud upward, is placed in the hole accomplished fluently root, and the direction of bud is put Put consistent, emerged neatly, be then covered with fine earth with profit, lid reality;
I, stem, leaf, moisture content are high when coming up, and seedling stem does not form lignifying, keep soil water-containing appropriateness, unsuitable Fertilising too early, whne seedling stem is wooden basically form when, start micro applied nitrogen, principle is that duty is applied, on a small quantity;
J, after then increasing fertilizer application amount after the wooden complete formation of seedling stem, can carry out foliage dressing, with 0.3% urea or di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate Hydrogen potassium sprays blade face, is sprayed once per 7-10 days;
K, pours water depending on soil moisture content in nursery stock fast growing period and imposes instant nitrogenousfertilizer 2-3 times, and mu applies each 20kg of urea, and moderately Potassium, phosphate fertilizer 2 times and tillage and weeding are imposed, intertillage depth is 2-4 centimetres, the later stage can progressively deepen 8-10 centimetres, and intertillage number of times can It is determined on a case-by-case basis, grasps 3-4 times and be advisable;
L, the stump time, after mid or late October Juglans all fallen leaves, you can stump, stump method, in Juglans Base is at least up to more than 0.8 centimeter, when being fully able to meet grafting, in liftoff 30cm position stump,
M, seedling taking method is shoveled or with agricultural hoe along at least 30cm under shovel (digging) around sapling with proper tree during seedling taking, protected Demonstrate,prove main root and good and fibrous root it is many and it is good completely;
N, stock management, will rise after seedling rootstock seedling carry out assortment, size fractionation, reject disease pest seedling, mechanical damage seedling, By being wakened after label on every 50 plants bundled yarn of often packing into the stock room of wakening, when wakening, observe at any time, temperature control is 22 DEG C between 30 DEG C, humid control is 75% to 85%;
O, transhipment, treats that walnut rootstock seedling root system has and shows money or valuables one carries unintentionally a little, and stock cane has adequate water, and bast can be very with xylem Walnut rootstock seedling after being wakened when peeling off (being commonly called as from skin) well produces to be grafted in batches, not up to wakens the continuation temperature of requirement Humid control is wakened.
Further, aforesaid operations flow 1) described in fringe bar to breed flow as follows:
A, is irrigated, it is ensured that (soil is filled with enough winter water, time before freezing for rudiment water (being poured 15 days or so March) and water of surviving the winter Be advisable between November) etc. 2 times irrigation, hereafter, pour within 15 days or so 1 water, specifically depending on soil moisture content, whole year pours 6-7 water, Early August starts increasing and watered interval, promotes fringe bar lignifying;
B, fertilising, base manure is using the organic fertilizer fully become thoroughly decomposed, dig pit or ditch at the beginning of mid-September to 10 months basal dressing, 1-5 Every plant of raw walnut tree applies 10-20 kilograms of high-quality organic fertilizer, and raw every plant of 6-10 applies 30-80 kilograms, and life in 10 years is set every plant above and applied 80-100 kilograms is advisable, and imposes chemical fertilizer, annual to carry out 2-3 times, for the first time in late March to early April, based on available nitrogen, Account for the 50% of annual total amount, for the second time by the end of May at the beginning of 6 months, based on nitrogen, account for annual amount 30%, third time by the end of July, with phosphorus, potassium Based on, topdressing to apply with cave (hole) is advisable, and imposes 0.2-1.0 kilograms of chemical fertilizer 1-5 raw walnuts every plant of year of tree, and raw every plant of 6-10 is applied 1.0-2.0 kilograms, 10 years raw every plant of above are applied 2.0-2.5 kilograms and are advisable;
C, tillage and weeding, walnut growth period, with reference to timely intertillage of pouring water, whole year is carried out 4-5 times, often keeps soil It is loose without weeds state;
D, tree body management, tree body shaping, tree-like holding natural open centre shape, three major branch natural open centre shapes and evacuation layering shape three Kind, fixed dry requirement is done surely in nursery stock away from cutting back at the 60-70cm of ground, promotes the following sprouting of lateral bud of section, is selected and remain between the upper and lower away from suitable Preferably, remaining bud and branch on wrong 3-5 major branch in order, trunk of erasing;Tree body is trimmed, by trimming, regulates and controls tree vigo(u)r, balances fringe Bar grows, and spring carries out heavy pruning, promotes to sprout more fringe bars, branch stays 2 fringe bars, and sturdy branch stays 3-4 fringe bar, stays the original of branch Should then hold it is strong, pick it is weak, stay medium, it is ensured that stay a homoepitaxial, in good time pinching, pinch, promote fringe bar sprout full;Except flower Go fruit, to concentrate nutrition, cultivate more high-quality kind fringe bars, late April to May the first tenday period of a month tree body spray 500ppm ethene Profit, to urge fallen flowers, fruit;
E, PCO technology is main to use physical control and chemical prevention to put prevention first, and preventing and controlling are to enter Garden was turned over before winter, it is main prophylactico-therapeutic measures to clean dry branches and fallen leaves and cleaning tree body, the thing such as trunk is white, rhizome portion winding straw rope Prevention pika, which gnaws, to bite, and Growing season combination medicine carries out chemical prevention work, in disease initial phase, the larval phase and emergence period of insect Prevented and treated;
F, fringe bar collection, stiff wood fringe bar requires long 60-100cm, and thick 1.0-1.5cm lignifying is preferably, sprout development fills Real full, no disease and pests harm shoot then, should select full sprout, no disease and pests harm, the spray then with 3-5 full buds; Adopt the fringe time, stiff wood fringe bar:Dormant wood can all be gathered in whole rest period, but to be preferred at the beginning of last month of spring in winter;Acquisition method, using people Work, using the acquisition mode being combined, using ladder collecting seeds or climbs up a tree with ladder collecting seeds, then is trimmed with shrub and hedge trimmer or averruncator, Clip will be put down, and be not allow for angle or splitting branch, it is necessary to stay 2-3 bud (except male flower bud) to realize in the bottom of fringe bar branch Persistently adopt fringe, adopt more and more;
G, fringe bar processing and storage, distinguish bailing, every 30 or 50 a bundles hang mark according to fringe bar length, thickness Label, indicate kind and collecting location and time, preserve, dormancy fringe bar, which must be preserved, passes the winter, and is stored using fresh-keeping chamber, optimal temperature For 0-5 DEG C;
H, according to production requirement, is wakened in the stock fringe bar room of wakening, and according to demand and is transported after the completion of wakening.Its In, enter the walnut stock and walnut fringe bar of rest period using the gibberellin medicine liquid spray of 50 mg/litres when wakening, make its dozen Broken rest period, the intelligent greenhouse into electrothermal wakens room, and temperature control is maintained at 18-25 DEG C, and relative humidity 85% or so carries out strong Row is wakened, and factory's grafting workshop is entered back into after wakening.
Further, aforesaid operations flow 4) described in grafting handling process be:By stock more than rhizosphere 4-6cm Place is cut, and is removed top, is wiped out long lateral root, is cut flat because lifting digs disconnected wound, is retained 15-20cm main root;Selection with The equal or close scion of stock rugosity, cuts 10-12cm of growth, the branch section with 2-3 full buds, notes being sure not misuse Male flower bud or the excessive scion of medulla, one centimeter away from eye or so of top will be whittled at stock rhizosphere with scion bottom with flat chisel The horse ear shape bevel of 4-6cm length, indulges partial application, 1-2cm of depth at two bevel tops about 1/3;By respective short lingual surface The joint-cutting of other side is inserted, respective long lingual surface is covered in the whole tangent plane of other side, complete grafting handling process formation graft.
Further, aforesaid operations flow 5) in, the graft can form wound in processing procedure, to ensure grafting Physical efficiency is continuing with, and the Wound healing culture idiographic flow of the graft is:Immersion, consolidant is immersed in by grafting region In, kept for 5 second time, take out and place;Succeeding planting in a row in healing management, seedbed, seedling in the ranks fills wet saw end, and top is micro- Dew, planting density is 500-600 Zhu/㎡, and temperature-sensitive control head is inserted in seedbed, and regulation temperature controller is to 28 DEG C, seedbed of heating up, covering The insulation control such as film is wet;Temperature and Humidity Control, during graft heals, the 10-15 days grafts for a cycle heal Culture, temperature control is at 23.5-29.5 DEG C, and fluctuation range can be at positive and negative 1.5 DEG C, and preferable temperature is controlled at 25-28 DEG C;Humidity Control is in 75-90%;Ground temperature controller control is more than 25 DEG C.
In above-mentioned mating system, fringe bar is fresh-keeping to be stored using cellar sand storage as long-term storage, using taking below ground 2 Rice, 2m*4m*6m stereochemical structure, bottom laying cypress withe fork, 20 ㎝, wet sand 10cm, 5 DEG C of environment temperature, humidity 85%, 48m3 is a storage cellar, can preserve fringe bar 2000, retention cycle 3 months;Ground hole is hidden as short term storage room, utilizes the back of the body The back builds 2m*5m*8m brick mix structure, and the ㎝ of cypress withe fork 20, wet sand 10cm are equally laid in bottom, and 5 DEG C of environment temperature is wet Fringe bar 3300, retention cycle 2 months can be kept in dark place in 85%, 80m3 of degree;Fresh-keeping chamber keeps in dark place at low temperature, temporarily as fringe bar Transshipment center, arranges rationally supply fringe bar, temperature control is between 0-5 DEG C, and humidity 85% is accomplished according to grafting reasonable quantity Observation in every two days once, counts intact rate.
Further, aforesaid operations flow 7) described in open country cultivate idiographic flow be:
First, site preparation makees bed, the long 10-15m of bed, width 3.5m, and early spring, every mu was applied to carrying out secondary site preparation in bed and using sufficient base fertilizer Farm manure 2500kg, Diammonium phosphate (DAP) 50kg, starts on the sunny side, furrow width 15cm, bedside 1.5m, bed it is long according to physical features depending on, hillside fields Shun Po Trench digging is with sharp draining;
2nd, plantation density:Planting density is line-spacing 50cm, spacing in the rows 15cm;
3rd, seedling treatment:Before field planting, (1 gram of+33 kilograms of root-inducing powder is extremely with root-inducing powder 300ppm to 500ppm for seedling root 20 kilograms of water) decoction root dipping, duration 30 seconds;
4th, method for planting:The nursery stock healed is erased this anvil rudiment after plant in ditch, be once filled with enough root water, treat After oozing under water, then with soil in the ranks nursery stock is buried sternly, earthing 2-3cm at the top of scion, it is in that fish is carinate to make whole seedling row, if winter transfers Connect when transplanting more early or late frost is seriously regional, simple shed should be also built after transplanting seedlings, to improve ground temperature, prevent low temperature, late frost promotees Enter seedling growth.But it is certain it is noted that sheltering from heat or light and divulging information, to prevent occurring phenomenon of burning day;
5th, the middle and later periods of seedling growth, to strengthen soil fertilizer and water management and prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control work, want tillage and weeding 2- every year 3 times, often keep loose and without weeds state with making garden, to be poured water in time when meeting arid, supplement soil moisture, Seedling Stage will also Male and female flowering and young fruit are extractd in time, to reduce unnecessary nutrient consumption;
6th, late June is survived after stabilization, and every mu imposes urea 10-15kg, and late July applies peroxophosphoric acid for every mu to mid-August Calcium or potassium dihydrogen phosphate 10kg, to promote nursery stock robust growth, in the whole season of seedling growth, will note carrying out pest and disease damage Preventing and controlling.
When annual grafting reaches the specification of Standard, fall leaves to by the end of December or before the rudiment of spring in next year, you can Lifting goes out garden afforestation or sold.
Mating system advantage of the present invention is:Planning is reasonable, according to batch production streamline layout requirements, has divided anvil Wooden fast breeding garden, cutting orchard, waken room, intelligent greenhouse grafting room, healing room and grafting cultivate crop field Ji great functional areas.Press According to walnut grafting cycle connection function area, the transhipment of the factory management means of production and labour.Stock is prepared and fringe bar system Standby efficient combination is equipped with grafting Wound healing preparation and promotes Wound healing on grafting streamline, improves grafting success rate, rationally Hardening process is transplanted in linking, and effective cutting operation step accurately calculates recruitment time and the growth time of each step, is fully dug The independence and cooperative relationship dug between functional areas, reasonable arrangement production batch form batch production fast breeding.Specific data edge See attached list.
1st, contrasted in process characteristic, climate requirements, grafting time, grafting amount, individual plant cost, batch size and survival rate The difference of open country grafting and intelligent greenhouse grafting is following (being shown in Table 2), and intelligent greenhouse grafting has technical matters with respect to open country grafting It is single, easy to control, do not disturbed by environmental weather conditions, grafting amount is big, can reach daily 1200 plants of grafting amount, grafting time per capita From November then to next year August, break the time isolation of grafting, the defect of open country grafting annually can be supplemented, 4 can be increased Batch, roller production.Specifically to such as table 1:
The contrast of table 1, different grafting types
2nd, different grafting methods are selected to improve grafting success rate and grafting efficiency according to different grafting times, also Can be using grafting method combination, i.e. grafting processing is carried out to walnut using two or more grafting methods within the grafting period, As specific such as table 2:
Table 2, the comparison of combined type grafting
Different grafting methods has a different survival rates, the preferential twig cleft grafting method of the present invention, compared with other grafting methods, Twig cleft grafting method survival rate such as table 3:
The graft survival rate of table 3, different grafting methods
The present invention produces wound for grafting and has prepared a kind of consolidant, can accelerate the speed of graft Wound healing, The graft is with each component percentage by weight of consolidant:Indolebutyric acid 30%-36%, heteroauxin 20%-24%, sterilization Agent 8%-13%, oxygenation agent 6%-11%, acrylic acid 6%-8%, sucrose 6%-10%, α-naphthylacetic acid 6%-10%;Will be above-mentioned The water-soluble mixing of material, is made consolidant and can be used for graft after stirring.Graft can be shortened by using consolidant The Wound healing time, improve graft survival rate, its advantage such as table 4:
Table 4, different plant modifying agent survival rates (by 100 plants of calculating)
By auxin and the Bactericidal medicine of arranging in pairs or groups, make consolidant of the present invention, then with other plant Growth regulator is to the contrast test of survival rate after grafting, data such as table 4:What survival rate improved maximum is consolidant, is carried on year-on-year basis High 12 percentage points, graft survival rate reaches, more than 91%, improved compared to without using the graft survival rate of consolidant 19%.
When in use, by the stock cut, fringe bar in consolidant decoction it is quickly dipped once (when be about 3-5 seconds), then What insertion had been cut carves mouth, it is necessary to output an inverted triangle bleeding water channel below mouth at 4-5cm carving, it is to avoid carve mouth and accumulate liquid shadow Ring Wound healing and carry out colligation.Also graft wound site that can be after such insertion smears consolidant.
The foregoing is merely illustrative of the preferred embodiments of the present invention, is not intended to limit the invention, all essences in the present invention God is with principle, and any modification, equivalent substitution and improvements made etc. should be included in the scope of the protection.

Claims (9)

1. a kind of walnut industrial fast breeding method, it is characterised in that set up stock fast breeding garden, cutting orchard, stock fringe Bar refrigerating chamber, stock fringe bar waken room, intelligent greenhouse grafting room, graft healing culturing room, hardening area, are carried out such as in each region Lower operating process:
1) selection stock fast breeding garden, the stock fast breeding garden has convenient illumination abundance, water source, meta-alkali or alkalescence Within loam or sandy loam, 10-15 ° of the gradient, height 500-700m above sea level, in kind of the stock fast breeding garden area to breed rootstock Son is bred flow by stock and bred, and is treated in cutting orchard area and breeds the seed of fringe bar and breed flow by fringe bar and bred;
2) stock to be grafted and fringe bar that breed maturation are put into stock fringe bar refrigerating chamber cold storing and fresh-keeping,;
3) carry out in the stock fringe bar room of wakening stock and fringe bar before to be grafted again wakens work;
4) stock after wakening and fringe bar are transferred to intelligent greenhouse grafting room and carry out grafting processing, split using stiff wood grafting, spray Connect, bud connects any one or several combined type graftings of three kinds of grafting methods, the temperature control of intelligent greenhouse grafting room at 22 DEG C extremely Between 30 DEG C, humid control is 75% to 85%;
5) graft after grafting is smeared or soaks consolidant and be put into the healing that graft healing culturing room is carried out 10-15 days Culture;
6) graft of the culture of healing after full 10-15 days is moved into hardening area, natural climate is simulated in the hardening area;
7) open country is cultivated, and removes the simulation facility in hardening area, or graft is moved into outdoor planting environment, in the winter time graft transplant When more early or late frost is seriously regional, simple shed is built after transplanting seedlings, to improve ground temperature, low temperature is prevented, late frost promotes nursery stock life It is long.
2. walnut industrial fast breeding method according to claim 1, it is characterised in that operating process 1) described in anvil It is as follows that wood breeds flow:
A, selection has a good transport service, illumination is sufficient, water source is convenient, the meta-alkali of soil physical chemistry shapeliness or alkalescence loam or husky earth Within soil, 10-15 ° of the gradient, the nursery lot within height 400-600m above sea level;
B, selects J. sigillata true seed, it is desirable to which control is within 40-48/jin, Single seed weight 8g or so, without empty seed, without mould Become, color and luster is bright and new, damaged without nucleocapsid, and benevolence is full, viability is strong, do not dry up, breakage rate is controlled within 1%;
C, with being not less than 15 DEG C, not higher than 35 DEG C of hot water, the walnut kind that will grow directly from seeds is poured into tun, then is poured into hot water and flowed or blow over and cover completely Seed, water temperature refills hot water when being less than 15 DEG C, by the methyl Tobe of the Walnut Seed after hoting water treatment of seeds after soaking 7-9 days Tianjin or carbendazim and sterilization ling carry out disinfection sterilization treatment, then clean once;
D, the seed after sterilization is placed under the sun and dried, is shone to natural breach, a small amount of seed of non-breach need to continue Exposure to Sunlight;
E, using the combination of one layer of sand, one layer of seed, spreads 5-6 layer seed, and the humidity of wet sand rests in that pinched with hand can be agglomerating, loose Hand, which can dissipate, to be advisable, and wet sand ventilative grasp is layered on centre with sharp ventilative with a small amount of straw again after 3 layers of seed of paving, prevent from going mouldy, so Polyethylene film cover is used afterwards, it is desirable to check a germination daily;
F, conventional fine site preparation makees bed, removes debris, uses sufficient after base fertilizer, start on the sunny side, furrow width is not less than 35cm, bedside 1.5m, Bed it is long according to physical features depending on, hillside fields along slope ditch with sharp draining,
G, the bed performed is covered with black mulch film, and lid is tightened surrounding with soil after film on the spot, with Anti-blow-open mulch film, in unregistered land Punched on film by seeding row spacing 25x30cm, depth is with three times of Walnut Seed diameter, and depth is no more than 11cm,
H, by the Walnut Seed through wet sand vernalization, down, bud upward, is placed in the hole accomplished fluently root, and the direction of bud is put into one Cause, emerged neatly, be then covered with fine earth with profit, lid reality;
I, stem, leaf, moisture content are high when coming up, and seedling stem does not form lignifying, keep soil water-containing appropriateness, unsuitable too early Fertilising, whne seedling stem is wooden basically form when, start micro applied nitrogen, principle is that duty is applied, on a small quantity;
J, after then increasing fertilizer application amount after the wooden complete formation of seedling stem, can carry out foliage dressing, with 0.3% urea or potassium dihydrogen phosphate Blade face is sprayed, was sprayed once per 7-10 days;
K, pours water depending on soil moisture content in nursery stock fast growing period and imposes instant nitrogenousfertilizer 2-3 times, and mu applies each 20kg of urea, and moderately imposes Potassium, phosphate fertilizer 2 times and tillage and weeding, intertillage depth are 2-4 centimetres, and the later stage can progressively deepen 8-10 centimetres, and intertillage number of times visually has Depending on body situation, it is advisable for 3-4 times;
L, the stump time, after mid or late October Juglans all fallen leaves, you can stump, stump method, in Juglans ground extremely More than 0.8 centimeter, when being fully able to meet grafting is reached less, in liftoff 30cm position stump,
M, seedling taking method is shoveled with proper tree during seedling taking or is shoveled at least 30cm under (digging) along around sapling with agricultural hoe, it is ensured that be main Root and good and fibrous root it is many and it is good completely;
N, stock management will play after seedling rootstock seedling and carry out assortment, size fractionation rejects disease pest seedling, mechanical damage seedling, by every Waken, when wakening, observe at any time into the stock room of wakening after label on 50 plants of bundled yarn of often packing, temperature control at 22 DEG C extremely Between 30 DEG C, humid control is 75% to 85%;
O, transhipment, treats that walnut rootstock seedling root system has and shows money or valuables one carries unintentionally a little, and stock cane has adequate water, and bast can be well with xylem Walnut rootstock seedling after being wakened when peeling off (being commonly called as from skin) produces to be grafted in batches, not up to wakens the continuation humiture of requirement Control is wakened.
3. walnut industrial fast breeding method according to claim 1, it is characterised in that operating process 1) described in fringe It is as follows that bar breeds flow:
A, is irrigated, it is ensured that (soil is filled with enough winter water before freezing, and the time is 11 for rudiment water (being poured 15 days or so March) and water of surviving the winter Month between be advisable) etc. 2 times irrigation, hereafter, 1 water was poured every 15 days, specifically depending on soil moisture content, whole year is poured in 6-7 water, August Start increasing in ten days to water interval, promote fringe bar lignifying;
B, fertilising, base manure is using the organic fertilizer fully become thoroughly decomposed, basal dressing of digging pit or ditch at the beginning of mid-September to 10 months, and 1-5 gives birth to core Every plant of peach applies 10-20 kilograms of high-quality organic fertilizer, and raw every plant of 6-10 applies 30-80 kilograms, and setting every plant applies 80- above for life in 10 years Double centner is advisable, and imposes chemical fertilizer, annual to carry out 2-3 times, for the first time in late March to early April, based on available nitrogen, accounts for complete The 50% of annual amount, for the second time by the end of May at the beginning of 6 months, based on nitrogen, accounts for annual amount 30%, third time by the end of July, using phosphorus, potassium as Main, topdressing to apply with cave (hole) is advisable, and imposes 0.2-1.0 kilograms of chemical fertilizer 1-5 raw walnuts every plant of year of tree, and raw every plant of 6-10 is applied 1.0-2.0 kilograms, 10 years raw every plant of above are applied 2.0-2.5 kilograms and are advisable;
C, tillage and weeding, walnut growth period, with reference to timely intertillage of pouring water, whole year is carried out 4-5 times, often keeps loosing soil Without weeds state;
D, tree body management, tree body shaping, tree-like holding natural open centre shape, three major branch natural open centre shapes and evacuation three kinds of shape of layering, It is fixed dry to require to do surely away from the cutting back 60-70cm of ground in nursery stock, promote the following sprouting of lateral bud of section, select and remain between the upper and lower away from suitably, Remaining bud and branch on wrong 3-5 major branch in order, trunk of erasing;Tree body is trimmed, by trimming, regulates and controls tree vigo(u)r, balances fringe bar Growth, spring carries out heavy pruning, promotes to sprout more fringe bars, branch stays 2 fringe bars, and sturdy branch stays 3-4 fringe bar, stays the principle of branch Should hold it is strong, pick it is weak, stay medium, it is ensured that stay a homoepitaxial, in good time pinching, pinch, promote fringe bar sprout full;Except having spent Really, be to concentrate nutrition, cultivate more high-quality kind fringe bars, late April to May the first tenday period of a month tree body spray 500ppm ethene Profit, to urge fallen flowers, fruit;
E, PCO technology is main to use physical control and chemical prevention to put prevention first, and preventing and controlling are to enter before the winter With turning over garden, it is main prophylactico-therapeutic measures to clean dry branches and fallen leaves and cleaning tree body, the thing prevention such as trunk is white, rhizome portion winding straw rope Pika, which gnaws, to be bitten, and Growing season combination medicine carries out chemical prevention work, and in disease initial phase, the larval phase and emergence period of insect are carried out Preventing and treating;
F, fringe bar collection, stiff wood fringe bar requires long 60-100cm, thick 1.0-1.5cm lignifying preferably, sprout development enrich full The full, shoot then of no disease and pests harm, should select full sprout, no disease and pests harm, the spray then with 3-5 full buds;Adopt fringe Time, stiff wood fringe bar:Dormant wood can all be gathered in whole rest period, but to be preferred at the beginning of last month of spring in winter;Acquisition method, using manually with Ladder collecting seeds using ladder collecting seeds or are climbd up a tree using the acquisition mode being combined, then are trimmed with shrub and hedge trimmer or averruncator, clip Put down, it is necessary to stay 2-3 bud (except male flower bud) persistently to adopt fringe with realization in the bottom of fringe bar branch, adopt more and more;
G, fringe bar processing and storage, distinguish bailing, every 30 or 50 a bundles hang label, mark according to fringe bar length, thickness Bright kind and collecting location and time, storage, dormancy fringe bar, which must be preserved, passes the winter, and is stored using fresh-keeping chamber, optimal temperature is 0-5 ℃;
H, according to production requirement, is wakened and is transported in the stock fringe bar room of wakening.
4. walnut industrial fast breeding method according to claim 1, it is characterised in that perform operating process 3) before adopt Enter the walnut stock and walnut fringe bar of rest period with 50 mg/litre gibberellin medicine liquid sprays, make its breaking dormancy phase, into electricity Heat wakens room, and temperature control rests in 18 ° -25 °, and relative humidity 85% or so, implementation is wakened by force, and intelligent temperature is entered back into after wakening Room grafting room carries out grafting processing.
5. walnut industrial fast breeding method according to claim 1, it is characterised in that operating process 4) described in Grafting handling process is:Stock is cut at rhizosphere above 4-6cm, removes top, wipes out long lateral root, cut flat because of lifting Disconnected wound is dug, retains 15-20cm main root;The selection scion equal or close with stock rugosity, cuts growth 10-12cm, Branch section with 2-3 full buds, notes being sure not misuse male flower bud or the excessive scion of medulla, one centimeter away from eye of a top left side The right side, will be whittled into the horse ear shape bevel of 4-6cm length, at two bevel tops about 1/3 with scion bottom with flat chisel at stock rhizosphere Vertical partial application, depth 1-2cm;Respective short lingual surface is inserted to the joint-cutting of other side, respective long lingual surface is covered in the whole of other side Tangent plane.
6. walnut industrial fast breeding method according to claim 1, it is characterised in that operating process 5) described in Idiographic flow is cultivated in healing:Immersion, grafting region is immersed in consolidant, is kept for 5 second time, is taken out and is placed;Healing pipe Succeeding planting in a row in reason, seedbed, seedling in the ranks fills wet saw end, and the micro- dew in top, planting density is 500-600 plants/㎡, by temperature-sensitive In control head insertion seedbed, regulation temperature controller is to 28 DEG C, seedbed of heating up, and the insulation control such as cover film is wet;Temperature and Humidity Control, in grafting During body heals, the graft healing culture for a cycle in 10-15 days, temperature control is at 23.5-29.5 DEG C;Humidity control System is in 75-90%;Ground temperature controller control is more than 25 DEG C.
7. walnut industrial fast breeding method according to claim 1, it is characterised in that operating process 7) described in Open country cultivates idiographic flow:
First, site preparation makees bed, the long 10-15m of bed, width 3.5m, early spring to carrying out secondary site preparation in bed and using sufficient base fertilizer, per Mu Shi farmers' Fertile 2500kg, Diammonium phosphate (DAP) 50kg, starts on the sunny side, furrow width 15cm, bedside 1.5m, bed it is long according to physical features depending on, hillside fields along slope ditch With sharp draining;
2nd, plantation density:Planting density is line-spacing 50cm, spacing in the rows 15cm;
3rd, seedling treatment:Before field planting, seedling root root-inducing powder 300ppm to 500ppm (+33 kilograms to 20,000 of 1 gram of root-inducing powder Gram water) decoction root dipping, duration 30 seconds;
4th, method for planting:The nursery stock healed is erased this anvil rudiment after plant in ditch, be once filled with enough root water, treat under water After oozing, then with soil in the ranks nursery stock is buried sternly, earthing 2-3cm at the top of scion makes whole seedling row carinate in fish, if winter grafting shifting When planting more early or late frost is seriously regional, simple shed should be also built after transplanting seedlings, to improve ground temperature, low temperature is prevented, late frost promotes seedling Wood growth;
5th, the middle and later periods of seedling growth, to strengthen soil fertilizer and water management and prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control work, want tillage and weeding 2-3 times every year, Often keep loose and without weeds state with making garden, to be poured water in time when meeting arid, supplement soil moisture, Seedling Stage is also timely Male and female flowering and young fruit are extractd, to reduce unnecessary nutrient consumption;
6th, late June is survived after stabilization, and every mu imposes urea 10-15kg, and late July applies calcium phosphate or phosphorus for every mu to mid-August Acid dihydride potassium 10kg, to promote nursery stock robust growth.
8. the consolidant that a kind of method as claimed in claim 1 is used, it is characterised in that key component includes:Indolebutyric acid, Yin Indolylbutyric acid, bactericide, oxygenation agent, acrylic acid, sucrose and α-naphthylacetic acid.
9. consolidant according to claim 8, it is characterised in that each component percentage by weight is:Indolebutyric acid 30%- 36%th, heteroauxin 20%-24%, bactericide 8%-13%, oxygenation agent 6%-11%, acrylic acid 6%-8%, sucrose 6%- 10%th, α-naphthylacetic acid 6%-10%;By the water-soluble mixing of above-mentioned substance, consolidant is made after stirring.
CN201710313564.4A 2017-05-05 2017-05-05 Walnut industrial fast breeding method and consolidant Pending CN107242032A (en)

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CN107980380A (en) * 2017-12-08 2018-05-04 阜阳市鸿业生态农业科技有限公司 A kind of peach four seasons graft seedling growth technology
CN108040642A (en) * 2017-12-12 2018-05-18 莱州市宏顺梅花种植科技有限公司 A kind of processing method before plum blossom scion grafting
CN108684355A (en) * 2018-05-29 2018-10-23 凉山彝族自治州亚热带作物研究所 A kind of walnut improved combination engrafting method
CN109220282A (en) * 2018-09-02 2019-01-18 杭州富阳飞博科技有限公司 A kind of apocarya grafting and breeding method
CN109220282B (en) * 2018-09-02 2021-06-08 杭州富阳飞博科技有限公司 Grafting breeding method for apocarya
CN110476637A (en) * 2019-06-03 2019-11-22 广东省林业科学研究院 A kind of method that quickly breeding China fir produces kind of maternal plant
CN110476637B (en) * 2019-06-03 2021-05-14 广东省林业科学研究院 Method for rapidly cultivating parent strain of Chinese fir seed

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Application publication date: 20171013