CN104620828A - Method of cultivating landscaping trees by wild-to-artificial cultivation of Choerospondias axillaris - Google Patents

Method of cultivating landscaping trees by wild-to-artificial cultivation of Choerospondias axillaris Download PDF

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CN104620828A
CN104620828A CN201510078054.4A CN201510078054A CN104620828A CN 104620828 A CN104620828 A CN 104620828A CN 201510078054 A CN201510078054 A CN 201510078054A CN 104620828 A CN104620828 A CN 104620828A
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cuttage
fringe bar
cuttings
wild
blade
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CN104620828B (en
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周琪
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Shenzhen Gao Ecological Landscape Co., Ltd.
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周琪
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/005Cultivation methods
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for

Abstract

The invention relates to the technical field of natural forest protection and recovery, in particular to a method of cultivating landscaping trees by wild-to-artificial cultivation of Choerospondias axillaris. The method includes the steps of a, preparing a nursery and a cutting bed; b, selecting cuttings; c, pruning and treating the cuttings, to be specific, pruning cuttings, and treating the cuttings; d, performing cuttage; e, performing post-cuttage management, to be specific, managing temperature and humidity, applying fertilizers, removing weeds, and controlling disease and pest damage; f, transplanting saplings. The method is characterized in that the cuttings are selected from the male trees of Choerospondias axillaris, which are tall, straight from top to bottom, in leafy profusion and attractive in appearance and which grow for 8 to 10 years; the cuttings are selected from late May to early middle of June, after successive five sunny days, at 8 to 10 AM; the cuttings are treated with 70% ethyl alcohol for 20s and soaked in 0.1% mercury bichloride for 8min, shaking is performed nonstop, and the cuttings are washed five times with sterile water. The method has the advantages that the cuttings are all from male plants of Choerospondias axillaris and Genetic endowment of germplasm resources of wild Choerospondias axillaris can be better guaranteed.

Description

A kind of wild Spondias axillaris becomes the method that artificial cultivation becomes Landscape Trees
Technical field
The present invention relates to natural forest protection and recovering technology field, especially a kind of wild Spondias axillaris becomes the method that artificial cultivation becomes Landscape Trees.
Background technology
Spondias axillaris (ChoerosPondias axillaries (Roxb.) Burtt.et Hill), Anacardiaceae (anacardiaceae) calls five fruits, mountain Chinese date, wood fickle in love etc., belongs to fallen leaves megaphanerophyte.The fruit of Spondias axillaris, skin, root, core, Renhe leaf all have medicinal usefulness, the tree height of Spondias axillaris is logical greatly straight, and branches and leaves are numerous, and body is attractive in appearance, beautiful texture, color and luster is pale red, strong but pliable in texture, free from insect pests, it is wear-resisting that corrosion resistant is withstand voltage, easy processing manufactures the choice wood of car and boat compartment, furniture, farm implements and building decoration product, is the pioneer tree species of afforestation and beautifies seeds.
But Spondias axillaris is female, male different strain seeds, cultivates maturation from seedling and begin really to need 8-10, female plant and the staminiferous plant of wild Spondias axillaris cannot be determined before this.If wild Spondias axillaris female plant is cultivated as Landscape Tree Species, ripe Spondias axillaris fruit easily injures pedestrian by a crashing object, fruit falls and is also easy to pedestrian is slipped behind street, and increase the labour intensity of sanitationman, make this valuable wild resource application in afforestation and Industry plantation be subject to severely restricts.Because the fruit of Spondias axillaris can be processed into Spondias axillaris cake, in the last few years, people use graft technology to cultivate fruit Spondias axillaris female plant and staminiferous plant, but the Spondias axillaris plant percent of grafting is low, labour intensity is large, cost is high, and its hereditary nature do not have cuttage seeding and seedling good.
Summary of the invention
In order to solve the deficiency of current wild Spondias axillaris in afforestation, the invention provides a kind of wild Spondias axillaris and becoming the method that artificial cultivation becomes Landscape Trees.The technical solution adopted for the present invention to solve the technical problems is: a kind of simple, that cost is low, survival rate is high, hereditary nature is good wild Spondias axillaris becomes the method that artificial cultivation becomes Landscape Trees, comprises following content.
The preparation of ground, (a) garden and slotting machine:
Ground, garden selects preceding crop to be the field of paddy rice, biological organic fertilizer and composite fertilizer mix according to the ratio of 100:1 when turning over make bed according to ground, cuttage garden standard by February, and make base manure in being manured into soil, March carries out weeding process to cutting bed, again by slotting machine scarifying after first quarter moon, press 25g/m simultaneously 2standard be sprinkled into Furadan control mole cricket, cutworm stool soil insect, on slotting machine, repave the broken yellow soil that one deck 2cm is thick during cuttage.
Choosing of (b) cuttage fringe bar:
In the suitable time get the domestic excellent wild Spondias axillaris tree tree crown middle and upper part robust growth in Chongyi County, Jiangxi Province, full without damage by disease and insect, lateral bud, connect between relatively evenly, 1 year old branch of raw lignification growing fine or give birth to semi-lignified branch then.
The clip of (c) cuttage fringe bar and process:
The clip of cuttage fringe bar: be cut into 2 above 6-8cm branch sections of joint by adopting the branch come, lower cut is 2-3cm below bud, upper cut is 1cm above bud, upper end cuts into flat mouth, and lower end cuts into 45 degree of angles, and otch wants level and smooth, each cuttings retains 1, top blade, blade cuts off the first half, and retain half leaf, the cuttings with terminal bud also can leave use less than 6cm;
The process of cuttage fringe bar:
1. the previous cleaning process of fringe bar: the fringe bar liquid detergent after adopting back to be cleaned and after soaking 10min, then use running water 30min.
2. fringe bar otch flows out the cleaning treatment of mucus: Spondias axillaris tree just easily oozes out a kind of mucus once there be injury region, if cleaning treatment is unclean, cuttage fringe bar not easily survives; Therefore also must again by 1. cleaning after fringe bar place 30min at normal temperatures and pressures, the otch of fringe bar can flow out mucus, then these mucus is cleaned up.
3. the process of root-growing agent: by the fringe bar after 2. cleaning up, then in the state's light naa root-growing agent solution being soaked in 1.6 ‰ after 2h, more totally stand-by with aseptic water washing.
(d) cuttage: carries out soil disinfection with 5 ‰ potassium permanganate solutions spraying slotting machines before cuttage, by fringe bar lower end insertion slotting machine during cuttage, the degree of depth is 3 ~ 4cm, above first nodal bud from bed surface 2cm, seeding row spacing is 8cm × 10cm, and cutting density is 125 strains/m 2, compacting bed surface after inserting, cuttage terminates rear clear water and sprays bed surface and irrigate, and notes making blade face to same direction, do not make blade overlapping, block mutually, affect photosynthesis, the fringe bar on the same day should be inserted the same day, finally took shed with the bamboo chip of 2m, covered polyethylene film heat and moisture preserving above; And above it 2 meters of adds double-deck shade net and shelters from heat or light to reduce direct sunlight.
Management after (e) cuttage:
Temperature and humidity management: with sprayer, blade is evenly squirted after cuttage, temperature of shed remains on 22 ~ 28 DEG C, relative moisture 80 ~ 90%, when temperature of shed is more than 3O DEG C, must spray cooling immediately; When in canopy, air humidity is less than 80%, moisturizing of spraying water in time, spray amount is not wilted to keep blade, is slightly moisteningly advisable, and crosses wetly easily to catch an illness;
Fertilising and weeding: after 1 month, cuttings healing and taking root, thin film can be lifted gradually, first sooner or later two ends, seedbed are raised, cover back in the morning, all lifted by film after 1 week and remove, spray rare nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer carry out foliar application depending on seedling growth situation, the growth along with nursery stock suitably strengthens consumption and extends the fertilising cycle; Enter September, spray potassium dihydrogen phosphate and promote seedling lignification, meanwhile, to the weeds in slotting machine, the fringe bar of non-cutting survival will be pulled out in time, strives water affect normal growth in order to avoid strive fertilizer with nursery stock;
The extermination of disease and insect pest, as found that there is the harm of the soil insect such as mole cricket, grub, available acephatemet missible oil 0.1% solution spray; After cutting is sprouted, for preventing infection process, the methyl-topsin solution of spray in every 7 days 1 0.5 concentration; And remove rot blade and diseased plant in time, spread with disease prevention.
(f) Nursery stock transplanting:
By watering, applying fertilizer, the control measures such as weeding and prevention and elimination of disease and pests, cuttage seeding can be germinateed autumn, and nursery stock can grow tall 2 ~ 4cm, and spring in next year well developed root system, can by 75 strains/m 2transplanting is cultivated, and Second Year nursery stock leading thread reaches 0.8 ~ 1.0cm, and high 60 ~ 120cm, can be used for afforestation;
It is characterized in that:
Wild Spondias axillaris tree in the choosing of described (b) cuttage fringe bar, must be that more than 8-10 is tall and big logical straight, branches and leaves be numerous, the Male wild-type Spondias axillaris tree that body is attractive in appearance;
In the choosing of described (b) cuttage fringe bar in the suitable time, be late May to early and middle ten days in June, continuous sunny is after five days, and the morning, 8-10 point chose cuttage fringe bar;
2. fringe bar otch in the clip of described (c) cuttage fringe bar and process flows out the cleaning treatment of mucus: be that the fringe bar after 1. cleaning is placed 30min at normal temperatures and pressures, otch Deng fringe bar flows out mucus, first use sterile water wash 2 times, use the Ethanol Treatment 20s of 70% again, by 0.1% mercuric chloride immersion treatment 8 minutes, period constantly shakes, then uses sterile water wash 5 times.
The invention has the beneficial effects as follows that the wild Spondias axillaris fringe bar due to cuttage all takes from the vegetative propagation of male plants wild Spondias axillaris tree, afforestation is all wild Spondias axillaris male plants after growing up, and solves the difficult problem that people cannot differentiate wild Spondias axillaris male plants and female plants at present from seedling stage to maturing stage.Simultaneously due to the cuttage technique that the present invention is in vegetative propagation technique, the genetic endowment of wild Spondias axillaris germ plasm resource more can be ensured.
The present invention is further illustrated below in conjunction with enforcement.
embodiment one
The present invention is that a kind of simple, that cost is low, survival rate is high, hereditary nature is good wild Spondias axillaris becomes the method that artificial cultivation becomes Landscape Trees, comprises following content:
The preparation of ground, (a) garden and slotting machine: ground, garden selects preceding crop to be the field of paddy rice, biological organic fertilizer and composite fertilizer mix according to the ratio of 100:1 when turning over make bed according to ground, cuttage garden standard by February, base manure is made in being manured into soil, March carries out weeding process to cutting bed, again by slotting machine scarifying after first quarter moon, press 25g/m simultaneously 2standard be sprinkled into Furadan control mole cricket, cutworm stool soil insect, on slotting machine, repave the broken yellow soil that one deck 2cm is thick during cuttage;
Choosing of (b) cuttage fringe bar: in the suitable time get the domestic excellent wild Spondias axillaris tree tree crown middle and upper part robust growth in Chongyi County, Jiangxi Province, full without damage by disease and insect, lateral bud, connect between relatively evenly, 1 year old branch of raw lignification growing fine or give birth to semi-lignified branch then;
The clip of (c) cuttage fringe bar and process:
The clip of cuttage fringe bar: be cut into 2 above 6-8cm branch sections of joint by adopting the branch come, lower cut is 2-3cm below bud, upper cut is 1cm above bud, upper end cuts into flat mouth, and lower end cuts into 45 degree of angles, and otch wants level and smooth, each cuttings retains 1, top blade, blade cuts off the first half, and retain half leaf, the cuttings with terminal bud also can leave use less than 6cm;
The process of cuttage fringe bar:
1. the previous cleaning process of fringe bar: the fringe bar liquid detergent after adopting back to be cleaned and after soaking 10min, then use running water 30min;
2. the fringe bar after 1. cleaning is placed 30min at normal temperatures and pressures, the otch of fringe bar can flow out mucus, first uses sterile water wash 2 times, then uses the Ethanol Treatment 20s of 70%, and by 0.1% mercuric chloride immersion treatment 8 minutes, period constantly shook, then uses sterile water wash 5 times;
3. the process of root-growing agent: by the fringe bar after 2. cleaning up, then in the state's light naa root-growing agent solution being soaked in 1.6 ‰ after 2h, more totally stand-by with aseptic water washing;
4, cuttage:
Carries out soil disinfection with 5 ‰ potassium permanganate solutions spraying slotting machines before cuttage, by fringe bar lower end insertion slotting machine during cuttage, the degree of depth is 3 ~ 4cm, above first nodal bud from bed surface 2cm, seeding row spacing is 8cm × 10cm, and cutting density is 125 strains/m 2, compacting bed surface after inserting, cuttage terminates rear clear water and sprays bed surface and irrigate, and notes not making blade overlapping, blocks mutually, affect photosynthesis.The fringe bar on the same day should be inserted the same day.Finally take shed with the bamboo chip of 2m, cover polyethylene film heat and moisture preserving above;
5, the management after cuttage:
(1) temperature and humidity management: with sprayer, blade is evenly squirted after cuttage, temperature of shed remains on 22 ~ 28 DEG C, relative moisture 80 ~ 90%, when temperature of shed is more than 3O DEG C, must spray cooling immediately; When in canopy, air humidity is less than 80%, moisturizing of spraying water in time, spray amount is not wilted to keep blade, is slightly moisteningly advisable, and crosses wetly easily to catch an illness;
(2) fertilizing and weeding: after 1 month, cuttings healing and taking root, can lift thin film gradually, and first sooner or later raised at two ends, seedbed, cover back in the morning, all lifted by film and remove after 1 week.Spray rare nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer depending on seedling growth situation and carry out foliar application, along with the growth of nursery stock suitably strengthens consumption; Enter September, spray potassium dihydrogen phosphate and promote seedling lignification, meanwhile, to the weeds in slotting machine, the fringe bar of non-cutting survival will be pulled out in time, strives water affect normal growth in order to avoid strive fertilizer with nursery stock;
(3) extermination of disease and insect pest, after cutting is sprouted, for preventing infection process, the methyl-topsin solution of spray in every 7 days 1 0.5 concentration, and remove rot blade and diseased plant in time, spread with disease prevention;
6, Nursery stock transplanting:
By watering, applying fertilizer, the control measures such as weeding and prevention and elimination of disease and pests, cuttage seeding can be germinateed autumn, and nursery stock can grow tall 2 ~ 4cm, and spring in next year well developed root system, can by 75 strains/m 2transplanting is cultivated, and Second Year nursery stock leading thread reaches 0.8 ~ 1.0cm, high 60 ~ 120cm, can be used for afforestation and Industry plantation construction afforestation.

Claims (1)

1. wild Spondias axillaris becomes the method that artificial cultivation becomes Landscape Trees, comprises following content:
The preparation of ground, (a) garden and slotting machine: ground, garden selects preceding crop to be the field of paddy rice, biological organic fertilizer and composite fertilizer mix according to the ratio of 100:1 when turning over make bed according to ground, cuttage garden standard by February, base manure is made in being manured into soil, March carries out weeding process to cutting bed, again by slotting machine scarifying after first quarter moon, press 25g/m simultaneously 2standard be sprinkled into Furadan control mole cricket, cutworm stool soil insect, on slotting machine, repave the broken yellow soil that one deck 2cm is thick during cuttage;
Choosing of (b) cuttage fringe bar: in the suitable time get the domestic excellent wild Spondias axillaris tree tree crown middle and upper part robust growth in Chongyi County, Jiangxi Province, full without damage by disease and insect, lateral bud, connect between relatively evenly, 1 year old branch of raw lignification growing fine or give birth to semi-lignified branch then;
The clip of (c) cuttage fringe bar and process:
The clip of cuttage fringe bar: be cut into 2 above 6-8cm branch sections of joint by adopting the branch come, lower cut is 2-3cm below bud, upper cut is 1cm above bud, upper end cuts into flat mouth, and lower end cuts into 45 degree of angles, and otch wants level and smooth, each cuttings retains 1, top blade, blade cuts off the first half, and retain half leaf, the cuttings with terminal bud also can leave use less than 6cm;
The process of cuttage fringe bar:
1. the previous cleaning process of fringe bar: the fringe bar liquid detergent after adopting back to be cleaned and after soaking 10min, then use running water 30min;
2. fringe bar otch flows out the cleaning treatment of mucus: Spondias axillaris tree just easily oozes out a kind of mucus once there be injury region, if cleaning treatment is unclean, cuttage fringe bar not easily survives; Therefore also must again by 1. cleaning after fringe bar place 30min at normal temperatures and pressures, the otch of fringe bar can flow out mucus, then these mucus is cleaned up;
3. the process of root-growing agent: by the fringe bar after 2. cleaning up, then in the state's light naa root-growing agent solution being soaked in 1.6 ‰ after 2h, more totally stand-by with aseptic water washing;
(d) cuttage: carries out soil disinfection with 5 ‰ potassium permanganate solutions spraying slotting machines before cuttage, by fringe bar lower end insertion slotting machine during cuttage, the degree of depth is 3 ~ 4cm, above first nodal bud from bed surface 2cm, seeding row spacing is 8cm × 10cm, and cutting density is 125 strains/m 2, compacting bed surface after inserting, cuttage terminates rear clear water and sprays bed surface and irrigate, and notes making blade face to same direction, do not make blade overlapping, block mutually, affect photosynthesis, the fringe bar on the same day should be inserted the same day, finally took shed with the bamboo chip of 2m, covered polyethylene film heat and moisture preserving above; And above it 2 meters of adds double-deck shade net and shelters from heat or light to reduce direct sunlight; Management after (e) cuttage:
Temperature and humidity management: with sprayer, blade is evenly squirted after cuttage, temperature of shed remains on 22 ~ 28 DEG C, relative moisture 80 ~ 90%, when temperature of shed is more than 3O DEG C, must spray cooling immediately; When in canopy, air humidity is less than 80%, moisturizing of spraying water in time, spray amount is not wilted to keep blade, is slightly moisteningly advisable, and crosses wetly easily to catch an illness;
Fertilising and weeding: after 1 month, cuttings healing and taking root, thin film can be lifted gradually, first sooner or later two ends, seedbed are raised, cover back in the morning, all lifted by film after 1 week and remove, spray rare nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer carry out foliar application depending on seedling growth situation, the growth along with nursery stock suitably strengthens consumption and extends the fertilising cycle; Enter September, spray potassium dihydrogen phosphate and promote seedling lignification, meanwhile, to the weeds in slotting machine, the fringe bar of non-cutting survival will be pulled out in time, strives water affect normal growth in order to avoid strive fertilizer with nursery stock;
The extermination of disease and insect pest, as found that there is the harm of the soil insect such as mole cricket, grub, available acephatemet missible oil 0.1% solution spray; After cutting is sprouted, for preventing infection process, the methyl-topsin solution of spray in every 7 days 1 0.5 concentration; And remove rot blade and diseased plant in time, spread with disease prevention;
(f) Nursery stock transplanting:
By watering, applying fertilizer, the control measures such as weeding and prevention and elimination of disease and pests, cuttage seeding can be germinateed autumn, and nursery stock can grow tall 2 ~ 4cm, and spring in next year well developed root system, can by 75 strains/m 2transplanting is cultivated, and Second Year nursery stock leading thread reaches 0.8 ~ 1.0cm, and high 60 ~ 120cm, can be used for afforestation;
It is characterized in that:
Wild Spondias axillaris tree in the choosing of described (b) cuttage fringe bar, must be that more than 8-10 is tall and big logical straight, branches and leaves be numerous, the Male wild-type Spondias axillaris tree that body is attractive in appearance;
In the choosing of described (b) cuttage fringe bar in the suitable time, be late May to early and middle ten days in June, continuous sunny is after five days, and the morning, 8-10 point chose cuttage fringe bar;
2. fringe bar otch in the clip of described (c) cuttage fringe bar and process flows out the cleaning treatment of mucus: be that the fringe bar after 1. cleaning is placed 30min at normal temperatures and pressures, otch Deng fringe bar flows out mucus, first use sterile water wash 2 times, use the Ethanol Treatment 20s of 70% again, by 0.1% mercuric chloride immersion treatment 8 minutes, period constantly shakes, then uses sterile water wash 5 times.
CN201510078054.4A 2015-02-14 2015-02-14 A kind of wild Fructus Choerospondiatis becomes the method that artificial culture becomes Landscape Trees Active CN104620828B (en)

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CN105052653A (en) * 2015-07-27 2015-11-18 合肥一诺生物科技有限公司 Seedling growing method for tissue culture seedlings of choerospondias axillaris
CN105123388A (en) * 2015-07-27 2015-12-09 合肥一诺生物科技有限公司 Choerospondias tree cultivation method
CN106718747A (en) * 2016-12-14 2017-05-31 中国林业科学研究院热带林业研究所 A kind of cuttage and seedling culture method of the lignifying middle part branch of right cylinder fruit tree
CN106982622A (en) * 2017-03-09 2017-07-28 中国林业科学研究院资源昆虫研究所 The cuttage expanding propagation method of rattan jujube
CN107258448A (en) * 2017-07-25 2017-10-20 合肥仙之峰农业科技有限公司 A kind of high-yield planting method of jujube tree
CN107318566A (en) * 2017-07-25 2017-11-07 安徽金源农林专业合作社 Jujube tree cottage method
CN108012685A (en) * 2018-01-04 2018-05-11 冯阳春 A kind of seedling-wood breeding method

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CN103650836A (en) * 2013-10-16 2014-03-26 江西齐云山食品有限公司 High-position grafting method of choerospondias axillaries tree
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Cited By (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN105052653A (en) * 2015-07-27 2015-11-18 合肥一诺生物科技有限公司 Seedling growing method for tissue culture seedlings of choerospondias axillaris
CN105123388A (en) * 2015-07-27 2015-12-09 合肥一诺生物科技有限公司 Choerospondias tree cultivation method
CN105052653B (en) * 2015-07-27 2017-11-07 枣阳市灵鹿酒业有限公司 A kind of method for culturing seedlings of Spondias axillaris tissue-cultured seedling
CN106718747A (en) * 2016-12-14 2017-05-31 中国林业科学研究院热带林业研究所 A kind of cuttage and seedling culture method of the lignifying middle part branch of right cylinder fruit tree
CN106982622A (en) * 2017-03-09 2017-07-28 中国林业科学研究院资源昆虫研究所 The cuttage expanding propagation method of rattan jujube
CN106982622B (en) * 2017-03-09 2019-10-29 中国林业科学研究院资源昆虫研究所 The cuttage expanding propagation method of rattan jujube
CN107258448A (en) * 2017-07-25 2017-10-20 合肥仙之峰农业科技有限公司 A kind of high-yield planting method of jujube tree
CN107318566A (en) * 2017-07-25 2017-11-07 安徽金源农林专业合作社 Jujube tree cottage method
CN108012685A (en) * 2018-01-04 2018-05-11 冯阳春 A kind of seedling-wood breeding method

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