CN102511259A - Blueberry planting method - Google Patents

Blueberry planting method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102511259A
CN102511259A CN2011103745385A CN201110374538A CN102511259A CN 102511259 A CN102511259 A CN 102511259A CN 2011103745385 A CN2011103745385 A CN 2011103745385A CN 201110374538 A CN201110374538 A CN 201110374538A CN 102511259 A CN102511259 A CN 102511259A
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Prior art keywords
blueberry
planting
fruit
soil
root
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CN2011103745385A
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Chinese (zh)
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桂立新
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JINZHAI COUNTY DABIESHAN FOREST CRAFT VEGETABLE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT Co Ltd
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JINZHAI COUNTY DABIESHAN FOREST CRAFT VEGETABLE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT Co Ltd
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Priority to CN2011103745385A priority Critical patent/CN102511259A/en
Publication of CN102511259A publication Critical patent/CN102511259A/en
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    • Y02P60/216

Abstract

The invention discloses a blueberry planting method. Ripe blueberries are obtained through soil selection, field planting and orchard building, seedling planting, manure and water management, pest and disease prevention and treatment, harvesting in batches and packaging and transportation. The blueberry planting method enables the blueberries to be successfully planted in the Dabie Mountain area, the survival rate is over 95%, the yield is 1,000-1,500kg, the seedlings are bred through tissue culture and non-test tube rapid-propagation technologies, the root taking rate and the survival rate are both over 95%, a blueberry high-yield culture technology is explored, and a foundation is laid for popularization plantation of the blueberries. The blueberries can green barren mountains slopes, beautify the natural environment, conserve a water source, avoid earth-surface water loss and soil erosion, and are favorable for recovery of a low-hill ecosystem.

Description

A kind of kind method for planting of blueberry
Technical field
The present invention relates to the kind method for planting field of a plant species, exactly is a kind of kind method for planting of blueberry.
Background technology
Blueberry is claimed blue berry again, and the formal name used at school cowberry is the little berry of Ericaceae; Fruit is a bluish violet, and pulp is fine and smooth, and sweet acid is tasty and refreshing; Edible rate reaches height, have make eye bright, prevent that cerebral nerve is aging, enhancing human immune, unique health-care efficacy such as anticancer, be described as the novel rare plasmoid fruit kind of " king of world's fruit " and the international third generation; Be the top grade processed food raw material that integrates nutrition, keeps healthy and eat food raw, the tender succulence of its fruit, local flavor is pure and sweet; Except that the organic acid that contains general fruit, vitamin and mineral matter, also contain abundant unsaturated fatty acid, ellagic acid and Mn, CN, K, Fe etc.; Vitamin K i and vitamin B complex content are particularly outstanding; Especially anthocyanidin content is the highest in fruit, the vegetables, and the anthocyanin composition that contains in the anthocyan material has multiple functions such as beautifying face and moistering lotion, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, anti-ageing, short metabolism, raising immunity to human body.Planting blueberry has vast market prospect.
Blueberry is suitable on moistening acidity, subacidity soil, growing, and acid land resources and good growing weather that the county is abundant are for the production of exploitation blueberry provides natural basis richly endowed by nature; Blueberry plant husbandry is the economic fruit tree plant husbandry of a long-acting benefit, high repayment, and disposable cultivation can be benefited 40~50 years, not only can satisfy the local market demand, and fresh fruit and addition product also can be exported goods and earned foreign currency.
Summary of the invention
The objective of the invention is to existing defective, provide that a kind of energy consumption is lower, the kind method for planting of the blueberry of the purity of ammonia.
Above-mentioned purpose realizes through following scheme:
A kind of kind method for planting of blueberry is characterized in that:
(1), soil selects: loosing soil, soil layer is deep, ventilation is good, the content of organic matter >=2%, and soil pH value is between 4.0~5.5;
(2), field planting builds the garden: select the lagophthalmos blueberry, the seedling of kinds such as south high clump blueberry, the blueberry plantation needs the kind of field planting more than 3; Except that main breed, also need other kinds as pollinizers, the base is after ploughing bedding; The seeding row spacing of field planting is pressed about lagophthalmos blueberry 1.2m * 1.5m, about the high clump blueberry 1.5m * 1.5m of south, about the high clump blueberry 1.5m * 1.5m of north, dig the planting pit about 50cm * 50cm * 40cm; Wherein refer to the degree of depth of planting pit about 40cm; Before the seedling growth, put into acidic matrix 300kg~500kg such as pine needle or wood sawdust in per 667 square metres of left and right sides planting pits, base manure can not executed; Or use farmyard manure, about per 667 square metres of left and right sides 1000kg;
(3), plant seedlings: select more than the height of seedling 50cm that cultivated in 2 years, in the strong sprout that stem diameter 0.6cm is above, its nursery stock branch is many, and branch is sturdy, well developed root system, plant is anosis healthy and strong nursery stock that nothing hinders; Be planted in early spring twig sprout preceding, at the beginning of promptly 2 months~at the beginning of 3 months or stop growing autumn the back, be the mid-November~carry out by the end of December; Should in the ditch cave, insert 20cm left and right sides mellow soil above the base manure when planting; Seedling root must guard against with fertilizer and is contacted, and after the field planting, in time waters sufficient normal root water; The general intertillage of the cultivation degree of depth is advisable with 5cm~10cm, and farming instrument height generally is no more than 15cm, and is annual from monthly carrying out in early spring to 8, and every year, clear ploughing was advisable for 2~3 times, clear cultivated unfavorable to surviving the winter after autumn has set in;
(4), water and fertilizer management: employing is spreaded manuer in holes to soil, and acupoint depth is about 10cm, perhaps carries out foliar spray; Apply fertilizer every year 2 times; Fertilising for the first time the mid-April~SPRING WHEAT BEFORE AND AFTER FLOWERING in the first tenday period of a month in May, after fruit harvesting finishes, promptly carry out late August~mid-September for the second time; Cutting orchard and childhood the orchard should remain optimum moisture condition: reach in the orchard soil maximum water holding capacity 60%~70%; The bearing orchard and the full bearing period should reduce water supply before fruit development stage and fruit maturation; Behind the fruit harvesting, recover the righttest water supply, make to keep soil moisture content to return to 60%~70% in the garden; Reduce water supply season in the mid-autumn to late fall, is beneficial to plant and in time gets into dormancy; Only need cut off bud and a small amount of too thin and delicate branch or sprig group to the treelet that takes off pot transplanting; To the nursery stock of balled transplanting not, remove and dredge except that bud, also need dredge and remove more small and weak relatively branch; Dredge to remove tree crown everywhere thin and delicate branch and because of the weak gradually weak branch of result; Retraction is weak and by the substituted advantage branch of innovation group group because of the result, dredge and remove sick branch, deadwood, intersection branch, near overlapping;
(5), the extermination of disease and insect pest: late November combines winter pruning, wipes out disease branch, worm branch, weeds a garden, and eliminates the sick worm that survives the winter, and combines to plough deeply the winter in December and cuts, and soil is ploughed deeply about 20cm, eliminates the insect that survives the winter in the soil; The blueberry fructescence; Mode with bird prevention net or scarecrow, electric bird-scaring unit, firecrackers is driven birds, the mid or late April~May early and middle ten days, using concentration is 400~600 times of liquid controls of carbendazim of about 50% 2 times; 2 minor ticks 10~15 days; In mid or late August~October, using concentration is that 400~600 times of liquid of carbendazim of about 50% or 1000~1200 times of liquid of bromo fluoride chrysanthemum grease of about 2.5% mix control 1~2 time
(6), gather in batches: the blue berry of gathering in inflorescence, bloom order have have earlier after; The maturing stage of fruit is inconsistent, gather in batches, when fruit surface by initial dark green; Become redness gradually; Ripe when being transformed into bluish violet to atropurpureus again, gather once general 2~3 days full bearing periods, and just fruit was gathered once with end 4~6 days phases of fruit;
(7), packed and transported: the blueberry fruit is in packing, transportation; Follow inner wrapping, multi-level, the principle that interspaces, push less, keep away high temperature, gently jolt; Dress fruit container adopts more shallow ventilative basket basket, carton, fruit tray etc., and marketing fresh is eaten the carton that fruit is selected the polystyrene box of air-vent for use or made certain specification raw, and specification is that every box-packed fruit is no more than 1000 grams; Under normal temperature condition; It is 2~3 days that the fruit of gathering is deposited the shelf-life, and for prolonging storage period and supply time, fresh fruit should carry out being housed in after low temperature storage or the quick-frozen below-18 ℃.
The kind method for planting of described a kind of blueberry is characterized in that: seedling-cultivating method before the garden is built in described blueberry field planting has two kinds of A or B, can select wherein a kind of arbitrarily:
A, place indoor cultivation about 5~7 days earlier the blueberry maternal plant; Spray the pollution rate of a bactericide when reducing initial culture during this time every day; Get the simple bud branch 1.0~1.5cm of band tender leaf, remove terminal bud, flushing is 20~30 minutes under sterile water or running water; 0.5% left and right sides bromogeramine sterilization 12-18 minute, on superclean bench with 0.1% mercuric chloride sterilization 10 minutes; Behind the aseptic water washing 4~5 times; Draw residual drop on the stem with aseptic filter paper; Excision back, stem end incision 1.5 millimeter places is inserted in MS+0.6~ascorbic medium of 0.8 mg/litre ZT+0.4-0.6 mg/litre, and wherein the vitamin B1 in the MS medium is the 0.3-0.5 mg/litre, inositol 90-110 mg/litre; PH value 5.0~5.3 places and carries out illumination cultivation under the 2000~3000Lx of culturing room;
When blueberry test-tube plantlet length to 5~8cm; Can downcut in the proliferated culture medium that is inoculated in MS+0.5~2 mg/litre ZT+0.2 mg/litre NAA the vitaminB10 .4 mg/litre in the MS medium wherein, inositol 100 mg/litre; PH5.0~5.3; Being positioned over cultivation temperature is 25 ℃ ± 2 ℃, and light intensity is 2500Lx, and the photoperiod is to carry out illumination cultivation in the culturing room under the condition in 15 hours;
Long during when the blueberry test-tube plantlet to the 2cm left and right sides, it is transferred on the root media of 1/2WPM+0.5 mg/litre IBA carries out illumination cultivation, sucrose 15 grams per liters in the medium, agar 3 grams per liters, pH value 5.0;
With blueberry test-tube plantlet twist-off closure in culturing room, room temperature was placed 2~3 days before transplanting, after seedling is taken out in the bottle; With clear water the agar of test-tube plantlet root etc. is cleaned, inserted in refining seedbed or the nutritive cube, note reducing root damage as far as possible; Matrix adopts perlite, vermiculite and the perlitic mixture of vermiculite to mix with 1: 1: 1; Transplant in little shed sealing heat and moisture preserving, the plantlet growth of can getting well, every at a distance from 2 all pourings 1 time in the transplanting process;
B, in intelligent greenhouse, to set up with the perlite be matrix and the fast propagating seedling bed that adds a spot of peat composed of rotten mosses, simultaneously matrix carried out acidification, promptly sprays a spot of ferrous sulfate, transfers to 4.0~4.8 to pH value for best; Getting then the lagophthalmos blueberry garden with the branch section semi-lignified of 2~3 leaves of giving birth to healthy and strong no damage by disease and insect blue is material, and getting length is the stripped material of 3~4cm, and lower cut is apart from about the bud 0.5cm; Gradient about 30 degree is tiltedly cut; Upper cut is located straight snips apart from about bud 1cm, handle the root-growing agent of the stripped material of obtaining about with 1000ppm about 1 hour, and handling the back is stripped material cuttage on the fast propagating seedling bed of matrix to perlite; Adjust to pot-life; The seedbed moisture Control behind wound healing, transfers to 70%~80% with seedbed moisture about 90%; Seedbed moisture is transferred to 50%~60% after root once is longer, regular sterilizing in the seedbed in the process of Cheng Miao; The fine morning 10 up at 5 o'clock in afternoon; Note the coordination control of moisture and temperature in the greenhouse; Open ventilation equipment, guarantee well-ventilated in the greenhouse, to reduce the air humidity in the greenhouse; Handle about 1 hour with about 100,000 volts high-pressure electrostatic every day, gets final product to such an extent that rooting rate can reach the root system about 95%.
The kind method for planting of described a kind of blueberry is characterized in that: lagophthalmos blueberry root system is tiny, again the unrooted hair; Absorption rich water difficulty, the seedlings root growth requires soil organic matter content high, loose good permeability; Transplant and preferably be chosen in cloudy day or fine morning, carry out at dusk, the seedling after taking root is interlaced in cutting bed; Firmly too not violent during lifting, in order to avoid pull apart root system; Blueberry root system unrooted hair absorbs the rich water difficulty, hoes up weeds 5~8 times in 1 year, before fine 10 o'clock or spray irrigation after at 5 o'clock in afternoon.
The kind method for planting of described a kind of blueberry; It is characterized in that: P in soil H value reduces pH value greater than something must be done at 5.5 o'clock, and common method is dispensing Cosan or aluminum sulfate, and P in soil H value reaches at 6 o'clock; Per 667 square metres apply Cosan 90kg or aluminum sulfate 540kg; It evenly is sprinkled into full garden mould earth, ploughs deeply the 15cm mixing, utilize acidic matrix such as pine needle, wood sawdust and mashed bark to mix simultaneously and use.
The kind method for planting of described a kind of blueberry is characterized in that: transplant about 45 days winters in the step (4), 40 days summers left and right sides rooting and transplant.
The kind method for planting of described a kind of blueberry is characterized in that: the fertilizer of using is main with pine needle humus, farmyard manure and the compoiste fertilizer that uses comprehensive nutrition, and the ratio of compoiste fertilizer nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium is generally 1: 0.8-1.2: 0.8-1.2; In to soil application, lack certain element symptom according to fruit tree, contain certain first fertilizer as a kind of additional fertilization mode through foliage-spray.
The kind method for planting of described a kind of blueberry; It is characterized in that: in the fertilising, be main with quick-acting fertilizer for the first time, about the per 667 square metres of 50kg of the available dish cake that becomes thoroughly decomposed; Add about the per 667 square metres of 20kg of high-quality composite fertilizer of total nutrient about 40%; Be main with fertilizer for the second time, the per 667 square metres of 1000~1500kg of well-rotted farmyard manure add about the per 667 square metres of 30kg of high-quality composite fertilizer of total nutrient about 40%.
The kind method for planting of described a kind of blueberry is characterized in that: gently the back is heavy in retraction bough elder generation, promptly bounces back 1/3~1/2 earlier, when waiting bough that bounces back after upgrading weak once more, strengthens the retraction dynamics, cuts off 2/3, even wipes out near the ground.
Beneficial effect of the present invention is:
The plantation blueberry in the Da Bie Mountain area of success, survival rate reaches more than 95%, and output reaches 2000-3000 jin; Utilize tissue culture and non-tube rapid propagation technology to breed seedling, rooting rate and survival rate reach more than 95%, explore the blueberry high-yield culture technique; For the blueberry popularizing planting lays the first stone, the plantation blueberry can planting trees on barren hills, barren hill, beautify natural environment; Water conservation prevents face of land water and soil loss, helps to repair the low mound ecosystem in the degeneration.
Embodiment
: embodiment 1:
A kind of kind method for planting of blueberry is characterized in that:
(1), soil selects: loosing soil, soil layer is deep, ventilation is good, the content of organic matter >=2%, and soil pH value is between 4.0~5.5;
(2), field planting builds the garden: select the lagophthalmos blueberry, the seedling of kinds such as south high clump blueberry, the blueberry plantation needs the kind of field planting more than 3; Except that main breed, also need other kinds as pollinizers, the base is after ploughing bedding; The seeding row spacing of field planting is pressed about lagophthalmos blueberry 1.2m * 1.5m, about the high clump blueberry 1.5m * 1.5m of south, about the high clump blueberry 1.5m * 1.5m of north, dig the planting pit about 50cm * 50cm * 40cm; Wherein refer to the degree of depth of planting pit about 40cm; Before the seedling growth, put into acidic matrix 300kg~500kg such as pine needle or wood sawdust in per 667 square metres of left and right sides planting pits, base manure can not executed; Or use farmyard manure, about per 667 square metres of left and right sides 1000kg;
(3), plant seedlings: select more than the height of seedling 50cm that cultivated in 2 years, in the strong sprout that stem diameter 0.6cm is above, its nursery stock branch is many, and branch is sturdy, well developed root system, plant is anosis healthy and strong nursery stock that nothing hinders; Be planted in early spring twig sprout preceding, at the beginning of promptly 2 months~at the beginning of 3 months or stop growing autumn the back, be the mid-November~carry out by the end of December; Should in the ditch cave, insert 20cm left and right sides mellow soil above the base manure when planting; Seedling root must guard against with fertilizer and is contacted, and after the field planting, in time waters sufficient normal root water; The general intertillage of the cultivation degree of depth is advisable with 5cm~10cm, and farming instrument height generally is no more than 15cm, and is annual from monthly carrying out in early spring to 8, and every year, clear ploughing was advisable for 2~3 times, clear cultivated unfavorable to surviving the winter after autumn has set in;
(4), water and fertilizer management: employing is spreaded manuer in holes to soil, and acupoint depth is about 10cm, perhaps carries out foliar spray; Apply fertilizer every year 2 times; Fertilising for the first time the mid-April~SPRING WHEAT BEFORE AND AFTER FLOWERING in the first tenday period of a month in May, after fruit harvesting finishes, promptly carry out late August~mid-September for the second time; Cutting orchard and childhood the orchard should remain optimum moisture condition: reach in the orchard maximum amount of water 60%~70%; The bearing orchard and the full bearing period should reduce water supply before fruit development stage and fruit maturation; Behind the fruit harvesting, recover the righttest water supply, make to keep the water yield to return to 60%~70% in the garden; Reduce water supply season in the mid-autumn to late fall, is beneficial to plant and in time gets into dormancy; Only need cut off bud and a small amount of too thin and delicate branch or sprig group to the treelet that takes off pot transplanting; To the nursery stock of balled transplanting not, remove and dredge except that bud, also need dredge and remove more small and weak relatively branch; Dredge to remove tree crown everywhere thin and delicate branch and because of the weak gradually weak branch of result; Retraction is weak and by the substituted advantage branch of innovation group group because of the result, dredge and remove sick branch, deadwood, intersection branch, near overlapping;
(5), the extermination of disease and insect pest: late November combines winter pruning, wipes out disease branch, worm branch, weeds a garden, and eliminates the sick worm that survives the winter, and combines to plough deeply the winter in December and cuts, and soil is ploughed deeply about 20cm, eliminates the insect that survives the winter in the soil; The blueberry fructescence; Mode with bird prevention net or scarecrow, electric bird-scaring unit, firecrackers is driven birds, the mid or late April~May early and middle ten days, using concentration is 400~600 times of liquid controls of carbendazim of about 50% 2 times; 2 minor ticks 10~15 days; In mid or late August~October, using concentration is that 400~600 times of liquid of carbendazim of about 50% or 1000~1200 times of liquid of bromo fluoride chrysanthemum grease of about 2.5% mix control 1~2 time
(6), gather in batches: the blue berry of gathering in inflorescence, bloom order have have earlier after; The maturing stage of fruit is inconsistent, gather in batches, when fruit surface by initial dark green; Become redness gradually; Ripe when being transformed into bluish violet to atropurpureus again, gather once general 2~3 days full bearing periods, and just fruit was gathered once with end 4~6 days phases of fruit;
(7), packed and transported: the blueberry fruit is in packing, transportation; Follow inner wrapping, multi-level, the principle that interspaces, push less, keep away high temperature, gently jolt; Dress fruit container adopts more shallow ventilative basket basket, carton, fruit tray etc., and marketing fresh is eaten the carton that fruit is selected the polystyrene box of air-vent for use or made certain specification raw, and specification is that every box-packed fruit is no more than 1000 grams; Under normal temperature condition; It is 2~3 days that the fruit of gathering is deposited the shelf-life, and for prolonging storage period and supply time, fresh fruit should carry out being housed in after low temperature storage or the quick-frozen below-18 ℃.
The kind method for planting of described a kind of blueberry is characterized in that: seedling-cultivating method before the garden is built in described blueberry field planting has two kinds of A or B, can select wherein a kind of arbitrarily:
A, place indoor cultivation about 5~7 days earlier the blueberry maternal plant; Spray the pollution rate of a bactericide when reducing initial culture during this time every day; Get the simple bud branch 1.0~1.5cm of band tender leaf, remove terminal bud, flushing is 20~30 minutes under sterile water or running water; 0.5% left and right sides bromogeramine sterilization 12-18 minute, on superclean bench with 0.1% mercuric chloride sterilization 10 minutes; Behind the aseptic water washing 4~5 times; Draw residual drop on the stem with aseptic filter paper; Excision back, stem end incision 1.5 millimeter places is inserted in MS+0.6~ascorbic medium of 0.8 mg/litre ZT+0.4-0.6 mg/litre, and wherein the vitamin B1 in the MS medium is the 0.3-0.5 mg/litre, inositol 90-110 mg/litre; PH value 5.0~5.3 places and carries out illumination cultivation under the 2000~3000Lx of culturing room;
When blueberry test-tube plantlet length to 5~8cm; Can downcut in the proliferated culture medium that is inoculated in MS+0.5~2 mg/litre ZT+0.2 mg/litre NAA the vitaminB10 .4 mg/litre in the MS medium wherein, inositol 100 mg/litre; PH5.0~5.3; Being positioned over cultivation temperature is 25 ℃ ± 2 ℃, and light intensity is 2500Lx, and the photoperiod is to carry out illumination cultivation in the culturing room under the condition in 15 hours;
Long during when the blueberry test-tube plantlet to the 2cm left and right sides, it is transferred on the root media of 1/2WPM+0.5 mg/litre IBA carries out illumination cultivation, sucrose 15 grams per liters in the medium, agar 3 grams per liters, pH value 5.0;
With blueberry test-tube plantlet twist-off closure in culturing room, room temperature was placed 2~3 days before transplanting, after seedling is taken out in the bottle; With clear water the agar of test-tube plantlet root etc. is cleaned, inserted in refining seedbed or the nutritive cube, note reducing root damage as far as possible; Matrix adopts perlite, vermiculite and the perlitic mixture of vermiculite to mix with 1: 1: 1; Transplant in little shed sealing heat and moisture preserving, the plantlet growth of can getting well, every at a distance from 2 all pourings 1 time in the transplanting process;
B, in intelligent greenhouse, to set up with the perlite be matrix and the fast propagating seedling bed that adds a spot of peat composed of rotten mosses, simultaneously matrix carried out acidification, promptly sprays a spot of ferrous sulfate, transfers to 4.0~4.8 to pH value for best; Getting then the lagophthalmos blueberry garden with the branch section semi-lignified of 2~3 leaves of giving birth to healthy and strong no damage by disease and insect blue is material, and getting length is the stripped material of 3~4cm, and lower cut is apart from about the bud 0.5cm; Gradient about 30 degree is tiltedly cut; Upper cut is located straight snips apart from about bud 1cm, handle the root-growing agent of the stripped material of obtaining about with 1000ppm about 1 hour, and handling the back is stripped material cuttage on the fast propagating seedling bed of matrix to perlite; Open calculator and adjust to pot-life; Moisture Control behind wound healing, transfers to 70%~80% with moisture about 90%; Moisture is transferred to 50%~60% after root once is longer, regular sterilizing in the seedbed in the process of Cheng Miao; The fine morning 10 up at 5 o'clock in afternoon; Note the coordination control of moisture and temperature in the greenhouse; Open ventilation equipment, guarantee well-ventilated in the greenhouse, to reduce the air humidity in the greenhouse; Handle about 1 hour with about 100,000 volts high-pressure electrostatic every day, gets final product to such an extent that rooting rate can reach the root system about 95%.
The kind method for planting of described a kind of blueberry is characterized in that: lagophthalmos blueberry root system is tiny, again the unrooted hair; Absorption rich water difficulty, the seedlings root growth requires soil organic matter content high, loose good permeability; Transplant and preferably be chosen in cloudy day or fine morning, carry out at dusk, the seedling after taking root is interlaced in cutting bed; Firmly too not violent during lifting, in order to avoid pull apart root system; Blueberry root system unrooted hair absorbs the rich water difficulty, hoes up weeds 5~8 times in 1 year, before fine 10 o'clock or spray irrigation after at 5 o'clock in afternoon.
The kind method for planting of described a kind of blueberry; It is characterized in that: P in soil H value reduces pH value greater than something must be done at 5.5 o'clock, and common method is dispensing Cosan or aluminum sulfate, and P in soil H value reaches at 6 o'clock; Per 667 square metres apply Cosan 90kg or aluminum sulfate 540kg; It evenly is sprinkled into full garden mould earth, ploughs deeply the 15cm mixing, utilize acidic matrix such as pine needle, wood sawdust and mashed bark to mix simultaneously and use.
The kind method for planting of described a kind of blueberry is characterized in that: transplant about 45 days winters in the step (4), 40 days summers left and right sides rooting and transplant.
The kind method for planting of described a kind of blueberry is characterized in that: the fertilizer of using is main with pine needle humus, farmyard manure and the compoiste fertilizer that uses comprehensive nutrition, and the ratio of compoiste fertilizer nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium is generally 1: 0.8-1.2: 0.8-1.2; In to soil application, lack certain element symptom according to fruit tree, contain certain first fertilizer as a kind of additional fertilization mode through foliage-spray.
The kind method for planting of described a kind of blueberry; It is characterized in that: in the fertilising, be main with quick-acting fertilizer for the first time, about the per 667 square metres of 50kg of the available dish cake that becomes thoroughly decomposed; Add about the per 667 square metres of 20kg of high-quality composite fertilizer of total nutrient about 40%; Be main with fertilizer for the second time, the per 667 square metres of 1000~1500kg of well-rotted farmyard manure add about the per 667 square metres of 30kg of high-quality composite fertilizer of total nutrient about 40%.
The kind method for planting of described a kind of blueberry is characterized in that: gently the back is heavy in retraction bough elder generation, promptly bounces back 1/3~1/2 earlier, when waiting bough that bounces back after upgrading weak once more, strengthens the retraction dynamics, cuts off 2/3, even wipes out near the ground.
Embodiment 2:
1 base is selected
1.1 environmental requirement
The base should be away from city and traffic main artery; Beyond highway 50m; 3km is with interior direct pollution source (dischargings of " three wastes ") and the zone, indirect pollution source (pollutions at the uptake or the upper reaches) that does not have industrial and mining enterprises on every side, and environmental requirement meets the regulation of GB/T 18407.2.
1.2 ecological requirement
Sunny, more than the low temperature 450h~850h of winter below 7.2 ℃, loosing soil, soil layer is deep, ventilation is good, the content of organic matter >=2%, and P in soil H value is between 4.0~5.5.
1.3 soil melioration
P in soil H value reduces pH value greater than something must be done at 5.5 o'clock; Common method is dispensing Cosan or aluminum sulfate, and P in soil H value reaches at 6 o'clock, and per 667 square metres apply Cosan 90kg or aluminum sulfate 540kg; It evenly is sprinkled into full garden mould earth; Plough deeply the 15cm mixing, acidic matrix such as pine needle also capable of using simultaneously, wood sawdust and mashed bark mix to be used, and effect is better.
2 build the garden
2.1 kind is selected
Select the lagophthalmos blueberry of suitable Dabie Mountain area plantation, kinds such as south high clump blueberry.The lagophthalmos blueberry is built the garden need prepare pollinizers.Need the kind of field planting more than 3 in the general blueberry plantation.
2.2, whole ground
Seeding row spacing lagophthalmos blueberry 1.2m * 1.5m, south high clump blueberry 1.5m * 1.5m are pressed in the base after ploughing bedding, north high clump blueberry 1.5m * 1.5m digs 50cm * 50cm * 40cm (degree of depth) planting pit.
2.3 filler and base manure
Before the seedling growth, prevent into acidic matrix 300kg~500kg such as pine needle or wood sawdusts in per 667 square metres of planting pits or the field planting ditch.Base manure can not executed, or uses farmyard manure, per 667 square metres of 1000kg.
2.4 plant
2.4.1 seedling quality
Select more than the height of seedling 50cm of cultivation in 2 years, in the strong sprout that stem diameter 0.6cm is above, its nursery stock branch is many, sturdy, the well developed root system of branch.The healthy and strong nursery stock that nothing that plant is anosis is hindered.
2.4.2 plant
Before early spring, twig sprouted (at the beginning of 2 months~at the beginning of 3 months) or the back that stops growing autumn (mid-November~by the end of December) carry out, should in the ditch cave, insert 20cm mellow soil above the base manure when planting, seedling root must guard against with fertilizer and is contacted, and after the field planting, in time waters sufficient normal root water.
3 clay fertilizer water managements
3.1 soil management
3.1.1 clean tillage
The general intertillage of the sandy loam cultivation degree of depth is advisable with 5cm~10cm, and farming instrument height generally is no more than 15cm.Annual from monthly carrying out in early spring to 8, every year, clear ploughing was advisable for 2~3 times, and be clear cultivated unfavorable to surviving the winter after autumn has set in.
3.1.2 sod culture
Adopt in the ranks sward, the interior weeding of row, have maintenance soil moisture, improve the effect of fruit amount.
3.2 fertilising
3.2.1 principle
With fertilizer is main, and chemical fertilizer is auxilliary, balance fertilizing.Pressing NY/T496 carries out.
3.2.2 fertilizer type
Farmyard manure and compoiste fertilizer to use comprehensive nutrition are main, compoiste fertilizer nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P 2O 5), potassium (K 2O) ratio is generally 1: 1: 1.
3.2.3 fertilizing method
Relatively loose or sand adopts full garden broadcast application to soil; Soil and clay are adopted ditch spread or spread manuer in holes, and ditch, the general loam of acupoint depth are 10cm, and clay is 15cm~20cm; Also can carry out foliar spray, in to soil application, lack certain element symptom, contain certain first fertilizer as a kind of additional fertilization mode through foliage-spray according to fruit tree.Apply fertilizer every year 2 times,, finish back (late August~mid-September) at fruit harvesting for the second time and carry out in SPRING WHEAT BEFORE AND AFTER FLOWERING (mid-April~the first tenday period of a month in May).Be main with quick-acting fertilizer for the first time, the per 667 square metres of 50kg of the available dish cake that becomes thoroughly decomposed add 40% the per 667 square metres of 20kg of high-quality composite fertilizer.Be main with fertilizer for the second time, the per 667 square metres of 1000~1500kg of well-rotted farmyard manure add 40% the per 667 square metres of 30kg of high-quality composite fertilizer.
3.3 water management
Generally speaking; Cutting orchard and childhood the orchard should remain optimum moisture condition: reach that maximum amount of water is 60%~70% in the orchard, the bearing orchard and the full bearing period should reduce the control water supply before fruit development stage and fruit maturation, behind the fruit harvesting; Recover the righttest water supply; Make to keep the water yield to return to 60%~70% in the garden, reduce water supply season in the mid-autumn to late fall, is beneficial to plant and in time gets into dormancy.
4 prunings
4.1 period
Can be divided into winter pruning and summer pruning the period of pruning, and its pruning degree is that master, summer are auxilliary with the winter.
4.2 method
4.2.1 tree-pruning childhood
Only need cut off bud and a small amount of too thin and delicate branch or sprig group to the treelet that takes off pot transplanting.To the nursery stock of balled transplanting not, remove and dredge except that bud, also need dredge and remove more small and weak relatively branch.Field planting is become first growth season of back alive, cut less or do not cut as far as possible, with rapid expansion tree crown and branches and leaves amount.To preceding 3 years treelet mainly is to be main dredge to remove the intersection branch in the thin and delicate branch in bottom, descending branch, horizontal branch and the tree crown, overstocked branch, overlapping branch, guarantees height of tree degree 2m, is preced with more than the width of cloth 1.2m.
4.2.2 bearing tree is pruned
Dredge to remove tree crown everywhere thin and delicate branch and because of the weak gradually weak branch of result, retraction is weak and by the substituted advantage branch of innovation group group because of the result.Gently the back is heavy in retraction bough elder generation, promptly bounces back 1/3~1/2 earlier, when waiting bough that bounces back after upgrading weak once more, strengthens the retraction dynamics, cuts off 2/3, even wipes out near the ground.Dredge to remove sick branch, deadwood, intersection branch, near overlapping.
5 extermination of disease and insect pest
5.1 control principle
Implement and put prevention first, the policy of integrated control is selected the chemical pesticide of biopesticide and efficient, low toxicity, low-residual for use, and alternatively administered improves pesticide application technology, reduces pesticide dosage.Chemical pesticide is pressed the regulation of GB-4285, GB-8321 and is carried out.
5.2 main diseases worm bird pest
Blueberry main diseases worm bird pest has leaf chlorosis disease, leaf blight, mummy, food leaf class slug moth, stem borer kind longicorn, the larva of chafer, grub, birds to peck fruit etc.
5.3 the method for control
5.3.1 artificial control
Late November combines winter pruning, wipes out disease branch, worm branch, weeds a garden, and eliminates the sick worm that survives the winter.Combine to plough deeply the winter in December and cut, soil is ploughed deeply 20cm, eliminate the insect that survives the winter in the soil.The blueberry fructescence, drive birds with modes such as bird prevention net or scarecrow, electric bird-scaring unit, firecrackers.
5.3.2 chemical control
The mid or late April~May early and middle ten days, mix control 2 times, 2 minor ticks 10~15 days with 1200~1500 times of liquid of 400~600 times of liquid of 50% carbendazim and 80% DDT EC.Mid or late August~October, mix control 1~2 time with 400~600 times of liquid of 50% carbendazim and 1000~1200 times of liquid of 80% DDT EC or 1000~1200 times of liquid of 2.5% bromo fluoride chrysanthemum grease, specifically decide according to the sick insect pest situation condition in field.Chemical control must be accomplished between the preceding 20 days~fruit picking of fructescence tailend can not medication; Can not use highly toxic pesticide, different agricultural chemicals should be used alternatingly.
6 gather, pack, transport, store
6.1 gather
Blue berry in inflorescence, bloom order have have earlier after; The maturing stage of fruit is inconsistent, gather in batches, when fruit surface by initial dark green; Become redness gradually; Ripe when being transformed into bluish violet to atropurpureus again, gather once general 2~3 days full bearing periods, and just fruit was gathered once with end 4~6 days phases of fruit.What confession was eaten raw usually, transportation range is short and storage conditions is good gathered in ninety percent above maturing stage; Supply processing beverage, pulp, fruit wine, jelly etc. fully gathering after the maturation; Supply to make the fruit can, when medium well, gather, harvesting should be in the morning to noon before high temperature comes, or temperature carries out after descending between the lights, gently plucks during harvesting, gently take, put down gently, should singly receive singly and put disease fruit, malformed fruit.
6.2 packing, transportation
The blueberry fruit is in packing, transportation; Follow inner wrapping, multi-level, the principle that interspaces, push less, keep away high temperature, gently jolt; Dress fruit container adopts more shallow ventilative basket basket, carton, fruit tray etc.; Marketing fresh is eaten the carton that fruit is selected the polystyrene box of air-vent for use or made certain specification raw, and specification is that every box-packed fruit is no more than 1000 grams.Processing with fruit with big vapor-permeable type charging basket or shallow Turnover Box, fruit bowl etc. directly packed and transported to processing factory.
6.3 storage
Under normal temperature condition, it is 2~3 days that the fruit of gathering is deposited the shelf-life, and for prolonging storage period and supply time, fresh fruit should carry out being housed in after low temperature storage or the quick-frozen below-18 ℃.
The plantation blueberry in the Da Bie Mountain area of the present invention's success, survival rate reaches more than 95%, and output reaches 2000-3000 jin; Utilize tissue culture and non-tube rapid propagation technology to breed seedling, rooting rate and survival rate reach more than 95%, explore the blueberry high-yield culture technique; For the blueberry popularizing planting lays the first stone, the plantation blueberry can planting trees on barren hills, barren hill, beautify natural environment; Water conservation prevents face of land water and soil loss, helps to repair the low mound ecosystem in the degeneration.

Claims (8)

1. the kind method for planting of a blueberry is characterized in that:
(1), soil selects: loosing soil, soil layer is deep, ventilation is good, the content of organic matter >=2%, and soil pH value is between 4.0~5.5;
(2), field planting builds the garden: select the lagophthalmos blueberry, the seedling of kinds such as south high clump blueberry, the blueberry plantation needs the kind of field planting more than 3; Except that main breed, also need other kinds as pollinizers, the base is after ploughing bedding; The seeding row spacing of field planting is pressed about lagophthalmos blueberry 1.2 m * 1.5 m, about the high clump blueberry 1.5m * 1.5m of south, about the high clump blueberry 1.5m * 1.5m of north, dig the planting pit about 50cm * 50cm * 40cm; Wherein refer to the degree of depth of planting pit about 40cm; Before the seedling growth, put into acidic matrix 300kg~500kg such as pine needle or wood sawdust in per 667 square metres of left and right sides planting pits, base manure can not executed; Or use farmyard manure, about per about 667 square metres 1000 kg;
(3), plant seedlings: select more than the height of seedling 50cm that cultivated in 2 years, in the strong sprout that stem diameter 0.6cm is above, its nursery stock branch is many, and branch is sturdy, well developed root system, plant is anosis healthy and strong nursery stock that nothing hinders; Be planted in early spring twig sprout preceding, at the beginning of promptly 2 months~at the beginning of 3 months or stop growing autumn the back, be the mid-November~carry out by the end of December; Should in the ditch cave, insert 20cm left and right sides mellow soil above the base manure when planting; Seedling root must guard against with fertilizer and is contacted, and after the field planting, in time waters sufficient normal root water; The general intertillage of the cultivation degree of depth is advisable with 5cm~10cm, and farming instrument height generally is no more than 15cm, and is annual from monthly carrying out in early spring to 8, and every year, clear ploughing was advisable for 2~3 times, clear cultivated unfavorable to surviving the winter after autumn has set in;
(4), water and fertilizer management: employing is spreaded manuer in holes to soil, and acupoint depth is about 10cm, perhaps carries out foliar spray; Apply fertilizer every year 2 times; Fertilising for the first time the mid-April~SPRING WHEAT BEFORE AND AFTER FLOWERING in the first tenday period of a month in May, after fruit harvesting finishes, promptly carry out late August~mid-September for the second time; Cutting orchard and childhood the orchard should remain optimum moisture condition: reach in the orchard soil maximum water holding capacity 60%~70%; The bearing orchard and the full bearing period should reduce water supply before fruit development stage and fruit maturation; Behind the fruit harvesting, recover the righttest water supply, make to keep soil moisture content to return to 60%~70% in the garden; Reduce water supply season in the mid-autumn to late fall, is beneficial to plant and in time gets into dormancy; Only need cut off bud and a small amount of too thin and delicate branch or sprig group to the treelet that takes off pot transplanting; To the nursery stock of balled transplanting not, remove and dredge except that bud, also need dredge and remove more small and weak relatively branch; Dredge to remove tree crown everywhere thin and delicate branch and because of the weak gradually weak branch of result; Retraction is weak and by the substituted advantage branch of innovation group group because of the result, dredge and remove sick branch, deadwood, intersection branch, near overlapping;
(5), the extermination of disease and insect pest: late November combines winter pruning, wipes out disease branch, worm branch, weeds a garden, and eliminates the sick worm that survives the winter, and combines to plough deeply the winter in December and cuts, and soil is ploughed deeply about 20cm, eliminates the insect that survives the winter in the soil; The blueberry fructescence; Mode with bird prevention net or scarecrow, electric bird-scaring unit, firecrackers is driven birds, the mid or late April~May early and middle ten days, using concentration is 400~600 times of liquid controls of carbendazim of about 50% 2 times; 2 minor ticks 10~15 days; In mid or late August~October, using concentration is that 400~600 times of liquid of carbendazim of about 50% or 1000~1200 times of liquid of bromo fluoride chrysanthemum grease of about 2.5% mix control 1~2 time
(6), gather in batches: the blue berry of gathering in inflorescence, bloom order have have earlier after; The maturing stage of fruit is inconsistent, gather in batches, when fruit surface by initial dark green; Become redness gradually; Ripe when being transformed into bluish violet to atropurpureus again, gather once general 2~3 days full bearing periods, and just fruit was gathered once with end 4~6 days phases of fruit;
(7), packed and transported: the blueberry fruit is in packing, transportation; Follow inner wrapping, multi-level, the principle that interspaces, push less, keep away high temperature, gently jolt; Dress fruit container adopts more shallow ventilative basket basket, carton, fruit tray etc., and marketing fresh is eaten the carton that fruit is selected the polystyrene box of air-vent for use or made certain specification raw, and specification is that every box-packed fruit is no more than 1000 grams; Under normal temperature condition; It is 2~3 days that the fruit of gathering is deposited the shelf-life, and for prolonging storage period and supply time, fresh fruit should carry out being housed in after low temperature storage or the quick-frozen below-18 ℃.
2. the kind method for planting of a kind of blueberry according to claim 1 is characterized in that: seedling-cultivating method before the garden is built in described blueberry field planting has two kinds of A or B, can select wherein a kind of arbitrarily:
A, place indoor cultivation about 5~7 days earlier the blueberry maternal plant; Spray the pollution rate of a bactericide when reducing initial culture during this time every day; Get the simple bud branch 1.0~1.5cm of band tender leaf, remove terminal bud, flushing is 20~30 minutes under sterile water or running water; 0.5% left and right sides bromogeramine sterilization 12-18 minute, on superclean bench with 0.1% mercuric chloride sterilization 10 minutes; Behind the aseptic water washing 4~5 times; Draw residual drop on the stem with aseptic filter paper; Excision back, stem end incision 1.5 millimeter places is inserted in MS+0.6~ascorbic medium of 0.8 mg/litre ZT+0.4-0.6 mg/litre, and wherein the vitamin B1 in the MS medium is the 0.3-0.5 mg/litre, inositol 90-110 mg/litre; PH value 5.0~5.3 places and carries out illumination cultivation under the 2000~3000Lx of culturing room;
When blueberry test-tube plantlet length to 5~8cm; Can downcut in the proliferated culture medium that is inoculated in MS+0.5~2 mg/litre ZT+0.2 mg/litre NAA vitamin B1 0.4 mg/litre in the MS medium wherein, inositol 100 mg/litre; PH5.0~5.3; Being positioned over cultivation temperature is 25 ℃ ± 2 ℃, and light intensity is 2500Lx, and the photoperiod is to carry out illumination cultivation in the culturing room under the condition in 15 hours;
Long during when the blueberry test-tube plantlet to the 2cm left and right sides, it is transferred on the root media of 1/2WPM+0.5 mg/litre IBA carries out illumination cultivation, sucrose 15 grams per liters in the medium, agar 3 grams per liters, pH value 5.0;
With blueberry test-tube plantlet twist-off closure in culturing room, room temperature was placed 2~3 days before transplanting, after seedling is taken out in the bottle; With clear water the agar of test-tube plantlet root etc. is cleaned, inserted in refining seedbed or the nutritive cube, note reducing root damage as far as possible; Matrix adopts perlite, vermiculite and the perlitic mixture of vermiculite to mix with 1:1:1; Transplant in little shed sealing heat and moisture preserving, the plantlet growth of can getting well, every at a distance from 2 all pourings 1 time in the transplanting process;
B, in intelligent greenhouse, to set up with the perlite be matrix and the fast propagating seedling bed that adds a spot of peat composed of rotten mosses, simultaneously matrix carried out acidification, promptly sprays a spot of ferrous sulfate, transfers to 4.0~4.8 to pH value for best; Getting then the lagophthalmos blueberry garden with the branch section semi-lignified of 2~3 leaves of giving birth to healthy and strong no damage by disease and insect blue is material, and getting length is the stripped material of 3~4cm, and lower cut is apart from about the bud 0.5cm; Gradient about 30 degree was tiltedly cut, and upper cut is located straight snips apart from about bud 1cm, the root-growing agent processing of the stripped material of obtaining about with 1000ppm about 1 hour; Handling the back is stripped material cuttage on the fast propagating seedling bed of matrix, to adjust to pot-life to perlite, and the seedbed moisture Control is about 90%; Behind wound healing; Seedbed moisture is transferred to 70%~80%, and moisture is transferred to 50%~60% after root once is longer, regular sterilizing in the seedbed in the process of Cheng Miao; The fine morning 10 up at 5 o'clock in afternoon, note the coordination control of moisture and temperature in the greenhouse in, open ventilation equipment, well-ventilated in the assurance greenhouse, the air humidity with in the reduction greenhouse gets final product to such an extent that rooting rate can reach the root system about 95%.
3. the kind method for planting of a kind of blueberry according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: lagophthalmos blueberry root system is tiny, again the unrooted hair; Absorption rich water difficulty, the seedlings root growth requires soil organic matter content high, loose good permeability; Transplant and preferably be chosen in cloudy day or fine morning, carry out at dusk, the seedling after taking root is interlaced in cutting bed; Firmly too not violent during lifting, in order to avoid pull apart root system; Blueberry root system unrooted hair absorbs the rich water difficulty, hoes up weeds 5~8 times in 1 year, before fine 10 o'clock or spray irrigation after at 5 o'clock in afternoon.
4. the kind method for planting of a kind of blueberry according to claim 1; It is characterized in that: P in soil H value reduces pH value greater than something must be done at 5.5 o'clock, and common method is dispensing Cosan or aluminum sulfate, and P in soil H value reaches at 6 o'clock; Per 667 square metres apply Cosan 90kg or aluminum sulfate 540kg; It evenly is sprinkled into full garden mould earth, ploughs deeply the 15cm mixing, utilize acidic matrix such as pine needle, wood sawdust and mashed bark to mix simultaneously and use.
5. the kind method for planting of a kind of blueberry according to claim 1 is characterized in that: transplant about 45 days winters in the step (4), 40 days summers left and right sides rooting and transplant.
6. the kind method for planting of a kind of blueberry according to claim 1; It is characterized in that: the fertilizer of using is main with pine needle humus, farmyard manure and the compoiste fertilizer that uses comprehensive nutrition, and the ratio of compoiste fertilizer nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium is generally 1:0.8-1.2:0.8-1.2; In to soil application, lack certain element symptom according to fruit tree, contain certain first fertilizer as a kind of additional fertilization mode through foliage-spray.
7. the kind method for planting of a kind of blueberry according to claim 1; It is characterized in that: in the fertilising, be main with quick-acting fertilizer for the first time, about the per 667 square metres of 50kg of the available dish cake that becomes thoroughly decomposed; Add about the per 667 square metres of 20kg of high-quality composite fertilizer of total nutrient about 40%; Be main with fertilizer for the second time, the per 667 square metres of 1000~1500kg of well-rotted farmyard manure add about the per 667 square metres of 30kg of high-quality composite fertilizer of total nutrient about 40%.
8. the kind method for planting of a kind of blueberry according to claim 1 is characterized in that: the light earlier back of retraction bough is heavy, i.e. retraction 1/3~1/2 earlier when waiting bough after retraction upgrades weak once more, strengthens the retraction dynamics, cuts off 2/3, even wipes out near the ground.
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