CN104904537B - Plum tree woodland seedling culturing method - Google Patents

Plum tree woodland seedling culturing method Download PDF

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CN104904537B
CN104904537B CN201410090239.2A CN201410090239A CN104904537B CN 104904537 B CN104904537 B CN 104904537B CN 201410090239 A CN201410090239 A CN 201410090239A CN 104904537 B CN104904537 B CN 104904537B
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seedling
stock
woodland
rate
japanese plum
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CN104904537A (en
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史洪琴
罗勇
杨方福
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Zunyi Yongle Agricultural Technology Development Co., Ltd
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Gou Jiang Town Zunyi County Brave Rogor Vegetables Crop Cultivation Speciality Cooperative Society
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Abstract

The invention relates to the technical field of agriculture and forestry seedling culturing, in particular to a plum tree woodland seedling culturing method which comprises a nursery field selecting step, a nursery settling and processing step, a stock cultivating managing step, a stock selecting processing step, a scion selecting processing step, a grafting cultivating step and a transplanting seedling lifting processing step. Stock cultivating is carried out through a plum tree woodland intercropping nursery, the land using rate is improved, the water and soil wastage rate is lowered, the soil loosening rate is enhanced, and the labor force for plum tree woodland weeding and soil loosening is lowered. Then, by ploughing, disinfecting and whole-compartment processing, the survival rate of stock seedlings is improved, damage from diseases and pests is lowered, the ventilation state of the nursery woodland is guaranteed, and the oxygen demand of plum seedling growing of the nursery woodland is guaranteed. By weed processing, the competitive growth environment between crops is removed, plum seedling quick growing is promoted, and multiple economic, social and ecological significance is achieved.

Description

A kind of Japanese plum woodland method for culturing seedlings
Technical field
The present invention relates to agricultural seedling-raising technique field, especially a kind of Japanese plum woodland method for culturing seedlings.
Background technology
Japanese plum is resistance to lean, drought-enduring, and the exposed rate height of particularly suitable rock, ecology fragility, severe water and soil erosion, soil layer are thin, easy drought The stony desertification mountain area of flood, becomes the important fruit tree of Yunnan-Guizhou Chuan Deng Limestone Mountain Areas.Weeds or straw are in the ranks covered in Li Yuan treelets Stalk, make etc. be reduce that Limestone Mountain Areas Li Yuan earth's surfaces are exposed, one of retain water and nutrients important control measures.
And the traditional mating system for Li Miao is:First Year educates anvil, and Second Year is buddered growth, takes time and effort ground;Such as According to sprout plantation, survival rate is again low.
Meanwhile, peach, Japanese plum belong to the rose family together, and affiliation is nearer, and affinity is strong, after the two grafting, easily produce and heal Injured tissue, gained grafting is healthy and strong, strong stress resistance, and survival rate is high;Wild peach strong adaptability, growth are fast, drought-enduring, resistance to lean.Therefore, have From this feature, choose peaches and plumss carries out grafting to researcher, and pierre Li Miao, the Li Miao for making acquisition had both had wild peach Strong adaptability, grow fast, drought-enduring, resistance to lean feature, and the feature with Japanese plum, and then make the Li Miao of acquisition healthy and strong, it is degeneration-resistant Property it is strong, survival rate is higher;If Tang Ling armies are at it《The Cultivating techniques of peaches and plums seedling》One mating system that Li Miao is disclosed herein, including The cultivation of rootstock seedling, grafting step, it is comprised the concrete steps that:Adopt lap waste peach and process, preserve to 11-12 months and sowed, Nursery lot selects soil layer is deep, fertile, the convenient paddy field of irrigation and drainage before sowing.First garden is ploughed deeply for several times, leveling harrow broken, trench digging build Furrow, furrow width 1.2m, 40cm between furrow.Per 666.7 square metres with the barnyard manure 500kg of rotten heat, plus the mixing of calcium superphosphate 100kg stack rettings Afterwards, equably spread fertilizer over the fields in furrow face, fully thoroughly mixed fertilizer, soil with rake, leveling furrow face can sowing.Before sowing, by storage Seed is rinsed well and with Seed soaking more than 24 hours, the kind inferior kept afloat is removed during seed soaking.Preferably by size one The seed of cause is sorted out, and is soaked seed in batches, is then soaked again and sterilize in the thiophanate methyl liquid of 2000 times 70% of people 1 hour to prevent stream Chamber disease, root knot etc., after sterilization, pull out and drain.Sowed using direct sowing method:Traverse furrow is opened from one of furrow, seed is lain against into ditch In, spacing 8cm or so, and the seed of a upper ditch is covered with the soil of the second bar ditch, drains spacing rests in 18cm or so, every after finishing 666.7 square metres sprayed with 72% all 100~150ml of your missible oil can effectively management of weeds in furrow face.Then slowly discharge water leaching After profit l hours, then slowly discharge water.Until during early March, seedling is unearthed successively, ground should be prevented old when seedling starts lamina Harm of the tiger to rootstock seedling, and weeding in strengthening, suitably enrich compoiste fertilizer, wipe out the branch on stock and catch the heart, make Diameter increment as early as possible.In grafting, film is cut into into the billet of wide 2cm, long 20cm, film tape is gathered into folds and open one in central authorities The hole of individual match end size, chooses Japanese plum green branch bud, is at the beginning of grafting, and mid-May to 6 months are carried out under the conditions of high temperature and humidity The best period of grafting.Shiny surface is selected to splay a knife at 10~15cm of ground in stock during grafting, depth about 5mm reaches Xylem, then the second knife is being cut away from depths above 1.2cm of the first knife, otch is in ligule.Left hand holds scion, right hand-held knife From at the 5~6mm of lower section of feed to bud at the top 5mm of bud, take out knife and splay again a knife, bevel is in 45 °, is removed with wooden In the embedding people's otch of bud tablets in portion, then interface is wrapped up with preprepared film tape.Grafting is not to the process of rootstock seedling With select green branch bud as scion so that the survival rate of grafting is difficult to be protected, and resistance is weaker, yields poorly, the fruit for obtaining Real clear and melodious, fragrant and sweet degree is poor, affects the income of Japanese plum Planting household;Meanwhile, graft seedling growth is carried out using nursery lot is taken separated from, do not have Have so that existing Japanese plum woods soil is fully used and is protected, increase the input of labour, improve Japanese plum Planting household Planting cost.
For this purpose, those skilled in the art are from current severe water and soil erosion, land utilization ratio is not high, labour's input Larger, the high angle of agriculture production cost is more excellent in the quality of the agricultural product for guaranteeing to produce considering, before profit is higher Put, from so that " the minimum soil of the minimum production cost of the minimum labour of input, cost, occupancy, carries out multilayer stereo training Fruit seedling is educated, nursery stock significantly overburden soil surface area is made, in the case of farthest reducing soil erosion, is produced more Agricultural product " for the purpose of set out, provide a kind of new approaches to the mating system of Li Miao.
The content of the invention
In order to solve above-mentioned technical problem present in prior art, the present invention provides a kind of Japanese plum woodland of three-dimensional seedling raising Method for culturing seedlings, the method has raising land utilization ratio, reduces the exposed rate of earth's surface, shorten seedling raise period, improve survival rate of seedling And resistance so that fruit seedling strong adaptability, growth are fast, drought-enduring, resistance to lean, and then reduce Lee of the production cost devoting rate of Planting household Between the woods the features such as method for culturing seedlings.
It is achieved particular by technical scheme below:
A kind of Japanese plum woodland method for culturing seedlings, comprises the following steps:
(1)Nursery lot is chosen and pretreatment:High yield period, flat physical features, thicker soil, draining are not yet entered in life in 1~3 year Well, Japanese plum in the ranks exposed rate compared with Gao Li gardens so that the soil that the exposed rate of Japanese plum woodland is higher is fully utilized, drop The low exposed rate in soil, further reduces soil erosion rate, protects ecological environment;Soil is carried out using fenaminosulf to disappear Poison, disease pest when eliminating stock nursery harms, improves the survival rate of graft seedling growth;Soil is ploughed deeply using tiller, and Debris of cutting weeds are removed, finishing rake fine earth ground makes soil even, thin, flat;It is chosen at the whole furrow of Li Yuan woodlands;
(2)Stock is planted and cultivated:At the beginning of annual 10 months, the wild peach core for harvesting then is chosen as stock seed, be used in combination Carbendazim solution is to seed sterilizing, it is ensured that not bringing into for germ, reduces disease pest impairment rate, improves survival rate of seedling;10 The trench digging drilling of month last ten-days period, and earthing cladding thickness is after 2~5cm, then be moisturizing of watering after 1-2 ㎝ with rice straw mulching thickness, have Beneficial to the sprouting for promoting stock seed, survival rate is improved, reduce production cost;It is month next year 2, careless using hundred before wild peach sprouts Withered weeding;Late March pours once permeable, when the seedling for having 10% is unearthed, straw is removed in time, when seedling grows to 10~15 ㎝ When, thiophanate methyl is sprayed in time, and foliage fertilizer is sprayed, emergence rate can be improved, seedling damping-off is prevented and treated, promote seedling growth; When nursery stock grow to 30 ㎝ it is high when, carry out middle weeding and pinch, per 20~30 days with beta-cypermethrin, thiophanate methyl spray Spill, 1 composite fertilizer was imposed per 27~32 days, effectively carry out the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control, promote the fast-growth of nursery stock;Until 7~9 Month, peach anvil is stayed 20-30 ㎝ cutting backs by wild peach seedling ground diameter up to 0.8~1.5 ㎝, and is thoroughly removed after the inter-row weed of nursery, Enter luggage seedling grafting;
(3)Grafting:Choose the ㎝ of diameter 0.5~0.8 then give birth to lignifying Japanese plum branch make scion, cut scion 12~ 15cm, erases immediately leaf, and 100 colligations in being put in bucket, and are submerged the ㎝ of branch lower end 10 into a bundle, are placed in cool place Place is standby, it is ensured that scion branch not dehydration, improves graft survival rate, reduces production cost;Stock is chosen, it is high in stock Degree 10cm places, patch xylem longitudinally gently cuts lower knife, peels off bark, see it is wooden do not hinder wood, the ㎝ of length 1.5~2.5, and by stock top Redundance beveling is removed;Fringe bar is chosen, in the beveling of fringe bar bottom, part bark is gently cut, sees that wood does not hinder wood, retain 1 bud, length About 1-2 ㎝, top reversely chamfers;Fringe bar is peelled off into cortical section, is close to stock stripped portion, from the poly- second of 0.02 ㎝ thickness Alkene film tape ties up reality, does not allow wound to expose;Be conducive to the bondage of grafting interface, prevent water loss, with sharp wound part Accelerate healing, quickening forms callus;When young sprout is up to 28~32 ㎝, stay 24~26 ㎝ to go to top, send out side shoot and also stay 24 ~26 ㎝ go to top, cultivate to winter;
(4)Transplant:Grafting November excavation then is chosen at, the depth and width of excavation all should be main up to 15~20cm Root stays 5cm, fibrous root to stay 10~15m to carry out lifting after cutting lateral root and be placed in hidden calm place being packed, it is ensured that water Divide and be difficult to be lost in, improve the survival rate of grafting, reduce the production cost of Planting household.
Further, by the germ kill in soil, optimal Disinfection Effect, described enemy are reached in order to preferably The concentration of gram pine for 2.5-3.5% pulvis.
Further, in order that the germ in soil can sufficiently be killed, the impairment of disease pest is reduced, described ploughs deeply Number of times be 2-3 time, depth be 25~30cm.
Further, sufficient sunlight irradiation and the absorption of moisture can be obtained in order to ensure the Li Miao for cultivating, it is described The centre of the whole Qi Weili gardens woodland of Li Yuan woodlands, railway carriage or compartment mouth 120 ㎝, furrow width 30 parallel with Li Yuan woodlands according to east-west direction ㎝, the whole furrow of the ㎝ of ditch depth 20.
Further, in order that seed can reach preferably Disinfection Effect, and the germination percentage of seed is not interfered with, And ensure the water content of seed, the concentration of described carbendazim solution is the pulvis of 50-55%;The place of described sterilizing Reason mode is by the way of immersion, to soak 14-16 days.
Further, in order to ensure the demand that the water content in seed meets germination, the germination percentage of seed is improved, reduces life Cost is produced, the time of described immersion is 15 days, and moisture is continuously replenished during immersion.
Further, in order to ensure seedling spacing can be appropriate, while land resource will not be wasted, per mu yield is improved, is reduced Production cost, the 3~4cm of ditch depth, the ㎝ of line-spacing 25, the ㎝ of seed spacing 10 of the drilling of described trench digging, application rate be 75~90 ㎏/ 667㎡;In order to improve bud ratio, described earthing cladding thickness is after 3~4cm, then is 1.5 ㎝ with rice straw mulching thickness;Institute That what is stated waters moisturizing to guarantee ground moistening;In order to ensure that weeds do not form growth competition relation with rootstock seedling, rootstock seedling is improved Survival rate and healthy and strong rate, the time of described paraquat weeding is in fine day;In order to ensure germ can be killed, and then not The normal growth of rootstock seedling is affected, the concentration of described thiophanate methyl is the pulvis of 70-72%;Described beta-cypermethrin Concentration is the aqua of 5-6%.
Further, in order to ensure weeds removed and can not affect the growth of nursery stock and the waste of cost simultaneously, The concentration of described paraquat is the aqua of 25-26%.
Further, it is excellent in order to ensure the Li Miao kinds bred, the kind of described Japanese plum branch be crisp red Lee or Blue or green crisp Lee;
Further, can cut in grafting to ensure scion, will not be damaged again, and then improve grafting survival Rate, reduces production cost, a diameter of 0.6~0.7 ㎝ of scion of described selection;
Further, in order to ensure the survival rate of grafting is higher, spend cost less, the described scion cut is 50~ 80cm;Described patch xylem longitudinally gently cuts lower knife, peels off bark at stock height 10cm, sees that wood does not hinder wood, and length is 2 ㎝;Described chamfers in fringe bar bottom, gently cuts part bark, sees that wood does not hinder wood, and length is 1.5 ㎝.
Further, in order that the size of plum seedling is appropriate, can be readily transported when transplanting, do shaping and rich surely The culture of tree crown skeleton is produced, it is described when young sprout is up to 30 ㎝, stay 25 ㎝ to go to top, send out side shoot and stay 30~40 ㎝ to go to push up, train Transplant by educating to winter;
Further, in order to ensure the seedling excavated will not be because of forfeiture moisture, and the survival rate for causing to transplant is reduced, The depth and width of described excavation all should reach 17cm, and main root stays 5cm, fibrous root to stay 13cm to carry out lifting after cutting lateral root.
Compared with prior art, technique effect of the invention is embodied in:
1. rootstock seedling is cultivated by carrying out the selection in nursery in Japanese plum woodland, improves the rate that makes full use of in soil, dropped The low soil erosion rate of Japanese plum woodland, meanwhile, improve the rate of loosening the soil of existing Japanese plum woods, it is ensured that the nutrient of existing Japanese plum woods Absorb, and then reduce once again to Japanese plum woods weeding, the labour for loosening the soil;
2. set up that process is turned over, sterilizes, whole railway carriage or compartment is processed with nursery by disinfecting before the foundation in nursery, it is ensured that anvil The survival rate of the cultivating process of wooden seedling, and the absorption of nutrient, sunlight, improve the survival rate of rootstock seedling, reduce the life of rootstock seedling Produce cost;
3. by the appropriate process to stock and scion, the appropriate control with rootstock seedling spacing reduces the impairment of disease pest, Improve seedling density, it is ensured that the ventilation state of nursery woodland, it is ensured that oxygen part demand of the Li Miao growths of nursery woodland;
4. by processing the weeds on nursery, the competitive growth environment between crop is eliminated, improves Li Miao's Nutrient Absorption, promotes the fast-growth of Li Miao;
5. by the appropriate process in grafting procedures, it is ensured that grafting procedures will not damage stock and scion, further carry The high survival rate of Li Miao;
6. by the selection and the selection of scion variety and state of stock, it is ensured that the quality and survival rate of grafting Li Miao;
7. processed by the top of going to young sprout, side shoot, it is ensured that the size of plum seedling is appropriate, can be just when transplanting In transport, surely do shaping and high yield tree crown skeleton culture;By the depth and width control to excavating, main root, fibrous root are completely cured Length control and rise after seedling packing processes, it is ensured that excavation get up seedling will not because of lose moisture, and cause transplant into Motility rate is reduced, and further reduces production cost;With multiple economic society and ecological significance.
Specific embodiment
Technical scheme is further limited with reference to specific embodiment, but claimed model Enclose and be not only limited to description.
Embodiment one
A kind of Japanese plum woodland method for culturing seedlings, comprises the following steps:
(1)Nursery lot is chosen and pretreatment:Not yet enter that high yield period, physical features be flat in 1 year, 2 years, life in 3 years, soil layer compared with Thick, draining is good, Japanese plum in the ranks exposed rate compared with Gao Li gardens so that the soil that the exposed rate of Japanese plum woodland is higher is obtained sufficiently Utilize, reduce the exposed rate in soil, further reduce soil erosion rate, protect ecological environment;Concentration is adopted for 2.5% Fenaminosulf carry out soil disinfection, disease pest when eliminating stock nursery harms, improves the survival rate of graft seedling growth;To soil Ploughed deeply using tiller, and remove debris of cutting weeds, finishing rake fine earth ground makes soil even, thin, flat;It is chosen at the whole furrow of Li Yuan woodlands;
(2)Stock is planted and cultivated:At the beginning of annual 10 months, the wild peach core for harvesting then is chosen as stock seed, be used in combination Concentration is 50% carbendazim solution to seed sterilizing, it is ensured that not bringing into for germ, reduces disease pest impairment rate, improves nursery Survival rate;Late October ditches drilling, and earthing cladding thickness is after 2cm, 3cm, 4cm or 5cm, then to use rice straw mulching thickness After 1cm, 1.2cm, 1.4cm, 1.6cm, 1.8cm or 2 ㎝, moisturizing of watering may advantageously facilitate the sprouting of stock seed, improve into Motility rate, reduces production cost;Month next year 2, before wild peach sprouts, adopt concentration for 25% paraquat weeding;Late March pours one It is secondary permeable, when have 10% seedling be unearthed when, straw is removed in time, when seedling grow to 10cm, 11cm, 12cm, 13cm, 14cm or During 15 ㎝, timely spray concentration is 70% thiophanate methyl, and sprays foliage fertilizer, can improve emergence rate, and preventing and treating nursery stock is dampinged off Disease, promotes seedling growth;When nursery stock grow to 30 ㎝ it is high when, carry out middle weeding and pinch, per 20 days, 21 days, 22 days, 23 days, 24 days, 25 days, 26 days, 27 days, 28 days, 29 days or 30 days with concentration be 5% cypermethrin, concentration be 70% thiophanate methyl spray Spill, per 27 days, impose 1 composite fertilizer within 28 days, 29 days, 30 days, 31 days or 32 days, effectively carry out the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control, promote seedling The fast-growth of wood;Until 7~September, wild peach seedling ground diameter stays on peach anvil up to 0.8 ㎝, 1 ㎝, 1.2 ㎝, 1.4 ㎝ or 1.5 ㎝ 20 ㎝, 22 ㎝, 24 ㎝, 26 ㎝, 28 ㎝ or 30 ㎝ cutting backs, and thoroughly remove nursery inter-row weed;
(3)Grafting:Choose the ㎝ of diameter 0.5,0.6 ㎝, the lignifying excessive growth Japanese plum branch of giving birth to then of 0.7 ㎝ or 0.8 ㎝ to make Scion, cuts the ㎝ of scion 50,60 ㎝, 70 ㎝ or 80cm, and leaf is erased immediately, 100 colligations into a bundle, in being put in bucket, and The ㎝ of branch lower end 10 is submerged, it is In Shade standby, it is ensured that scion branch not dehydration, graft survival rate is improve, drop Low production cost;Stock is chosen, at stock height 10cm, patch xylem longitudinally gently cuts lower knife, peels off bark, sees that wood is not hindered Wood, the ㎝ of length 1.5,1.7 ㎝, 1.9 ㎝, 2.1 ㎝, 2.3 ㎝ or 2.5 ㎝, and redundance beveling in stock top is removed;Choose fringe Bar, in the beveling of fringe bar bottom, gently cuts part bark, sees that wood does not hinder wood, retains 1 bud, the ㎝ of length about 1,1.2 ㎝, 1.4 ㎝, 1.6 ㎝, 1.8 ㎝ or 2 ㎝, top reversely chamfers;Fringe bar is peelled off into cortical section, is close to stock stripped portion, from 0.02 ㎝ thickness Polyethylene film bar tie up reality, do not allow wound expose;Be conducive to the bondage of grafting interface, prevent water loss, with profit wound Oral area point accelerates healing, and quickening forms callus;When young sprout is up to 28 ㎝, 30 ㎝ or 32 ㎝, 24 ㎝, 25 ㎝ or 26 ㎝ are stayed Top is gone to, side shoot is sent out and is also stayed 24 ㎝, 25 ㎝ or 26 ㎝ to go to top, cultivated to winter;
(4)Transplant:Be chosen at grafting November excavation then, the depth and width of excavation all should up to 15 ㎝, 16 ㎝, 17 ㎝, 18 ㎝, 19 ㎝ or 20cm, main root stays 5cm, fibrous root to stay 10 ㎝, 11 ㎝, 12 ㎝, 13 ㎝, 14 ㎝ or 15m to carry out cutting lateral root Afterwards lifting is placed in hidden calm place and is packed, it is ensured that moisture is difficult to be lost in, and improves the survival rate of grafting, reduces The production cost of Planting household.
Embodiment two
A kind of Japanese plum woodland method for culturing seedlings, comprises the following steps:
(1)Nursery lot is chosen and pretreatment:Not yet enter that high yield period, physical features be flat, soil in 0.5 year, 1.5 years, life in 2.5 years The thicker, draining of layer is good, Japanese plum in the ranks exposed rate compared with Gao Li gardens so that the soil that the exposed rate of Japanese plum woodland is higher is filled The utilization for dividing, reduces the exposed rate in soil, further reduces soil erosion rate, protects ecological environment;Adopt concentration for 3.5% pentachloronitrobenzene carries out soil disinfection, and disease pest when eliminating stock nursery harms, improves the survival rate of graft seedling growth; Soil is ploughed deeply using tiller, and removes debris of cutting weeds, finishing rake fine earth ground makes soil even, thin, flat;It is chosen at Li Yuanlin Between whole furrow;
(2)Stock is planted and cultivated:At the beginning of annual 10 months, the wild peach core for harvesting then is chosen as stock seed, be used in combination Concentration is 55% carbendazim to seed sterilizing, it is ensured that not bringing into for germ, reduces disease pest impairment rate, improves nursery and survives Rate;Late October ditches drilling, and earthing cladding thickness is after 2.5cm, 3.5cm, 4.2cm or 4.5cm, then to use rice straw mulching Thickness is that moisturizing of watering may advantageously facilitate the sprouting of stock seed after 1.1cm, 1.3cm, 1.5cm, 1.7cm, 1.9cm or 2 ㎝, Survival rate is improved, production cost is reduced;In month next year 2, before wild peach sprouts, concentration is adopted for 26% paraquat weeding;Late March Pour once permeable, when have 10% seedling be unearthed when, straw is removed in time, when seedling grow to 10.5cm, 11.5cm, 12.5cm, When 13.5cm, 14.5cm or 14.8 ㎝, timely spray concentration is 72% thiophanate methyl, and sprays foliage fertilizer, can improve and emerge Rate, prevents and treats seedling damping-off, promotes seedling growth;When nursery stock grow to 30 ㎝ it is high when, carry out middle weeding and pinch, per 30 days use The thiophanate methyl sprinkling that efficiently concentration is 6% cypermethrin, concentration is 72%, 1 composite fertilizer was imposed per 30 days, was effectively carried out The prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control, promotes the fast-growth of nursery stock;Until 7~September, wild peach seedling ground diameter up to 0.9 ㎝, 1.1 ㎝, 1.3 ㎝, 1.45 ㎝ or 1.48 ㎝, by peach anvil 21 ㎝, 23 ㎝, 25 ㎝, 27 ㎝, 29 ㎝ or 30 ㎝ cutting backs are stayed, and thoroughly remove nursery in the ranks Weeds;
(3)Grafting:Choose the lignifying excessive growth Ramulus Pruni Salicinae raw then of the ㎝ of diameter 0.55,0.65 ㎝, 0.75 ㎝ or 0.78 ㎝ Bar makees scion, cuts the ㎝ of scion 50,60 ㎝, 70 ㎝ or 80cm, and leaf is erased immediately, and 100 colligations are put in bucket into a bundle In, and the ㎝ of branch lower end 10 is submerged, and it is In Shade standby, it is ensured that scion branch not dehydration, improve grafting survival Rate, reduces production cost;Stock is chosen, at stock height 10cm, patch xylem longitudinally gently cuts lower knife, peels off bark, sees Wood does not hinder wood, the ㎝ of length 1.6,1.8 ㎝, 1.95 ㎝, 2 ㎝, 2.2 ㎝ or 2.4 ㎝, and redundance beveling in stock top is removed; Choose fringe bar, in the beveling of fringe bar bottom, gently cut part bark, see that wood does not hinder wood, retain 1 bud, the ㎝ of length about 1.1,1.3 ㎝, 1.5 ㎝, 1.7 ㎝, 1.9 ㎝ or 2 ㎝, top reversely chamfers;Fringe bar is peelled off into cortical section, is close to stock stripped portion, selected The polyethylene film bar of 0.02 ㎝ thickness ties up reality, does not allow wound to expose;Be conducive to the bondage of grafting interface, prevent moisture stream Lose, accelerate to heal with sharp wound part, quickening forms callus;When young sprout is up to 28.5 ㎝, 29 ㎝ or 31 ㎝, 24.5 are stayed ㎝, 25.2 ㎝ or 25.5 ㎝ go to top, send out side shoot and also stay 30 ㎝, 35 ㎝ or 40 ㎝ to go to top, cultivate to winter;
(4)Transplant:Be chosen at grafting November excavation then, the depth and width of excavation all should up to 15.5 ㎝, 16.5 ㎝, 17.5 ㎝, 18.5 ㎝, 19.5 ㎝ or 19.8cm, main root stay 5cm, fibrous root stay 10.5 ㎝, 11.5 ㎝, 12.5 ㎝, 13.5 ㎝, 14.5 ㎝ or 14.8cm carry out lifting after cutting lateral root and are placed in hidden calm place being packed, it is ensured that moisture is difficult to flow Lose, improve the survival rate of grafting, reduce the production cost of Planting household.
Embodiment three
On the basis of embodiment one, by the germ kill in soil, optimal sterilization effect is reached in order to preferably Really, the concentration of fenaminosulf is 2.6%, 2.7%, 2.8%, 2.9%, 3.0%, 3.1%, 3.2%, 3.3%, 3.4%, 3.5% pulvis, per mu With 80 grams, convert 20 times of fine earths and mix thoroughly and sow.
Example IV
On the basis of embodiment one to three, in order that the germ in soil can sufficiently be killed, disease pest is reduced Harm, the number of times ploughed deeply is 2 times or 3 times, depth is 25cm, 26cm, 27cm, 28cm, 29cm or 30cm.
Embodiment five
According to embodiment one to four, in order to ensure that the Li Miao for cultivating can obtain sufficient sunlight irradiation and the suction of moisture Receive, the centre of the whole Qi Weili gardens woodland of Li Yuan woodlands, railway carriage or compartment mouth 120 ㎝, furrow width parallel with Li Yuan woodlands according to east-west direction 30 ㎝, the whole furrow of the ㎝ of ditch depth 20.
Embodiment six
According to embodiment one to five, in order that seed can reach preferably Disinfection Effect, and seed is not interfered with Germination percentage, and ensure the water content of seed, it is ensured that the water content in seed meets the demand of germination, improves the germination of seed Rate, reduces production cost, and the concentration of carbendazim solution is 51%, 52%, 53%, 54%, 55% pulvis, and 80 grams are converted 100 jin of water loggings Bubble, the processing mode of sterilizing is by the way of immersion, to soak 14 days, 15 days or 16 days.
Embodiment seven
According to embodiment one to six, in order to ensure seedling spacing can be appropriate, while land resource will not be wasted, per mu yield is improved Amount, reduces production cost, ditch depth 3cm, 3.5cm or 4cm of drilling of ditching, the ㎝ of line-spacing 25, the ㎝ of seed spacing 10, and application rate is 75 ㎏/667㎡、78㎏/667㎡、80㎏/667㎡、83㎏/667㎡、85㎏/667㎡、88㎏/667㎡、90㎏/667㎡。
Embodiment eight
According to embodiment one to six, in order to ensure seedling spacing can be appropriate, while land resource will not be wasted, per mu yield is improved Amount, reduces production cost, and the ditch depth of drilling of ditching is 3cm, 3.5cm or 4cm, the ㎝ of line-spacing 25, the ㎝ of seed spacing 10, and application rate is 23000.
Embodiment nine
According to embodiment one to eight, in order to improve bud ratio, earthing cladding thickness is after 3cm, 3.5cm or 4cm, then uses rice Careless cladding thickness is 1.5 ㎝;Moisturizing water to guaranteeing ground moistening;Also, in order to ensure that weeds are not formed with rootstock seedling Growth competition relation, improves the survival rate and healthy and strong rate of rootstock seedling, using paraquat in fine day weeding.
Embodiment ten
According to embodiment one to nine, in order to ensure germ can be killed, and then the normal growth of rootstock seedling, first are not affected The concentration of base thiophanate is 71% or 72% pulvis, converts 100 jin of water for 100 grams and is sprayed;Cypermethrin concentration is 5.5% water Agent, 60 milliliters are converted 100 jin of water sprinklings.
Embodiment 11
According to embodiment one to ten, in order to ensure weeds can it is removed simultaneously, and do not affect nursery stock growth and into This waste, adopt concentration for 25.1%, 25.2%, 25.3%, 25.4%, 25.5%, 25.6%, 25.7%, 25.8% or 25.9% hundred The withered sprinkling weeding of grass.
Embodiment 12
According to embodiment one to ten one, excellent in order to ensure the Li Miao kinds bred, the kind of Japanese plum branch is crisp red Lee or blue or green crisp Lee;And in order to ensure that scion can cut in grafting, will not be damaged again, and then lift graft survival rate, Reduce production cost, a diameter of 0.6 ㎝ of scion of selection, 0.61 ㎝, 0.63 ㎝, 0.65 ㎝, 0.67 ㎝, 0.69 ㎝ or 0.7 ㎝.
Embodiment 13
According to embodiment one to ten two, in order to ensure the survival rate of grafting is higher, cost cost is less, and the scion cut is 13cm, 13.5cm or 14cm;And at stock height 10cm, patch xylem longitudinally gently cuts lower knife, peels off bark, sees that wood is not hindered Wood, length is 2 ㎝;Chamfer in fringe bar bottom again, gently cut part bark, see that wood does not hinder wood, length is 1.5 ㎝.
Embodiment 14
According to embodiment one to ten three, in order that the size of plum seedling is appropriate, can be readily transported when transplanting, determine Dry shaping and the culture of high yield tree crown skeleton, when young sprout is up to 30 ㎝, stay 25 ㎝ to go to top, send out side shoot and stay 30-40 ㎝ to go to top, Transplant by cultivating to winter.
Embodiment 15
According to embodiment one to ten four, in order to ensure the seedling excavated because of forfeiture moisture, and will not cause what is transplanted Survival rate is reduced, and the depth and width of excavation all should reach 17cm, and main root stays 5cm, fibrous root to stay 13cm to carry out being risen after cutting lateral root Seedling.
Embodiment 16
According to embodiment one to ten five, after seedling is being played, if transplanting can not be allocated and transported in time, needing to carry out heeling in place Reason, and then ensure the survival rate of Li Miao, the survival rate transplanted is improved, the production cost of Planting household is reduced, increase economic efficiency.
Embodiment 17
A kind of method of Japanese plum woodland nursery, by using in Japanese plum woodland grafting and breeding plum seedling, defining nursery stock woods Between stereo cultivation pattern, and then improve land utilization ratio, reduce the exposed rate of earth's surface, it is a certain degree of to alleviate soil erosion Situation, with significant economic benefit and ecological, environmental protective meaning;And transplant then in grafting, then transplant for half seedling, seedling It is high up to 20cm or so, ground diameter up to 1cm or so, transplanting survival rate more than 95%, particularly suitable combination dense planting and pruning skill of pinching Art is cultivated Cold region apple and is got bumper crops in advance Li Yuan, can be colonized with the seeding row spacing of 3m × 3m, and mu plants 74 plants, and the next year of field planting can just be spent, Fruit, enters the best fruiting period in the 4th year to the 5th year at the beginning of 3rd, and best fruiting period average year per mu yield is up to more than 2000 kilograms;And many years of Jing Practice, in the ranks breed grafting Li Miao in 1~5 Nian Shengli gardens treelet, often take turns per mu can nursery 1.5~1.8 ten thousand plant, every mu of grafting The output value is significant to improving young age Li Yuan economic benefit, increase orchard worker's income up to more than 15000 yuan;Routinely educate with Japanese plum Seedling-growing method compares, and transplanting 1 year half seedling of life can shorten growing-seedling period 1-2, and the efficiency of breeding to improving grafting Li Miao has important Meaning;Meanwhile, Li Yuan treelets open country in the ranks is made full use of, young age Li Yuan is solved simultaneously, also Li Yuan land utilization ratios are improved Cultivation management and biological covering demand, according to Li Yuan exposed situations in the ranks and it is biological cover needs, also can on the spot continue training The even grafting transplantation of seedlings of 3 ages or the sale of 2 ages is educated, with multiple social economy and ecological significance.
Preferably, Li Yuan in the ranks asexual crisp red Lee of fast breeding or clear kingfisher Lee Li Miao, its step is:
(1)Instrument prepares and stock is cultivated:Preparing plastic film tape, grafting knife, shrub and hedge trimmer, handsaw, grinding stone are a set of, select In the ranks seedbed is set up in exposed Shuai Gaoli gardens, cultivates wild peach stock;
(2)Grafting is cultivated:1. in July to September, ground diameter is selected up to 0.8 more than ㎝ peach anvils, stay 25 ㎝ height shrub and hedge trimmer to incite somebody to action Top is wiped out, and to nursery inter-row weed thorough cleaning is carried out;2. stock shearing:With grafting knife, select stock to smooth, away from ground about At 10 ㎝, patch xylem is gently cut, and peels off bark, with do not hinder it is wooden be advisable, the ㎝ of length 2, the unnecessary stock in top beveling is removed;3. fringe bar Cutting:In maternal plant garden, select bud mouth full, the lignified fringe bar of no disease and pests harm, from bottom beveling, gently cuts part bark, together Sample is shown in that wood does not hinder wood, retains 1 bud, and the ㎝ of length about 1.5, top reversely chamfers, and scion is peeled gently insert anvil towards inner Wooden otch, makes scion align with the forming layer of stock;4. bondage and prolongation branch culture:Cortical section is peelled off in scion, is close to anvil Wooden stripped portion, rudiment by being tied up after reality, 25 days with the polyethylene film bar of 0.02 ㎝ thickness in time, when young sprout is up to 30 ㎝ During left and right, stay 25 ㎝ to go to top, send out side shoot and also stay 25 ㎝ to go to push up, winter can be bred as high 35 ㎝, more than the ㎝ of ground diameter 0.8, with 3 ~4 branches(Extend branch)Grafting Li Miao, due to film tape it is very thin, can in 15 more than ㎝ of young sprout knife draw or allow it voluntarily to collapse It is broken;5. pruning and a transplantation of seedlings:When November in winter seedling taking is transplanted, select and remain growth 40 degree or so of angle, orientation it is different 3 ~4 healthy and strong tips carry out pruning of pinching as major branch;When again to the middle ten days and the last ten days in November, you can play transplantation of seedlings, during lifting, in order to ensure The seedling that excavation is got up will not be because of forfeiture moisture, and the survival rate for causing to transplant is reduced, and the depth and width of excavation all should reach 17cm, main root stays 5cm, fibrous root to stay 13cm to carry out lifting after cutting lateral root.
Test example:
Test example one, the contrast of Japanese plum transplanting survival rate
Two kinds of Japanese plum kinds of crisp red Lee and clear and melodious Lee are chosen as scion, wild peach kind is used as stock;It is respectively adopted《Peaches and plums The Cultivating techniques of seedling》The Li Miao graft technologies introduced in one text and tradition Li Miao graft technologies and Li Miao graft technologies of the present invention Enter 1000 plants of luggage seedling grafting respectively, it is right according to the transplanting method and traditional transplanting method of each technology introduction when transplanting The Li Miao of grafting carries out transplanting process, show that the survival rate contrast situation for transplanting Li Miao is as shown in the table:
The technology of the present invention The Cultivating techniques of peaches and plums seedling Conventional art
Crisp red Lee 957 904 789
Clear and melodious Lee 966 891 741
From table it can clearly be seen that the Li Miao graft and transplantations survival rate of the technology of the present invention than peaches and plums seedling Cultivating techniques and Conventional art is higher, with the effect for being obviously improved Lee's shoot survival percent so that Li Miao graft and transplantations survival rate to 95% with On.
Test example two, stock plantation pretreatment and nurturing research
Wild peach is chosen as stock variety, is respectively adopted《The Cultivating techniques of peaches and plums seedling》The Li Miao grafting skills introduced in one text Art and tradition Li Miao graft technologies and Li Miao graft technologies of the present invention, are pre-processed and are cultivated to wild peach stock, plantation 500 Strain, stock survival rate is as shown in the table with healthy and strong rate:
The technology of the present invention The Cultivating techniques of peaches and plums seedling Conventional art
Survival rate 496 461 456
Healthy and strong rate 459 429 435
As can be seen from the table, technology of the invention is compared with traditional technical scheme, the plantation pretreatment of rootstock seedling with In cultivating process, in the technology of the present invention, the survival rate of rootstock seedling and nursery stock stalwartness rate are higher than conventional art, reduce The cost that rootstock seedling is cultivated, reduces orchard worker's Japanese plum seedling cost.
Using the method for 1 year raw Li Miao of above grafting, to more than 95%, nursery stock is of moderate size the survival rate of transplanting, is easy to Transport, surely dry shaping and the culture of high yield tree crown skeleton, can make full use of Li Yuan treelets in the ranks to breed grafting Li Miao, reach and breed Commodity Li Miao improves Li Yuan economic benefits and makees to reduce that earth's surface is exposed, retain water and nutrients dual purpose between implementing Li Yuan in the ranks, realizes The premature labor of Liao Li gardens, high yield, stable yields, the intensive measure of low consumption, reduce financial cost and the labour of orchard worker;Transplanting orchard Then and later each year, pinched using supporting annual 5~August and prune the technology for extending branch, fruit spur and weak branch of cultivating, it is reachable Downgrade the purpose of tree crown, planting culture, in advance high yield and stable yields, the height and amplitude-controllable system of tree crown 2m ×(2~2.5)m Within, transplanting next year just really can allow it to bear fruit on the 3rd year, enter high yield period within the 4th year to the 5th year.
The embodiment of above example not limit the technical program, is only limitted to preferred embodiment be described in detail, Those skilled in the art reaches the technique effect same with the technical program by simple substitute mode, can not letter Single exclusion is within the technical program.

Claims (10)

1. a kind of Japanese plum woodland method for culturing seedlings, it is characterised in that comprise the following steps:
(1) nursery lot is chosen and pretreatment:It is good not yet into high yield period, flat physical features, thicker soil, draining in life in 1~3 year Good, Japanese plum in the ranks exposed rate compared with Gao Li gardens so that the soil that the exposed rate of Japanese plum woodland is higher is fully utilized, and reduces Soil exposed rate, further reduces soil erosion rate, protects ecological environment;Soil disinfection is carried out using fenaminosulf, Disease pest when eliminating stock nursery harms, improves the survival rate of graft seedling growth;Soil is ploughed deeply using tiller, and is removed Weeds debris, finishing rake fine earth ground, make soil even, thin, flat;It is chosen at the whole furrow of Li Yuan woodlands;
(2) stock plantation and cultivation:At the beginning of annual 10 months, the wild peach core for harvesting then is chosen as stock seed, and use many bacterium Clever solution is to seed sterilizing, it is ensured that not bringing into for germ, reduces disease pest impairment rate, improves survival rate of seedling;10 below the moon Ditch in ten days drilling, and it then is moisturizing of watering after 1-2 ㎝ with rice straw mulching thickness after 2~5cm that earthing cladding thickness is, is conducive to Promote the sprouting of stock seed, improve survival rate, reduce production cost;In month next year 2, before wild peach sprouts, removed using paraquat Grass;Late March pours once permeable, when the seedling for having 10% is unearthed, straw is removed in time, when seedling grows to 10~15 ㎝, Thiophanate methyl is sprayed in time, and sprays foliage fertilizer, can improve emergence rate, prevent and treat seedling damping-off, promote seedling growth;Work as seedling Wood grow to 30 ㎝ it is high when, carry out middle weeding and pinch, per 20~30 days with effective cypermethrin, thiophanate methyl spray, often 1 composite fertilizer is imposed within 27~32 days, the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control is effectively carried out, promotes the fast-growth of nursery stock;Until 7~September, wild peach Peach anvil is stayed 20-30 ㎝ cutting backs by seedling ground diameter up to 0.8~1.5 ㎝, and is thoroughly removed after the inter-row weed of nursery, enters luggage seedling Grafting;
(3) grafting:The lignifying Japanese plum branch of giving birth to then for choosing the ㎝ of diameter 0.5~0.8 makees scion, cuts 12~15cm of scion, Leaf is erased immediately, and 100 colligations in being put in bucket, and are submerged the ㎝ of branch lower end 10 into a bundle, In Shade standby With, it is ensured that scion branch not dehydration, graft survival rate is improve, reduce production cost;Stock is chosen, in stock height At 10cm, patch xylem longitudinally gently cuts lower knife, peels off bark, sees that wood does not hinder wood, the ㎝ of length 1.5~2.5, and stock top is more Remaining part point beveling is removed;Fringe bar is chosen, in the beveling of fringe bar bottom, part bark is gently cut, sees that wood does not hinder wood, length 1-2 ㎝ retains 1 Individual bud, top reversely chamfers;Fringe bar is peelled off into cortical section and is close to stock stripped portion, it is thin from the polyethylene of 0.02 ㎝ thickness Film bar ties up reality, does not allow wound to expose;Be conducive to the bondage of grafting interface, prevent water loss, with the quickening of sharp wound part Healing, quickening forms callus;When young sprout is up to 28~32 ㎝, stay 24~26 ㎝ to go to top, send out side shoot and also stay 24~26 ㎝ goes to top, cultivates to winter;
(4) transplant:Grafting November excavation then is chosen at, the depth and width of excavation all should be stayed up to 15~20cm, main root 5cm, fibrous root stay 10~15cm to carry out lifting after cutting lateral root and be placed in hidden calm place being packed, it is ensured that moisture is difficult To be lost in, the survival rate of grafting is improve, reduce the production cost of Planting household.
2. Japanese plum woodland method for culturing seedlings as claimed in claim 1, it is characterised in that:Described fenaminosulf concentration is 2.5- 3.5% pulvis.
3. Japanese plum woodland method for culturing seedlings as claimed in claim 1, it is characterised in that:The described number of times ploughed deeply is 2-3 time, deep Spend for 25~30cm.
4. Japanese plum woodland method for culturing seedlings as claimed in claim 1, it is characterised in that:The whole Qi Weili gardens of described Li Yuan woodlands The centre of woodland, railway carriage or compartment mouth 120 ㎝, furrow width 30 ㎝, ditch depth 20 ㎝ whole furrow parallel with Li Yuan woodlands according to east-west direction.
5. Japanese plum woodland method for culturing seedlings as claimed in claim 1, it is characterised in that:The concentration of described carbendazim solution is 50-55%;
The processing mode of described sterilizing is by the way of immersion, to soak 14-16 days.
6. Japanese plum woodland method for culturing seedlings as claimed in claim 5, it is characterised in that:The time of described immersion is 15 days, and Moisture is continuously replenished during immersion.
7. Japanese plum woodland method for culturing seedlings as claimed in claim 1, it is characterised in that:The ditch depth 3 of described trench digging drilling~ 4cm, the ㎝ of line-spacing 25, the ㎝ of seed spacing 10, application rate is 75~90 ㎏/667 ㎡;
Described earthing cladding thickness be 3~4cm after, then with rice straw mulching thickness be 1.5 ㎝;
Described waters moisturizing to guarantee ground moistening;
The time of described paraquat weeding is in fine day.
8. Japanese plum woodland method for culturing seedlings as claimed in claim 1, it is characterised in that:The concentration of described thiophanate methyl is The pulvis of 70%-72%;
Described cypermethrin concentration is the aqua of 5%-6%;
The concentration of described paraquat is the aqua of 25%-26%.
9. Japanese plum woodland method for culturing seedlings as claimed in claim 1, it is characterised in that:The kind of described Japanese plum branch is crisp red Lee or blue or green crisp Lee;
A diameter of 0.6~0.7 ㎝ of scion of described selection;
The described scion cut replaces with 50~80cm;It is described at stock height 10cm, patch xylem is longitudinally gently cut down Knife, peels off bark, sees that wood does not hinder wood, and length is 2 ㎝;
Described chamfers in fringe bar bottom, gently cuts part bark, sees that wood does not hinder wood, and length is 1.5 ㎝.
10. Japanese plum woodland method for culturing seedlings as claimed in claim 1, it is characterised in that:When young sprout is up to 30 ㎝, 25 ㎝ are stayed to go Top, send out side shoot replace with stay 30-40 ㎝ go push up, by cultivating to winter transplanting;
The depth and width of described excavation all should reach 17cm, and main root stays 5cm, fibrous root to stay 13cm to carry out lifting after cutting lateral root, It is placed in hidden calm place to be packed.
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CN106212173A (en) * 2016-07-31 2016-12-14 普定县绿源苗业开发有限公司 A kind of method improving blue or green crisp Lee's percentage of fertile fruit
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CN101669438B (en) * 2009-09-30 2011-05-04 李化林 Method for grafting wild apricot and plum at mountainous regions and cultivation management method
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