CN102349430B - Method for breeding seedlings of grapes by using containers - Google Patents

Method for breeding seedlings of grapes by using containers Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102349430B
CN102349430B CN 201110218071 CN201110218071A CN102349430B CN 102349430 B CN102349430 B CN 102349430B CN 201110218071 CN201110218071 CN 201110218071 CN 201110218071 A CN201110218071 A CN 201110218071A CN 102349430 B CN102349430 B CN 102349430B
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China
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containers
container
grapes
seedlings
reed
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CN102349430A (en
Inventor
毛妮妮
刘吉祥
阎永齐
刘照亭
刘伟忠
芮东明
蒋水平
马媛媛
张玉军
楮小明
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Zhenjiang Institute of Agricultural Sciences Jiangsu Hilly Area
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Zhenjiang Institute of Agricultural Sciences Jiangsu Hilly Area
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Abstract

The invention discloses a method for breeding seedlings of grapes by using containers and belongs to the field of fruit tree seedling raising. The method comprises the following steps of: (1) scissoring annual grape branches in winter to conserve in winter; (2) taking out the branches in late February of the next year, cutting the branches into sections of 18 to 20 cm, retaining stalks of 2 to 3 buds, and inserting into containers by cuttage, wherein nutritional soil comprises a mixture of reed residue matrix and garden soil, or a mixture of rich chaff dust and garden soil, or a mixture of the reed residue matrix, the rich chaff dust and the garden soil; and (3) inserting bamboo poles with the length of 1m into the containers to fix young sprouts when nursery stocks have 7 to 8 leaves, and pinching when the young sprouts are 80 cm. The method is not limited by season, so the defects in seedling in big lands are effectively overcome, root systems are formed in the containers and have good and complete root balls, roots are not damaged when seedlings are lifted, the seedlings are not required to be trimmed before planting, one-step forming is realized, time and labor are saved, survival rate is high after transplantation, the slow seedling stage does not exist, growth quantity is large in the initial stage, flower bud differentiation is realized in advance, high yield in early stage is realized, and quality of the nursery stocks is high.

Description

A kind of method of breeding seedlings of grapes by using containers
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of fruit tree seedling culture technology, relate to specifically a kind of method of breeding seedlings of grapes by using containers.
Background technology
Grape is a kind of strong adaptability, and the growth life-span is long, easily gets bumper crops the fruit tree that economic benefit is higher.Along with the adjustment of pattern of farming, area under cultivation constantly enlarges in recent years.At present; grape to be adopting the land for growing field crops seedling propagation as main modes of reproduction, but owing to the impact of administrative skill and environmental factor, there is the problem that survival rate is low, the nursery stock damage by disease and insect is serious in the seedling propagation of grape; cause the nursery stock shortage, become the restraining factors of fruit tree industrial scale.The grape of growing under the general land for growing field crops cuttage is had relatively high expectations to soil, need avoid continuous cropping, the damage by disease and insect phenomenon is comparatively serious, nursery stage reaches 8~10 months, and the winter need to be strengthened management when hiding and be prevented mouldy or frostbite, hinders root during lifting, affect planting survival rates, seedling-slowing stage is long after the field planting, is subject to seasonal restrictions (spent spring, be difficult to summer plant).And container nursery can overcome all drawbacks of aforementioned land for growing field crops cuttage fully by optimal design and scientific management to technology such as container, matrix, liquid manure.
Container nursery refers to use the seedling raising manners that particular container is cultivated crop or fruit tree, flowers, forest seedling, is the nursery stock production technology of world extensive use.70~eighties of 20th century, container nursery is carried out from south to north at large in China, and technology also constantly is upgraded and improved, from forestry to gardens, gardening, flowers all is widely used.But the research of cultivation of container seedling aspect fruit tree only has breakthrough aspect some of apple and oranges and tangerines.There is not yet report other seeds.
Reed is the discarded object that produces when adopting reed papermaking cutting processing, and the past is directly discharged the Changjiang river, and both contaminated environment was wasted again resource.Existing is the reed end matrix that raw material is made by reed, is usually used in soilless culture.Rice chaff ash is to form after being burnt by rice hulls, and main component is potash, is alkalescent after the hydrolysis.Through assay, rice chaff ash contains potassium 5~15%, and micro element is more than 15~20% in the phosphorus 1.5~2.5%, calcium, magnesium, boron, zinc, manganese etc.Rice chaff ash can hestening rooting germinates, and plays the effect of sterilizing deinsectization, also increases soil aggregate, improves soil porosity, improves drought resisting, waterlogging-resistant, high temperature resistance, antifreeze ability.
Summary of the invention
Goal of the invention: the purpose of this invention is to provide a kind of method of breeding seedlings of grapes by using containers, overcome defective and the deficiency of land for growing field crops cuttage, shorten nursery stage, optimum management, improve the nursery stock quality.
Technical scheme: for achieving the above object, the method for a kind of breeding seedlings of grapes by using containers of the present invention comprises the steps:
(1) plant the selection of bar: ripe, the annual grape branch that eye is full of clip in winter is as kind of a bar, the described kind of long 75~85cm of bar, be bundled into be embedded in after the bundle humidity be in 50% the wet sand winter hide;
(2) processing of plugged ear: take out the plugged ear of planting bar and being cut into 18~20cm, reservation 2~3 buds in late Febuary next year, will dip root-inducing powder at base portion behind described plugged ear immersion 3~6h, then cuttage is in the container that Nutrition Soil is housed; Described Nutrition Soil is reed end matrix and the mixing of garden mould, and perhaps rice chaff ash and garden mould mixes the perhaps mixing of the last matrix of reed, rice chaff ash and garden mould;
(3) cultivate nursery stock: insert fixedly young sprout of the long bamboo pole of 1m when nursery stock grows to when having 7~8 leaves to container, carry out pinching when described young sprout grows to 80cm.
Wherein, the described Nutrition Soil of step (2) further comprises: reed end matrix, garden mould 1: 1 by volume~3 mixed preparing; Rice chaff ash, garden mould 1: 1 by volume~3 mixed preparing; Reed end matrix, rice chaff ash and garden mould preparation in 1: 1: 1 by volume; As preferred version of the present invention, described Nutrition Soil adopts reed end matrix, rice chaff ash and garden mould preparation in 1: 1: 1 by volume.
It is snakeskin bag or non-woven bag or pottery pot or vinyon flowerpot or polyethylene plastic bag that the described container of step (2) is cultivated the container of selecting.As preferred version of the present invention, described container is non-woven bag or polyethylene plastic bag or vinyon flowerpot, the bottom surface diameter 18~30cm of described container, high 16~30cm.
As preferred version of the present invention, the bottom surface diameter of the described container of step (2) is 25~30cm, high 20~30cm.
The plugged ear cuttage that step (2) is described will dip root-inducing powder is filled to Nutrition Soil first 2/5 of container in container the time, put into plugged ear after, banket again to 4/5 of container, plugged ear terminal bud and native face are maintained an equal level.For soil and plugged ear are connected airtight, with the container proper alignment after the cuttage, and spray water one time.
Beneficial effect: the method for a kind of breeding seedlings of grapes by using containers of the present invention has following advantage:
1, transplanted seedling tree is not subject to seasonal restrictions, at any time can field planting after nursery stock roots, not only be confined to spring;
2, effectively solved field seedling raising on the spot environmental requirement is higher, the plot can not occur by turns, continuous cropping causes a disease, and nursery stage is longer, and the winter is hidden the problems such as management is numerous and diverse, and lifting is time-consuming takes a lot of work, and easily hinders root, and seedling-slowing stage is longer after the field planting, and the nursery stock quality is not high;
3, root system forms in container, and well-developed complete root ball is arranged, and does not hinder root during lifting, need not prune before the plantation, can one-shot forming, and survival rate is high, the time and labour saving;
4, the rear survival rate of planting is high, does not have seedling-slowing stage, and the primary growth amount is large, and ahead of time flower bud differentiation realizes early high-yield, and seedling quality is high.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is Different Nutrition soil proportioning moisture variation diagram;
Fig. 2 is the moisture variation diagram of different size non-woven bag;
Fig. 3 is the moisture variation diagram of different size vinyon flowerpot;
Fig. 4 is unlike material container experiment moisture variation diagram.
Embodiment
Embodiment
Selection and the winter of 1, planting bar hide
Behind the grape fallen leaves, in conjunction with winter pruning, clip is fully ripe, eye is full, internode is shorter, be without damage, without 1 year living branch of damage by disease and insect.Press the arrangement of 80cm progress row, cut sublateral shoot, tendril, per 50 are bundled into bundle.Lash the wet sand of rear usefulness and bury temporarily, to reduce the moisture evaporation, guarantee the branch quality.To plant bar before the storage and be dipped in 5 degree lime sulfurs or 5% ferrous sulfate 1~3 minute, rear storage is dried in taking-up.
Different according to each Climate, can adopt trench storage or store sth. in a cellar.Optimum reserve temperature is 0 ℃, is higher than 5 ℃, and eye can be sprouted.The grape freezing tolerance is stronger, can resist-15 ℃ low temperature, so reserve temperature is rather low not high.Spread first the river sand of 10~20cm during storage, the kind bar is placed vertically and is sequenced, and the limit is filled out husky limit and rocked kind of a bar, will fill up sand between bundle and bundle, bar and the bar, otherwise easily goes rotten.Trench storage kind bar upper end is covered husky 10~20cm again, store sth. in a cellar thicker, about general 30cm.Along with the reduction of temperature is wanted gradation and is covered sand.After burying, water, river sand humidity remains on 50%, and is agglomerating to hold, and do not fall apart after loosing one's grip and be advisable.Must diligently check diligent moisturizing.Go mouldy as finding, in time to take out kind of a bar, with 5% ferrous sulfate, 0.1% mercuric chloride liquid or 0.3% disinfecting solution of potassium permanganate kind bar 1~3 minute, again seasoning after drying.
2, the processing of plugged ear
Late Febuary next year, the kind bar that will hide through passing the winter takes out, and cuts and grow into 18~20cm, has the plugged ear of 2~3 buds, and plugged ear upper end straight snips is apart from clip bud 1~1.5cm.Tiltedly cut apart from the following 0.5cm of eye the lower end.Not hinder diaphragm as degree, preserve intact plugged ear on the adjacent joint, the full stalwartness of performance eye, eye do not split, new wound is emerald green.Plugged ear was soaked in water 3~6 hours, suctioned moisture, dried.Be that the ABT root-inducing powder of 500ppm was dipped the plugged ear base portion 5 minutes with concentration, dry.
3, the selection of container
The container that the container cultivation is selected comprises any one in snakeskin bag, non-woven bag, pottery pot, vinyon flowerpot, the polyethylene plastic bag.Containers size according to bottom surface diameter * height comprise greatly (30cm * 30cm), in (25cm * 20cm), little (18cm * 16cm) three kinds.
4, the preparation of Nutrition Soil
The preparation of Nutrition Soil is different according to Nutrition Soil composition and proportioning, comprises reed end matrix, garden mould 1: 1 by volume~3 mixed preparing; Rice chaff ash, garden mould 1: 1 by volume~3 mixed preparing; Reed end matrix, rice chaff ash and garden mould preparation in 1: 1: 1 by volume.
5, the preparation in place
For vitis vinifera, because rainy at southern china, the place of therefore growing seedlings will be chosen in the lew.The lew General Requirements is built complete before growing seedlings at the beginning of 3 months, builds with reference to common booth, and draw-in groove is installed around the frame, and height is about 1.5m, and apron is not established in the draw-in groove below.If the booth that 6m is wide, the wide 7.0~7.5m that is generally of canopy film, length is decided on the plot.Canopy inherent smooth good upper berth, ground layer of non-woven fabric or plastic film both can play the effect that air is completely cured, and can prevent weed growth again.The Eurasian kind at north of China and other non-Eurasian grape varieties of planting need not the facility of taking shelter from rain, and only needs to select to level land upper berth layer of non-woven fabric or plastic film.
6, dress soil, cuttage
Nutrition Soil is filled to 2/5 of vessel volume, puts into plugged ear, refills soil to 4/5 of container, and plugged ear terminal bud and native face are maintained an equal level.To note protecting sprout during dress soil.Fresh or produced callus to clip, but the person of not yet not taking root, the ABT root-inducing powder of usable concentration 500ppm again speed dips in the plugged ear base portion.The container proper alignment that plantation is good.Set water of rear spray, soil and plugged ear are connected airtight.
7, the management of emerging
Green seedling growing period will in time be sprayed water, can not overdrying or excessively wet.Temperature is mainly regulated by natural lighting, and day temperature is controlled at 25~28 ℃, and the highest above 30 ℃, surpassing 28 ℃ will lower the temperature with sunshade net.Such as cold air, cover the straw screen or mat insulation to the greenhouse.Soil moisture content is 60~80% of maximum water-holding capacity in the container.The interior relative moisture of canopy remains on 75~80% and is advisable.In 5 months, the last ten-days period, treat about the high 20cm of young sprout, when having 7~8 leaves, insert the long bamboo pole of 1m, young sprout is fixed on the bamboo pole, treat the long pinching during to 80cm of young sprout, impel it to increase slightly.
8, the extermination of disease and insect pest
Diseases prevention emphasis between the grape nursery stage is downy mildew and powdery mildew, and the insect protected emphasis is green plant bug.The alternately controls of insecticide such as disease can be with the alternately control of the bactericide such as 70% first holder, 10% generation height, and insect pest Ke Yong Le Siben, farmland are happy.
9, outplanting
Namely can be used as commercial seedling and sell as long as the grape nursery stock of cultivating reaches wholeheartedly standard (four above leaves are arranged, obvious growing point is arranged) of four leaves, have obvious root system to generate.The field planting time is not subjected to the restriction in season.Go out before the garden will be in seedling growth greenhouse ventilation hardening more than one week.During field planting container is removed, be with native ball field planting, well-developed complete root ball is arranged, do not hinder root, do not have seedling-slowing stage after planting, seedling quality is high, and survival rate is high, and is effective, need not prune before the plantation, can one-shot forming.
Test example 1
For container nursery, moisture capacity and permeability embody the quality of dissimilar Nutrition Soil, in this test example, adopt the vinyon flowerpot of bottom surface diameter 25cm, high 20cm as container, prepare 8 kinds of Nutrition Soils (as shown in table 1) that composition is different with proportioning, method according to embodiment is carried out container nursery to grape, moisture content change (Fig. 1) in continuous 5 days of in September, 2010 inspection instrument, in December, 2010 measure the finished product seedling do high, do thick, Root Distribution situation (table 2).
Table 1 Different Nutrition soil composition and proportioning
As shown in Figure 1, A5, A6 soil moisture content almost do not change, the less variation of A7 soil moisture content, and A1 soil moisture content amplitude of variation is maximum, and A2, A3, A4 soil moisture content amplitude of variation are placed in the middle.Can infer, the rice chaff ash moisture capacity is better, and reed end matrix gas permeability is better.Moisture did not change in continuous 2~3 days, grew seedlings and easily macerated root, and moisture changes to grow seedlings more greatly needs duty to water time-consuming taking a lot of work.A8 soil moisture content amplitude of variation is placed in the middle, is optimum.
Table 2 Different Nutrition soil proportioning seedling growth test seedling growth situation relatively
By as seen from Table 2, A2, A3, A4 relatively along with the rising of garden mould ratio, the dried height of examination material, do and slightly obviously reduce, and A5, A6, A7 also present identical trend.A7 even be lower than contrast presents minimum.It is high, dried slightly apparently higher than other that A8 does, and the ratio of fibrous root is high, rare thick root.
So A8 reed end matrix: rice chaff ash: garden mould is that 1: 1: 1 Nutrition Soil moisture capacity, gas permeability is all comparatively moderate, the nursery stock of cultivation do high, do aspect thick, the Root Distribution all optimum.
Test example 2
Adopt reed end matrix: rice chaff ash: garden mould 1: 1: 1 by volume was Nutrition Soil, the container of choosing respectively three kinds of different sizes of non-woven bag and vinyon flowerpot carries out breeding seedlings of grapes by using containers according to embodiment, in September, 2010 continuous 5 days, moisture content change (Fig. 2, Fig. 3) in the inspection instrument.Measure the finished product seedling in December, 2010 and do high, dried thick, Root Distribution situation (table 2).
Containers size is three kinds according to bottom surface diameter * high score: large size (30cm * 30cm), medium size (25cm * 20cm), small size (18cm * 16cm).
Such as Fig. 2, shown in Figure 3, moisture variation large size and medium size amplitude of variation are basically identical in the non-woven bag, and small size amplitude of variation is larger.And the vinyon flowerpot is along with the increase of container, and the amplitude that moisture changes reduces gradually.Because large size vinyon flowerpot moisture variation in continuous 5 days is less, the nursery stock of cultivation is prone to macerates the root phenomenon.So from practicality and economic aspect analysis, (25cm * 20cm) container is optimum to medium size.
Table 3 different vessels specification seedling growth test seedling growth situation relatively
As shown in table 3, non-woven bag is along with the increase of container, do high, do thick and root system total quantity, thick radical amount all enlarge markedly.But medium size is less with large size difference.Identical variation tendency also appears in the vinyon flowerpot.As seen, the selection specification is the container about 25cm * 20cm, and is both economical, can produce high-quality nursery stock again.
Test example 3
Adopt reed end matrix: rice chaff ash: garden mould 1: 1: 1 by volume be Nutrition Soil, chose respectively the different container of 5 kinds, to plant nursery stock in ground, garden as contrast.In September, 2010 continuous 5 days, moisture content change (Fig. 4) in the monitoring container.Measure the finished product seedling in December, 2010 and do high, dried thick, Root Distribution situation (table 4).
As shown in Figure 4, pottery pot moisture amplitude of variation is maximum, secondly is non-woven bag, the snakeskin bag, and polyethylene plastic bag and vinyon flowerpot are compared with the contrast of ground, garden, without significant difference.As seen the pottery pot moisture capacity is the poorest; Polyethylene plastic bag and vinyon flowerpot moisture capacity are best, but continuous 2~3 days moisture amplitudes of variation are less, the phenomenon that root easily occurs macerating.Nonwoven and snakeskin bag moisture capacity are moderate, but the snakeskin bag is perishable through summer high temperature.So non-woven bag is optimum.
Table 4 unlike material chamber test seedling growth situation relatively
As shown in Table 4, just do Gao Eryan, ground, garden is the highest, secondly is non-woven bag, snakeskin bag, and pottery pot is minimum.Just do slightly, polyethylene plastic bag is the thickest, and secondly ground, garden the second be non-woven bag, and pottery pot is the thinnest.With regard to the distribution of root, the thick root on ground, garden is maximum, and plastic sack and snakeskin bag are more, and other are less.
As seen, select non-woven bag to grow seedlings, seedling quality is best, but because the non-woven bag price is vinyon flowerpot, plastic sack 10 times, so from economic angle, large tracts of land is grown seedlings and selected vinyon flowerpot, plastic sack is that container is also comparatively desirable.
The above only is preferred embodiment of the present invention; be noted that for those skilled in the art; under the prerequisite that does not break away from the principle of the invention, can also make some improvements and modifications, these improvements and modifications also should be considered as protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (4)

1. the method for a breeding seedlings of grapes by using containers is characterized in that comprising the steps:
(1) plant the selection of bar: ripe, the annual grape branch that eye is full of clip in winter is as kind of a bar, the described kind of long 75 ~ 85cm of bar, be bundled into be embedded in after the bundle humidity be in 50% the wet sand winter hide;
(2) processing of plugged ear: take out the plugged ear of planting bar and being cut into 18 ~ 20cm, reservation 2 ~ 3 buds in late Febuary next year, will dip root-inducing powder at base portion behind described plugged ear immersion 3 ~ 6h, then cuttage is in the container that Nutrition Soil is housed; Described Nutrition Soil is reed end matrix and the mixing of garden mould, and perhaps rice chaff ash and garden mould mixes the perhaps mixing of the last matrix of reed, rice chaff ash and garden mould;
(3) cultivate nursery stock: insert fixedly young sprout of the long bamboo pole of 1m when nursery stock grows to when having 7 ~ 8 leaves to container, carry out pinching when described young sprout grows to 80cm.
2. the method for a kind of breeding seedlings of grapes by using containers according to claim 1 is characterized in that: the described Nutrition Soil of step (2) adopts reed end matrix, rice chaff ash and garden mould to prepare for 1:1:1 by volume.
3. the method for a kind of breeding seedlings of grapes by using containers according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: the described container of step (2) is non-woven bag or polyethylene plastic bag or vinyon flowerpot, the bottom surface diameter 18 ~ 30cm of described container, high 16 ~ 30cm.
4. the method for a kind of breeding seedlings of grapes by using containers according to claim 3, it is characterized in that: the bottom surface diameter of the described container of step (2) is 25 ~ 30cm, high 20 ~ 30cm.
CN 201110218071 2011-08-01 2011-08-01 Method for breeding seedlings of grapes by using containers Expired - Fee Related CN102349430B (en)

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Families Citing this family (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN103975822A (en) * 2014-05-22 2014-08-13 吐鲁番枣尔康农业科技开发有限责任公司 Grape root domain limiting seedling cultivation method
CN104447005A (en) * 2014-12-04 2015-03-25 何德 Lightweight organic nutrient soil and preparation method thereof
CN104823799A (en) * 2015-06-08 2015-08-12 安顺市平坝时尚果蔬专业合作社 Grape root zone limiting cultivating method
CN105218240A (en) * 2015-10-16 2016-01-06 全椒县荣昌葡萄种植专业合作社 A kind of grape seedling medium
CN106069671B (en) * 2016-06-22 2019-04-02 青岛农业大学 Two sections of matrix cultivating methods of fruit tree hybrid seedling suitable for greenhouse second crop soil
CN107873284A (en) * 2017-11-24 2018-04-06 犍为县九妹家庭农场 A kind of grape cottage breeding technology
CN110089357A (en) * 2019-05-13 2019-08-06 江西省科学院生物资源研究所 A kind of cuttage and seedling culture method of radix tetrastigme

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