CN104350991B - A kind of Wheat after rice half no-tillage machine trench digging broadcasts sowing cultural method - Google Patents

A kind of Wheat after rice half no-tillage machine trench digging broadcasts sowing cultural method Download PDF

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CN104350991B
CN104350991B CN201410674171.2A CN201410674171A CN104350991B CN 104350991 B CN104350991 B CN 104350991B CN 201410674171 A CN201410674171 A CN 201410674171A CN 104350991 B CN104350991 B CN 104350991B
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wheat
rice
sowing
trench digging
fertilizer
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CN104350991A (en
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张昌江
解清
高时凤
华胜
王宜坤
谢长武
蒋光月
姚自鸣
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ANHUI XIYANGYANG AGRI-STUFF Co Ltd
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ANHUI XIYANGYANG AGRI-STUFF Co Ltd
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01BSOIL WORKING IN AGRICULTURE OR FORESTRY; PARTS, DETAILS, OR ACCESSORIES OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINES OR IMPLEMENTS, IN GENERAL
    • A01B79/00Methods for working soil
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01BSOIL WORKING IN AGRICULTURE OR FORESTRY; PARTS, DETAILS, OR ACCESSORIES OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINES OR IMPLEMENTS, IN GENERAL
    • A01B79/00Methods for working soil
    • A01B79/02Methods for working soil combined with other agricultural processing, e.g. fertilising, planting
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P60/00Technologies relating to agriculture, livestock or agroalimentary industries
    • Y02P60/20Reduction of greenhouse gas [GHG] emissions in agriculture, e.g. CO2

Abstract

Disclosure one Wheat after rice half no-tillage machine trench digging broadcasts sowing cultural method, comprises the following steps: crop succession and Fruit variety;Application rate and fertilising;Base manure is used, and to be affixed by carbamide 5-7kg in rice straw total crop return field base manure, to urge rotten straw;Uniformly sowing;The management of Wheat after rice, harvesting when Semen Tritici aestivi 100% is ripe, dry storing and sell.In rice straw total crop return field base manure of the present invention, add soil nutrient, improve the crumb structure of soil, increase the nitrogen fixation of soil;The present invention is before rice stubble field non-ploughing wheat fertilizing is after planting emerged; according to should plough soil moisture content select rotary tillage machine carry out shallow rotation half no-tillage, trench digging; ditch cleaning before after planting emerging, reduce soil erosion, it is possible to protect farmland, carry moisture in the soil heat, add Heavy Rain rainwash, reduce stain evil.

Description

A kind of Wheat after rice half no-tillage machine trench digging broadcasts sowing cultural method
Technical field
The invention belongs to crop seeding field, specifically a kind of Wheat after rice half no-tillage machine trench digging broadcasts sowing cultural method.
Background technology
Plantation Semen Tritici aestivi or Fructus Hordei Vulgaris after rice field gathers in the crops Oryza sativa L..There is Wheat After Getting Rice in southern china and the north, it is mainly distributed on the Yangtze river basin, based on wheat-rice rotation to the north of the Yangtze river basin, on the south the Yangtze river basin except wheat-rice rotation, province and the Shanghai City such as Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Jiangxi, Hunan, Fujian, also have early rice late rice Semen Tritici aestivi (or Fructus Hordei Vulgaris) three crops per annual.Since 20 century 70s, some local changing the drought field to the paddy one and Dry seeded rice carried out of varieties in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain, expansion rice cultivation area, thus having developed wheat-rice rotation plantation system.Plantation Wheat After Getting Rice area Semen Tritici aestivi commodity rate is higher, and has bigger yield potential.This cropping system plays an important role to improving total output of grain.
The most of area of southern china, Wheat After Getting Rice is emerged incomplete, irregular, and cultivation management is extensive, fertilising deficiency, and late growth stage is rainy, wet injury weight, and soil haftplatte knot, disease, worm, crop smothering are all more general;Riverine lakeside area on the south 31 ° of N, the popular frequency of head blight is high.North Wheat After Getting Rice is slow because of crops for rotation, sowing evening, and fringe is few, fringe is little, again meets Drought in later stage more, often yields poorly and unstable.
Summary of the invention
It is an object of the invention to overcome prior art defect, it is provided that a kind of Wheat after rice half no-tillage machine trench digging broadcasts sowing cultural method.
The purpose of the present invention can be achieved through the following technical solutions:
A kind of Wheat after rice half no-tillage machine trench digging broadcasts sowing cultural method, comprises the following steps:
(1) crop succession and Fruit variety: by the end of September, early October precocity rice stubble field non-ploughing, selects plantation Semi-winter wheat;In mid or late October to early November, late sowing round-grained rice in evening rice stubble field non-ploughing, select plantation Late frost damage;Mid or late November allows a batch rice field, the precocious spring wheat of sowing;
(2) application rate and fertilising: early October precocity rice stubble field non-ploughing by the end of September, mu application rate 12-13kg, input fertilizer total amount 45kg per mu, wherein purity nitrogen 18kg, phosphorus pentoxide 6kg, potassium oxide 21kg;In mid or late October to early November, late sowing round-grained rice in evening rice stubble field non-ploughing, mu application rate 16-20kg, input fertilizer total amount 40kg per mu: wherein purity nitrogen 16kg, phosphorus pentoxide 5kg, potassium oxide 19kg;Mid or late November allows a batch rice field, the precocious spring wheat of sowing, mu application rate 20-25kg, input fertilizer total amount 35kg per mu: wherein purity nitrogen 14kg, phosphorus pentoxide 5kg, potassium oxide 16kg;
(3) base manure is used: in wheat basal fertilizer nitrogen, potash fertilizer in an amount 65%, phosphate fertilizer in an amount 100%, namely mu adds 0.5kg particle zinc fertilizer with 45% NPK 35-40kg, after previous crops allows stubble, before sowing, disposable holostrome applies, paddy stalk total crop return field base manure to be affixed by carbamide 5-7kg, to urge rotten straw stalk;
(4) uniformly sowing: bask seeds, dress seed, sow, before rice stubble field non-ploughing wheat fertilizing is after planting emerged, according to should plough soil moisture content select rotary tillage machine carry out shallow rotation half no-tillage, trench digging, the deep 40cm of gutter, waist ditch depth 30cm, furrow ditch depth 20cm, furrow face width should at 1.2-1.5m, ditch cleaning before after planting emerging;
(5) management of Wheat after rice: halcyon days carries out topdress carbamide 10kg, potassium chloride 5kg, dressing of turnning green stage is imposed after spring, heavy dressing jointing fertilizer, when ground moistening, blade face are without dew, holostrome spreads fertilizer over the fields, carry out preventing and treating head blight and small brown rice planthopper before 10% flowering after the Semen Tritici aestivi neat fringe of heading, harvesting when Semen Tritici aestivi 100% is ripe, dries storing and sells.
Described Semi-winter wheat is Yangmai No.158 or all wheats 22;Described Late frost damage is for raising wheat 13 or raising wheat 15.
Seed dressing is in described step (4): every 100kg seed 25% Prochloraz 80-100ml adds 35% carbosulfan 100g and is watered 5kg and uniformly dresses seed and pile vexed 3-5h, carries out coating wheat seed.
In described step (4), sowing condition is: soil moisture 80-85%, carries out uniform broadcasting or drilling with seeder before the later half no-tillage trench digging that applies fertilizer.
The step of weeding is also carried out before described step (5) imposes dressing of turnning green stage.
Weeding after ditch cleaning in described step (4), every mu with N,N'-dimethyl-.gamma..gamma.'-dipyridylium 200ml add 75% isoproturon 120g be watered 45kg dragging tube type spraying machine even spraying in furrow face, furrow ditch and ridge.
In described step (5), Semen Tritici aestivi every mu of use 75% oxime bacterium Tebuconazole 30ml of earing after neat fringe before 10% flowering adds 20% triazolone 80g and adds 2% avilamycin 100ml and add 25% pymetrozine micro-fertilizer that adds 0.2% and be watered 45kg and carry out foliar spray in time morning and evening, prevents and treats head blight and small brown rice planthopper.
Beneficial effects of the present invention: to be affixed by carbamide 5-7kg in paddy stalk total crop return field base manure of the present invention, to urge rotten straw stalk, increases soil nutrient, improves the crumb structure of soil, increase the nitrogen fixation of soil;The present invention is before rice stubble field non-ploughing wheat fertilizing is after planting emerged; according to should plough soil moisture content select rotary tillage machine carry out shallow rotation half no-tillage, trench digging; the deep 40cm of gutter, waist ditch depth 30cm, furrow ditch depth 20cm; furrow face width should at 1.2-1.5m; ditch cleaning before after planting emerging; reduce soil erosion, it is possible to the harm of sandstorm of protecting farmland, reduce.
Detailed description of the invention
For the ease of it will be appreciated by those skilled in the art that the present invention is further illustrated below in conjunction with specific embodiment.
In the present invention, % is if no special instructions, is all weight percentage.
Embodiment 1
A kind of Wheat after rice half no-tillage machine trench digging broadcasts sowing cultural method, comprises the following steps:
1, crop succession and wheat breed select
Precocious rice stubble field non-ploughing, namely allows a batch rice field by the end of September to early October, select plantation Semi-winter wheat such as Yangmai No.158 or week wheat 22;In, late sowing japonica rice in evening stubble, in mid or late October to early November, late sowing round-grained rice in evening rice stubble field non-ploughing, select plantation Late frost damage;Mid or late November allows a batch rice field, the precocious spring wheat of sowing.
2, application rate, total fertilization amount
Early October allows a batch rice field, sows Semi-winter wheat field, mu application rate 12-13kg, input fertilizer total amount (containing pure amount of nutrients) 45kg per mu: wherein purity nitrogen 18kg, phosphorus pentoxide 6kg, potassium oxide 21kg;Mid or late October to allowing a batch rice field at the beginning of 11 months, sow spring wheat field, mu application rate 16-20kg, input fertilizer total amount (containing pure amount of nutrients) 40kg per mu: wherein purity nitrogen 16kg, phosphorus pentoxide 5kg, potassium oxide 19kg;Mid or late November allows a batch rice field, the precocious spring wheat of sowing, mu application rate 20-25kg, input fertilizer total amount (containing pure amount of nutrients) 35kg per mu: wherein purity nitrogen 14kg, phosphorus pentoxide 5kg, potassium oxide 16kg.
3, base manure is used
In wheat basal fertilizer nitrogen, potash fertilizer in an amount 65%, phosphate fertilizer in an amount 100%, namely mu adds 0.5kg particle zinc fertilizer with 45% NPK 35-40kg, after previous crops allows stubble, before sowing, disposable fertilizer distributor holostrome applies, paddy stalk total crop return field base manure to be affixed by carbamide 5-7kg, to urge rotten straw stalk.
4, uniformly sow
4.1 bask seeds
Before wheat cultivation 2-3 days, sowing wheat seed on the ground at earth or being covered with on agricultural film place and shone 1-2 days, one is break Semen Tritici aestivi rest period, and two is kill the surface of the seed pathogenic bacteria, improves germination regularity and germination percentage.
4.2 seed dressings
Sowing before with every 100kg seed 25% Prochloraz 80-100ml add 35% carbosulfan 100g be watered 5kg uniformly dress seed pile vexed 3-5 hour, carry out coating wheat seed.
4.3 " three fit " sowing
According to suitable field soil moisture content, select suitable application rate, late September to early October, use Semi-winter wheat seed, at soil moisture content suitable (), mu about application rate 11-13kg, when soil overdrying or overly moist, mu application rate is increased to 15kg under soil moisture 80-85% together.Mid or late October to early November, with Late frost damage, when soil moisture content is suitable, mu application rate 16-18kg, when soil overdrying or overly moist, application rate is increased to 20kg, mid-November and after, with precocious Late frost damage, the mu application rate 21-23kg when soil moisture content is suitable, when overdrying or overly moist, application rate is increased to 25kg.Type of seeding is: in " three fit " situation, carry out uniform broadcasting or drilling with seeder before the later half no-tillage trench digging that applies fertilizer.
4.4 half no-tillage machine trench diggings
Before rice stubble field non-ploughing wheat fertilizing is after planting emerged, according to should plough soil moisture content select rotary tillage machine carry out shallow rotation half no-tillage, trench digging.Method is to hang three-pieces with 488 large-scale rotary cultivators: preposition group of rotation cutter, middle extension ditching knife (wide 25cm, deep 25cm), rear extension drop down flat board or suppression plate carries out disposable operation, requiring the deep 40cm of gutter, waist ditch depth 30cm, furrow ditch depth 20cm, furrow face width should at 1.2-1.5m.
4.5 ditch cleanings
To use artificial ditch cleaning, more logical " three ditches " i.e. waist ditch, furrow ditch and gutter before after planting emerging in time, accomplish that " three ditches " communicates.
4.6 close down weeding
Close down weeding in time after reason ditch ditch cleaning, mu N,N'-dimethyl-.gamma..gamma.'-dipyridylium 200ml add 75% isoproturon 120g be watered 45kg dragging tube type spraying machine even spraying in furrow face, furrow ditch and ridge, one can kill size grass and rice stub, and two can close weeding.
5, the management of Wheat after rice
5.1 chase after seed manure
Topdressing before winter and to carry out at halcyon days, mu imposes " cured fertilizer " carbamide 10kg, potassium chloride 5kg.
5.2 weedings
Plot that sealing effect is bad or location, temperature more than 15 degree before the winter, grass wants to like 80ml with wheat pole 20g or wheat in time as 2 leaf phases be watered spraying, if grass is prevented and kill off less than 1.5 leaves as leaf age after the spring when period of seedling establishment temperature goes back up to more than 15 degree.
5.3 impose dressing of turnning green stage
After spring, striking root herbicide is simultaneously, and mu imposes dressing of turnning green stage carbamide 5kg, promotes tiller.
5.4 heavy dressing jointing fertilizer
When the timing of Semen Tritici aestivi base portion first segment length, when second section grows to 1cm, mu imposes 45%N-K compound fertilizer 10-15kg or carbamide 15kg, potassium chloride 10kg, and when ground moistening, blade face are without dew, holostrome spreads fertilizer over the fields.
5.5 Semen Tritici aestivis one spray four to be prevented
Attention control banded sclerotial blight and powdery mildew during Semen Tritici aestivi envelope row, agricultural measures: ditch cleaning reason water row's stain, Potassium.Semen Tritici aestivi is eared and is carried out preventing and treating head blight and small brown rice planthopper before 10% flowering after neat fringe, and mu adds 20% triazolone 80g with 75% oxime bacterium Tebuconazole 30ml and adds 2% avilamycin 100ml and be watered 45kg and carry out foliar spray in time morning and evening.
5.6 Semen Tritici aestivi ripe and harvested
When Semen Tritici aestivi 100% is ripe, to gather in time when within 3-5 days, weather is fine according to future, dry storing and sell.
Above content is only citing made for the present invention and explanation; described specific embodiment is made various amendment or supplements or adopt similar mode to substitute by affiliated those skilled in the art; without departing from inventing or surmounting the scope that present claims book is defined, protection scope of the present invention all should be belonged to.

Claims (7)

1. a Wheat after rice half no-tillage machine trench digging broadcasts sowing cultural method, it is characterised in that comprise the following steps:
(1) crop succession and Fruit variety: by the end of September, early October precocity rice stubble field non-ploughing, selects plantation Semi-winter wheat;In mid or late October to early November, late sowing round-grained rice in evening rice stubble field non-ploughing, select plantation Late frost damage;Mid or late November allows a batch rice field, the precocious spring wheat of sowing;
(2) application rate and fertilising: early October precocity rice stubble field non-ploughing by the end of September, mu application rate 12-13kg, input fertilizer total amount 45kg per mu, wherein purity nitrogen 18kg, phosphorus pentoxide 6kg, potassium oxide 21kg;In mid or late October to early November, late sowing round-grained rice in evening rice stubble field non-ploughing, mu application rate 16-20kg, input fertilizer total amount 40kg per mu: wherein purity nitrogen 16kg, phosphorus pentoxide 5kg, potassium oxide 19kg;Mid or late November allows a batch rice field, the precocious spring wheat of sowing, mu application rate 20-25kg, input fertilizer total amount 35kg per mu: wherein purity nitrogen 14kg, phosphorus pentoxide 5kg, potassium oxide 16kg;
(3) base manure is used: in wheat basal fertilizer nitrogen, potash fertilizer in an amount 65%, phosphate fertilizer in an amount 100%, namely mu adds 0.5kg particle zinc fertilizer with 45% NPK 35-40kg, after previous crops allows stubble, before sowing, disposable holostrome applies, paddy stalk total crop return field base manure to be affixed by carbamide 5-7kg, to urge rotten straw stalk;
(4) uniformly sowing: bask seeds, dress seed, sow, before rice stubble field non-ploughing wheat fertilizing is after planting emerged, according to should plough soil moisture content select rotary tillage machine carry out shallow rotation half no-tillage, trench digging, the deep 40cm of gutter, waist ditch depth 30cm, furrow ditch depth 20cm, furrow face width should at 1.2-1.5m, ditch cleaning before after planting emerging;
(5) management of Wheat after rice: halcyon days carries out topdress carbamide 10kg, potassium chloride 5kg, dressing of turnning green stage is imposed after spring, heavy dressing jointing fertilizer, when ground moistening, blade face are without dew, holostrome spreads fertilizer over the fields, carry out preventing and treating head blight and small brown rice planthopper before 10% flowering after the Semen Tritici aestivi neat fringe of heading, harvesting when Semen Tritici aestivi 100% is ripe, dries storing and sells.
2. Wheat after rice half no-tillage machine according to claim 1 trench digging broadcasts sowing cultural method, it is characterised in that described Semi-winter wheat is Yangmai No.158 or all wheats 22;Described Late frost damage is for raising wheat 13 or raising wheat 15.
3. Wheat after rice half no-tillage machine according to claim 1 trench digging broadcasts sowing cultural method, it is characterized in that, seed dressing is in described step (4): every 100kg seed 25% Prochloraz 80-100ml adds 35% carbosulfan 100g and is watered 5kg and uniformly dresses seed and pile vexed 3-5h, carries out coating wheat seed.
4. Wheat after rice half no-tillage machine according to claim 1 trench digging broadcasts sowing cultural method, it is characterized in that, in described step (4), sowing condition is: soil moisture 80-85%, carries out uniform broadcasting or drilling with seeder before the later half no-tillage trench digging that applies fertilizer.
5. Wheat after rice half no-tillage machine according to claim 1 trench digging broadcasts sowing cultural method, it is characterised in that also carry out the step of weeding before imposing dressing of turnning green stage in described step (5).
6. Wheat after rice half no-tillage machine according to claim 1 trench digging broadcasts sowing cultural method, it is characterized in that, weeding after ditch cleaning in described step (4), every mu with N,N'-dimethyl-.gamma..gamma.'-dipyridylium 200ml add 75% isoproturon 120g be watered 45kg dragging tube type spraying machine even spraying in furrow face, furrow ditch and ridge.
7. Wheat after rice half no-tillage machine according to claim 1 trench digging broadcasts sowing cultural method, it is characterized in that, in described step (5), Semen Tritici aestivi every mu of use 75% oxime bacterium Tebuconazole 30ml of earing after neat fringe before 10% flowering adds 20% triazolone 80g and adds 2% avilamycin 100ml and add 25% pymetrozine micro-fertilizer that adds 0.2% and be watered 45kg and carry out foliar spray in time morning and evening, prevents and treats head blight and small brown rice planthopper.
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