CN103355127B - Early sowing method for rice field milk vetch - Google Patents

Early sowing method for rice field milk vetch Download PDF

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CN103355127B
CN103355127B CN201310328467.4A CN201310328467A CN103355127B CN 103355127 B CN103355127 B CN 103355127B CN 201310328467 A CN201310328467 A CN 201310328467A CN 103355127 B CN103355127 B CN 103355127B
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rice
field
milk vetch
sowing
chinese milk
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CN103355127A (en
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廖育林
聂军
谢坚
鲁艳红
杨曾平
周兴
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HUNAN SOIL AND FERTILIZER INST
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HUNAN SOIL AND FERTILIZER INST
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Abstract

The invention discloses an early sowing method for the rice field milk vetch. The early sowing method for the rice field milk vetch comprises the following steps: a) sowing the milk vetch: in the late rice tillering last stage to the full heading time, sowing the milk vetch with the sowing amount of 2.0-2.5kg per unit of area when the field water content is less than 15%; b) managing field water: after sowing, keeping the field water content at 10-40%, opening a ridge ditch hole to discharge water after the milk-ripe stage of the late rice, ensuring that the field is under the drying state when the rice is harvested, then, harvesting the late rice by the harvester, regulating distance between the header of the harvester and the ground to be 45-55cm when the late rice is harvested, and evenly spreading the accumulated straw in the field after the rice is harvested; and c) ditching a land for growing field crops: after the late rice is harvested, digging a surrounding ditch around the field by a ditcher to ensure that the highest water level of the field does not exceed 0.5cm. The early sowing method for the rice field milk vetch, which is disclosed by the invention, is combined with the necessary farm operation of the rice in the rice growth period when the rice field operation is convenient, and water management is reasonably carried out to simplify the milk vetch sowing.

Description

Broadcasting method morning of a kind of rice field Chinese milk vetch
Technical field
The present invention relates to broadcasting method morning of a kind of rice field Chinese milk vetch.
Background technology
Chinese milk vetch is manure resources very important in the agricultural production of South Rice Region of China, and the past is maintaining South Rice Region of China soil fertility and promoting the development of plant husbandry to play very important effect.From the seventies in last century, due to rural laborer's transfer and chemical fertilizer spread, the atrophy gradually of southern Chinese milk vetch cultivated area.In recent years, the large-scale application of farm machinery, has alleviated the labour intensity of Chinese milk vetch green manuring; The drawback of chemical fertilizer agricultural highlights gradually simultaneously; people also improve gradually to the understanding of the ecological agriculture; and the outstanding role of Chinese milk vetch on reducing chemical fertilizer application and protecting farmland, recover and develop Chinese milk vetch to plant the attention that is again subject to country, government and society all circles.
Chinese milk vetch is mainly planted in double cropping rice and a season rice rice field, utilizes the crops for rotation gap before inserting to spring spring next year after late rice or season rice results.Plantation Chinese milk vetch can make full use of the photo-thermal resource in crops for rotation gap, fixedly Atmospheric CO 2and N 2, after Chinese milk vetch utilization, can reach province's fertilizer, promote the objects such as soil fertility.Yet because rural laborer in recent years shifts to city in a large number, the labour's input how reducing in Chinese milk vetch production process has become the task of top priority.
Traditional Chinese milk vetch is after late rice or season rice grouting, before harvesting, sows.Now Grain Filling of Rice has started even to complete.Sowing Chinese milk vetch this period easily makes on spike of rice fast ripe grain cause the underproduction because people's walking comes off; In paddy field after grouting, sow on the other hand, have the winding of paddy rice Lao Ye, sowing walking is more difficult, and average 1 labour only can sow 15 mu every day.Tradition sowing labour intensity is large, thereby has a strong impact on the enthusiasm of peasant planting Chinese milk vetch.Therefore, the selection of Chinese milk vetch seedtime has become the bottleneck problem that under modern Farming System, paddy fields in south china green manure is produced and utilized.
Summary of the invention
The object of the invention is to for the deficiencies in the prior art provide a kind of utilize paddy growth during (late rice late tillering state to full heading time), when field, rice field operates more conveniently, by combining with the necessary farming operation of paddy rice, reasonably carry out water management, realize rice field Chinese milk vetch broadcasting method morning of the easy of Chinese milk vetch sowing.
The present invention is achieved through the following technical solutions above-mentioned purpose:
Broadcasting method morning for rice field Chinese milk vetch, comprises the steps:
A, Chinese milk vetch sowing:
In late rice late tillering state, to full heading time, keep field moisture to be less than 15%, with every mu of 2.0~2.5 kilograms of seeding quantitys, carry out Chinese milk vetch sowing;
B, field water management:
After planting, keep field moisture 10%~40%, late rice is after milk ripe stage, open the draining of the ridge exit or entrance of a clitch, while guaranteeing rice harves, field, in drying regime, then gathers in the crops late rice with grain header, and the header of adjusting grain header during late rice results is 45~55cm overhead, after rice harves, the straw of accumulation is evenly scatter in field;
C, land for growing field crops trench digging:
After late rice results, with ditching machine, in field surrounding, hold successfully and enclose ditch, make field peak level be no more than 0.5cm.
In described step b, when field moisture is lower than 10% time, carry out moistening irrigation, make field moisture remain on 10%~40%.
Described grain header adopts whole-feed rice combine harvester.
After described step a, before Chinese milk vetch sowing, Chinese Milk Vetch Seeds is carried out to legume inoculation and phosphate fertilizer seed dressing.
Described drying regime is that field moisture is less than 10% state.
In described step c, in field, every 5~12m, open a straight flute, make rice field form the ditch system of " ten " font or the perforation of " well " font.
Adopt said method, tool of the present invention has the following advantages:
1, due to (late rice late tillering state to full heading time) during paddy growth, the operation of field, rice field is more convenient, therefore when sowing Chinese milk vetch, can save labour's input, and the grain that falls to the infringement of rice plant and ripe paddy while having reduced sowing.
2, the time of sowing Chinese milk vetch is adjusted into late rice late tillering state to full heading time and sows, time is more flexible, also reduced tradition after planting the pour water cost of vernalization of rice field drop into, added field water management, make the Chinese Milk Vetch Seeds to sow also and can grow normally during paddy growth.
3, late rice results grain header header height of the present invention is between 45~55cm; make to stay stalk height in rice field at 45~55cm; this highly makes the straw length of gathering in little; on the one hand; the straw length of gathering in is little; need not burn again straw or tie up straw; improved efficiency; and all also field uses of the straw gathering in; full dose straw incorporation is utilized the organic and inorganic nutrients of straw comprehensively by the growth of Chinese milk vetch; on the other hand, late rice stays the early growth that high stubble is Chinese milk vetch that protection is provided.
3, owing to utilizing this method sowing early, Chinese milk vetch is emerged early, plant strain growth is better, thereby Chinese milk vetch plant quality improves, and the ability of surviving the winter and weed competition ability improve.
4, sowing in advance can make Chinese milk vetch begin to spend and seed maturity time advance, and the green manure that is more adapted to double rice cropping system turns over, and can guarantee to enter for 15~20 days before rice transplanting full-bloom stage.
In sum, the paddy rice cover that the present invention is applicable to periodical water-logging that south extensively distributes, submerging, Percogenic paddy soils type is broadcast the area of Chinese milk vetch.Selection rice tillering carries out artificial or mechanical uniform sowing to paddy rice full heading time latter stage.Late rice harvesting time adopts whole-feed rice combine harvester, according to paddy rice growing way, header is adjusted to the highest, stays high straw stubble as far as possible.After rice harves, with bamboo pole or rake, the straw of accumulation of thick is scatter, to guarantee that Chinese milk vetch seedling do not covered by the moon and kill.The present invention can maintain the germination rate of Chinese Milk Vetch Seeds, and planting percent reduces labour intensity, raises labour efficiency, and improves work situation, and extensive use in the production practices of Chinese milk vetch at home and abroad.
Embodiment
Further describe the embodiment of this patent below.
The type of seeding of a kind of rice field Chinese milk vetch, in late rice late tillering state to full heading time, according to paddy rice growing way, keep field in moisture state (when field moisture is less than 15%), before sowing, with bamboo pole, paddy rice is separated to the convenient sowing of working line, Chinese Milk Vetch Seeds carries out legume inoculation and phosphate fertilizer seed dressing: the step of Chinese Milk Vetch Seeds being carried out to legume inoculation and phosphate fertilizer seed dressing is as follows, at indoor shady and cool place, will Rhizobium Inoculant be made into the aqueous solution according to rhizobium description of commodity, after within 30 minutes, drying with the emerge in worm water about 37 degree, connect again bacterium, postvaccinal Chinese Milk Vetch Seeds is placed on to indoor shady and cool place to be dried slightly to tack-free, add after the adhesive wet wattenshlick soil or mud powder of seed weight twice, the identical phosphate fertilizer of seed weight use the sieve of left and right, 5mm aperture that screen for seeds is become to mud ball makes to dress seed after seed parcel wattenshlick or clay coating, after this, can carry out Chinese milk vetch sowing, after Rhizobium Inoculation and seed dressing phosphate fertilizer, with every mu of 2.0~2.5 kilograms of seeding quantitys, carry out Chinese milk vetch sowing.After planting, paddy rice carries out water management, keeps field moisture state (field moisture 10%~40%), if field cracking seam keeps field moisture state by carrying out moistening irrigation.Late rice, after milk ripe stage, is opened the draining of the ridge exit or entrance of a clitch.While guaranteeing rice harves, field is in drying regime, and the rice combine that rice harves adopts is whole-feed rice combine harvester.In late rice when results, is adjusted the header of rice combine to the maximum height of rice harves according to paddy rice growing way, is generally 45~55cm overhead.After rice harves, with bamboo pole or rake, the straw of accumulation of thick is scatter, make late rice total straw evenly go back field.Prevent that straw from killing Chinese milk vetch seedling.After rice harves, select to become a fine day with ditching machine and hold successfully and enclose ditch in field surrounding, meanwhile, every 10m left and right, open a straight flute, make rice field form " ten " font or " well " font ditch system.
Embodiment 1
Select double cropping rice production area, Changsha County---Gan Shan township, select same field, be divided into 3 parts, respectively at rice tillering latter stage, full heading time and traditional first 15 days sowing Chinese milk vetchs of results.Test kind is fertile No. 3 of Hunan, 2.0 kilograms every mu of planting seed amounts.By described five steps above, carry out field management after planting.
Adopt different times sowing Chinese milk vetch to affect the growth bearing status of Chinese milk vetch.With first 15 days of rice harves sowing relatively, late tillering state sowing and full heading time sowing have all increased the number of days in the time of infertility, and the time advance in seeding stage, beginning branch's phase, beginning florescence, full-bloom stage and maturing stage.
Plant of different seedtime winter of table 1 Chinese milk vetch breeding time (month/day)
Because the purity of Chinese Milk Vetch Seeds own is not high, add a part of seed wax bed thickness, land for growing field crops germination rate only has 70%~80% conventionally.Adopt late tillering state sowing Chinese milk vetch this season planting percent can reach 34.6%, every square meter can surpass 250 healthy individual plants, and individual plant average headway is less than 6cm, meets the Basic Seedling quantity requirement of Chinese milk vetch plantation completely.The more traditional sowing of plant height of the Chinese milk vetch of late tillering state sowing and full heading time sowing improves respectively 68.8% and 59.0%, and individual plant quality is obviously better than traditional type of seeding, can form in land for growing field crops enough cover degrees, stronger to the inhibition ability of weeds in field.
The different seedtimes of table 2 Chinese milk vetch plant quality application form before the winter
After entering winter, Chinese milk vetch is suppressed by low temperature, poor growth.Adopt late tillering state sowing Chinese milk vetch plant due to vegetative growth phase before having extended the winter, promoted the formation of root nodule, adopt rice tillering latter stage and the more traditional Chinese milk vetch type of seeding of full heading time sowing to increase root nodule number; Promoted overground part to produce branch, compared with conventional method branch amount, increased.True leaf number and the dry-matter accumulation of the Chinese milk vetch plant of rice tillering latter stage and full heading time sowing also have certain advantage, therefore can improve tree characteristics and obtain higher fresh careless output and seed production.
The different seedtime during Wintering Period of table 3 Chinese milk vetch plant quality application form
The fresh careless output of full-bloom stage is sequentially, and full heading time sowing > gathers in the crops first 15 days sowing > late tillering states and sows.Seed production order is also sowed > late tillering state for first 15 days and is sowed for full heading time sowing > gathers in the crops.Full-bloom stage output and the seed production of late tillering state sowing, full heading time sowing and results sowing in first 15 days are all more or less the same.
The impact of the different seedtimes of table 4 Chinese milk vetch on fresh careless output and seed production
Embodiment 2
1, select double cropping rice production area, Yuanjiang City---Xinhua town, choose the normal late rice of growth rice field is divided into three parts, before sowing, with bamboo pole, paddy rice is separated to working line.
2, in first 15 days sowing Chinese milk vetchs of late tillering state, full heading time and results.Test kind is No. 3, Hunan fertilizer, adopts warm water bubble to plant after 3 hours before sowing, and spraying liquid legume inoculation, dries.
3, adopt light-duty machinery sowing, 2.0 kilograms every mu of planting seed amounts.Before late tillering state and full heading time sowing, land for growing field crops ponding is drained, after planting carry out late rice routine operation; Gather in the crops sowing in first 15 days, adopt traditional operation.
4, late rice harvesting adopts whole-feed rice combine harvester, and header is apart from ground 45cm.After harvesting, with rake, push the straw of accumulation aside.
5, the phase in winter slack, adopt begin to rehearse ditch and enclose ditch of the ox mode of ploughing.
With first 15 days of rice harves sowing relatively, late tillering state sowing and full heading time sowing all increased the number of days in the time of infertility, shifted to an earlier date seeding stage, beginning branch's phase, the time in beginning florescence, full-bloom stage and maturing stage.Adopt late tillering state sowing Chinese milk vetch plant due to vegetative growth phase before having extended the winter, promoted the formation of root nodule, adopt rice tillering latter stage and the more traditional Chinese milk vetch type of seeding of full heading time sowing to increase root nodule number; Promoted overground part to produce branch, compared with conventional method branch amount, increased.True leaf number and the dry-matter accumulation of the Chinese milk vetch plant of rice tillering latter stage and full heading time sowing also have certain advantage, therefore can improve tree characteristics and obtain higher fresh careless output and seed production.

Claims (6)

1. broadcasting method morning for rice field Chinese milk vetch, is characterized in that, comprises the steps:
A, Chinese milk vetch sowing:
In late rice late tillering state, to full heading time, keep field moisture to be less than 15%, with every mu of 2.0~2.5 kilograms of seeding quantitys, carry out Chinese milk vetch sowing;
B, field water management:
After planting, keep field moisture 10%~40%, late rice is after milk ripe stage, open the draining of the ridge exit or entrance of a clitch, while guaranteeing rice harves, field, in drying regime, then gathers in the crops late rice with grain header, and the header of adjusting grain header during late rice results is 45~55cm overhead, after rice harves, the straw of accumulation is evenly scatter in field;
C, land for growing field crops trench digging:
After late rice results, with ditching machine, in field surrounding, hold successfully and enclose ditch, make to be no more than 0.5cm at Chinese milk vetch growing period field peak level.
2. broadcasting method morning of rice field according to claim 1 Chinese milk vetch, is characterized in that, in described step b, late rice after planting before milk ripe stage, when field moisture is lower than 10% time, carries out moistening irrigation, makes field moisture remain on 10%~40%.
3. broadcasting method morning of rice field according to claim 1 Chinese milk vetch, is characterized in that, described grain header adopts whole-feed rice combine harvester.
4. broadcasting method morning of rice field according to claim 1 Chinese milk vetch, is characterized in that, before described step a Chinese milk vetch sowing, Chinese Milk Vetch Seeds is carried out to legume inoculation and phosphate fertilizer seed dressing.
5. broadcasting method morning of rice field according to claim 1 Chinese milk vetch, is characterized in that, described drying regime is that field moisture is less than 10% state.
6. broadcasting method morning of rice field according to claim 1 Chinese milk vetch, is characterized in that, in described step c, in field, every 5~12m, opens a straight flute, makes rice field form the ditch system of " ten " font or the perforation of " well " font.
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CN103858553A (en) * 2014-03-20 2014-06-18 湖南省农业生物资源利用研究所 Method for rapidly improving soil fertility of new consolidated cultivated land
CN105027728A (en) * 2015-09-14 2015-11-11 中国科学院亚热带农业生态研究所 Method for fixing carbon and reducing emission in south paddy fields in winter
CN109169122A (en) * 2018-11-23 2019-01-11 湖南山水道生态文化发展有限公司 The implantation methods of Chinese milk vetch

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