CN109923984B - Tobacco field three-stage green manure in-situ application method - Google Patents

Tobacco field three-stage green manure in-situ application method Download PDF

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CN109923984B
CN109923984B CN201711362671.2A CN201711362671A CN109923984B CN 109923984 B CN109923984 B CN 109923984B CN 201711362671 A CN201711362671 A CN 201711362671A CN 109923984 B CN109923984 B CN 109923984B
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green manure
tobacco
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rice
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CN109923984A (en
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齐耀程
高正良
崔权仁
周本国
姜超强
董庆
邹禹
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INSTITUTE OF TOBACCO ANHUI ACADEMY OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
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Abstract

The invention belongs to the technical field of crop rotation cultivation, and discloses a tobacco field three-section type green manure in-situ application method, which comprises the steps of selecting a planting area which meets the planting requirements of flue-cured tobacco and gives consideration to the basic growth requirements of rice, green manure and fresh corn; selecting crop varieties meeting the technical requirements, planting flue-cured tobacco-rice-green manure in sequence in the first year, planting fresh corn-rice in sequence in the second year, planting flue-cured tobacco-fresh corn in sequence in the third year, and setting 1 cultivation period in each three years; turning over and covering green of the green-fertilizer astragalus sinicus 7-10 days before sowing the fresh corn in spring; the fresh corn stalks are returned to the field in situ to fertilize and improve the soil. According to the method, a large amount of green manure materials are put into the soil in three stages in 1 farming cycle, so that the problem of soil tillage suitability degradation caused by the multiple cropping and continuous cropping of the tobacco-planted soil in southern Anhui province and insufficient organic matter supplement is effectively solved, and the method has good economic, social and ecological benefits.

Description

Tobacco field three-stage green manure in-situ application method
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of crop rotation cultivation, and particularly relates to a three-stage green manure in-situ application method for a tobacco field.
Background
Green manure refers to the entire plant or a part of the tissue of all green plants that can be turned into soil as fertilizer. The green manure returning field obviously increases the soil fertility, improves the physical and chemical properties of the soil and effectively improves the yield and the quality of crops. In order to break the bottleneck of restricting the yield and the quality of tobacco leaves, a large number of tobacco field researches indicate that the method of improving soil by using crop rotation, green manure for planting, organic fertilizer and the like can produce remarkable effects. In the Anhui tobacco rice area, the astragalus sinicus is used as the conventional green manure of the rice field, the span of the whole growth period is from 10 middle ten days of the year to 4 middle ten days of the next year, the flue-cured tobacco planting mode in the Anhui tobacco rice area requires winter ploughing and upturned soil sunning (from 12 months to 1 month of the next year) and early spring transplanting of tobacco seedlings (from 3 middle ten days of the month), and the significance of planting astragalus sinicus and returning the field to the rich soil cannot be realized in the farming mode. Due to the common implementation of a continuous tobacco-rice cropping farming mode, the soil is overused, various soil-borne diseases are caused, and the improvement of the yield and the value of crops at each stage is influenced. How to effectively utilize the green manure becomes an important problem for improving the tobacco leaf quality and increasing the income of farmers in Anhui tobacco areas.
Different tobacco leaf producing areas provide green manure utilization technologies suitable for the local areas, and patent CN201710071564.8 indicates that the Shandong tobacco areas adopt green manure as winter pasture 70 or barley, the method makes up for the shortage of the effective growth time of the green manure by increasing the seeding amount, although the relative biological total amount is improved, the inherent quality element difference of the green manure in different growth stages is large, the application effect of the green manure can be limited, and the improvement level of soil nutrients is influenced. Patent CN201210459188.7 discloses a method for planting and turning over green manure in advance in soil in a cigarette area in Hubei province, wherein early-maturing high-yield green manure is interplanted in a tobacco field in the middle leaf picking and baking period from 8 months to 9 months, the method selects green manure interplantation to shorten the growth period span of the green manure, the soil is turned over and sunned in the winter when the growth period is completed before winter, but the green manure is interplanted in the middle growth period of flue-cured tobacco, the phenomenon of fertilizer competition with flue-cured tobacco occurs, the growth process of upper leaves can be directly influenced, the problems of insufficient leaf opening of the upper leaves, slow maturity progress and the like occur. The tobacco picking operation inevitably tramples the green manure seedlings in the furrow, and directly influences the yield of the green manure. Patent CN201510196591.9 discloses a tobacco stubble green manure planting and turning-over ridging method in a Hunan tobacco area, wherein no-tillage seeding 2/3 of green manure with seed quantity is directly carried out in furrows in 7-10 months of the first year, and green manure and chemical fertilizer are directly buried on original ridges to form ridges to transplant flue-cured tobacco in the second year when the green manure begins to bloom. The method adopts the green manure to directly return to the field for stubble-connecting the flue-cured tobaccos, the decomposition time of the green manure is limited, the problem of fertilizer competition between the earlier stage of decomposition of the green manure and the seedling growth of the flue-cured tobaccos easily occurs, particularly, the C/N ratio is unbalanced due to decomposition of the green manure, the process of extending roots and returning seedlings of tobacco seedlings is influenced, the nutrients released by decomposed substances at the later stage cause the over nutrition of the flue-cured tobaccos, the tobacco plants are greedy and do not fall yellow, and the process of maturing the. The three patent methods have the common expression that the crop rotation pressure of autumn crops is not generated after the tobacco is planted in a planting mode, the mode of utilizing the green manure is single, only the green manure crops planted in situ are taken as the only green manure source, and the feasibility of using high-quality crop straws as the green manure supplement is ignored.
Anhui as a double-cropping tobacco and grain producing area utilizes green manure to solve the following problems: the growth time of the green manure is not enough. In the cultivation mode of double cropping in middle and lower Yangtze river tobacco areas in one year, after the tobacco is harvested in spring, late rice must be planted in autumn to guarantee the income of crops in two seasons in whole year. The green manure is planted in the period after the first-year late rice is harvested and before the next-year flue-cured tobacco is planted and ridged, the effective growth period (the growth time with the average accumulated temperature of more than 10 ℃) is short, and the average annual time is 35-40 days. Secondly, due to insufficient growth time, the biomass of the green manure growing in situ is insufficient. Compared with the green manure yield in the complete growth period, the green manure biomass before the tobacco leaves after the rice is seriously insufficient and is only below 30 percent of the complete growth period. The insufficient input amount of the green manure directly causes the improvement effect of all aspects of the soil to be not obvious, and wastes labor and cost input. Thirdly, when green manure is turned over and pressed to decompose in tobacco ridges in the same season, the problem of large consumption of nitrogen generated by decomposition of green manure in the tobacco ridges generally occurs, nitrogen nutrition absorption of flue-cured tobacco in the seedling stage is influenced, and weak seedlings are caused to influence the yield of tobacco leaves in the later stage.
Disclosure of Invention
Aiming at the problems in the prior art, the invention provides a three-stage green manure in-situ application method for a tobacco field. In view of the above problems, the Anhui smoke region needs to start from two aspects: firstly, the effective growth period is strived for the in-situ planting of the green manure by scientifically adjusting the types and the sequence of crops for rotation. Crops for crops rotation need to be planted in two seasons and mature, and the annual total income is not lower than the level of a flue-cured tobacco-rice farming mode. And secondly, ensuring that the green manure materials are stably and continuously fed into the tobacco field for many years. Due to the strong buffering capacity of the soil, the green manure investment should ensure the continuity and diversity, and the green manure material should meet the characteristics of convenient acquisition and low cost, such as fresh corn straws and the like which are rich in nutrition and easy to decompose.
The three-section type green manure in-situ application method provided by the invention has the prominent significance that: the green manure material input amount in different farming years and stages is effectively increased, the fresh green manure applied into the soil can supplement soil organic matters, the accumulation of soil organic matters is facilitated, and the mineralization and the update of the original soil organic matters can be promoted. A green manure crop is introduced in the continuous cropping mode of tobacco and rice, and the rich nutrient components of the green manure are utilized to improve the soil nutrient level, particularly supplement of medium and trace nutrient elements, thereby being beneficial to improving the tobacco quality. The adjustment of the crop planting structure can greatly reduce the disease and yield reduction of the flue-cured tobacco caused by continuous cropping obstacles. The cultivation mode combining planting and breeding can optimize the beneficial microbial population structure of the soil, improve the physical and chemical properties of the soil and improve the soil cultivation suitability and the tobacco suitability.
The invention is realized in such a way that the tobacco field three-section type green manure in-situ application method is characterized in that the tobacco field three-section type green manure in-situ application method sequentially plants flue-cured tobacco-rice-green manure in the first year in a flue-cured tobacco planting area; planting fresh corn-rice in turn in the second year; sequentially planting flue-cured tobacco and fresh corn in the third year; every three years is 1 cultivation period; the method specifically comprises the following steps:
planting milk vetch in green manure interplanting mode in the late stage of rice growth in the first year; returning the green manure to the field with high biomass in the second year, covering green decomposition, and returning the green manure to the field as the green manure at the first stage in the first year;
after the milk vetch green manure is rotten for one week in the second year, ditching a large field into small high furrows, planting fresh corn on the surfaces of the furrows, harvesting after the crops are ripe in the middle 7 months, returning the fresh corn straws to the field after rotary tillage and crushing, and completing the second-stage green manure returning and soil fertility improvement in the second year;
and in the third year, after tobacco curing is finished, replacing late rice in one season with fresh corn, dibbling the fresh corn on two slope surfaces of the original tobacco ridge, crushing the corn straws again and returning the crushed corn straws to the field after autumn harvest, and finishing the third-stage green manure returning in the third year.
Further, the tobacco field three-stage green manure in-situ application method specifically comprises the following steps:
in a flue-cured tobacco planting area, the basic growth requirements of rice, green manure and fresh corn are considered; the planting area is in a low mountain and hilly area or a river alluvial area, the irrigation and drainage are convenient, and the soil plough layer is larger than 20 cm;
selecting a suitable crop variety;
the crop rotation mode is as follows: planting flue-cured tobacco-rice-green manure in sequence in the first year, planting fresh corn-rice in sequence in the second year, and planting flue-cured tobacco-fresh corn in sequence in the third year; every three years is 1 crop rotation period; the crops are sequentially planted in succession according to respective optimized planting methods;
after fresh corn sowed in spring is ripe and picked, the straw part is used for feeding livestock and fishery, a proper amount of fresh straw is returned to field in situ to fertilize soil, and after the high-temperature water rot lasts for several weeks, seedling throwing is started in the middle ten of July to plant late rice;
green manure and fresh corn straws which are eaten for two years are subjected to rotary tillage and crushing in three stages in a fresh material mode, and the soil is fertilized by returning the green manure and the fresh corn straws to the field in situ.
Furthermore, in a flue-cured tobacco planting area, a soil layer is loose, water drainage and ventilation are good, and the soil pH is 5.5-6.5.
Furthermore, the early-maturing late rice variety is selected for the rice to shorten the field retention period of the rice.
Further, green manure milk vetch is interplanted 20 days before late rice is harvested, and green manure in-situ green covering is carried out in the first stage of the first year in the full-bloom period of the next spring.
Further, fresh corn is sown in spring in late 4 months instead of flue-cured tobacco to serve as spring stubble crops, and fresh straw is returned to the field in situ by rotary tillage and serves as green manure in the second stage of the second year;
fresh corn is sown in autumn to replace late rice and used as autumn crops, and fresh corn straws are returned to the field in a rotary tillage mode in situ and used as green manure in the third stage of the third year.
The invention has the advantages and positive effects that:
aiming at the practical problems that the green manure growth period in the Anhui tobacco region is short and the total amount of returned green manure materials is insufficient, the invention strives for the effective growth period for the green manure through a three-year-periodic farming mode, namely, fresh corn in spring is sowed late next year to replace flue-cured tobacco in the same season, so that the astragalus sinicus green manure obtains sufficient biomass for returning to the field, meanwhile, a large amount of fresh corn straws are returned to the field, the input amount of the green manure tobacco field is effectively supplemented twice, and the burden of excessive soil consumption caused by a multiple cropping and continuous cropping mode of tobacco and rice is avoided. The fresh corn market demand is large, the straw application is wide, the added value is high, and the economic benefit is far higher than the rice output value. The method can stably improve the income of tobacco growers, return green manure and fresh straws to fields to ensure organic matter supplement of tobacco fields, reduce the occurrence of soil-borne diseases due to the planting mode of paddy-upland rotation, solve the planting system dilemma of Anhui tobacco areas by a cultivation combined cultivation system, and ensure the sustainable development of modern agriculture of Anhui tobacco areas.
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the following beneficial effects:
the method for planting the fresh-eating corn to replace the early rice has the main advantages that the growth cycle is short, the growth period is 80 days, the corn is a stubble crop with compact time, the spring-sown fresh-eating corn can provide an effective growth period which is about 40 additional days and is more than 20 ℃ for the growth of green manure compared with flue-cured tobacco, so that the effective growth period can obtain biomass enough for the full-bloom period, and the dry weight of straws obtained by the spring-sown fresh-eating corn in the farming mode reaches 610-670 kg/667m2(Table 1), the dry weight of the straws obtained by autumn sowing reaches 710-730 kg/667m2
Compared with rice, the fresh corn has higher economic benefit, and the average yield of the stubble-sticking direct seeding technology of autumn-sown corn reaches 800-830 kg/667m2The average yield value of the fresh ear of the waxy corn can reach 2500 yuan/667 m2And the yield is higher than the rice yield value, so that the tobacco grower income and planting confidence are ensured. Meanwhile, at the boundary of Shanghai and Wan of Jianghui, Anhui places, the market demand of fresh corn is large, the added value is high, the cold chain transportation, the steam processing, the preparation of straw coarse feed or silage and the like have good benefits, and the industrial potential is huge, so that the planting of the fresh corn is a grain stubble selection which is beneficial in many aspects.
Table 1 comparison of agronomic traits for fresh corn at different spring sowing times (2014, xuan city)
Compared with common corn, the fresh corn of the invention has the main advantages that: (1) the growth period is short, the whole growth period is about 80 days (the effective accumulated temperature in the growth period is different in spring and autumn), the fresh-eating corn sowed in spring is sowed late in spring, the effective growth period is set aside to 4 middle ten days for the growth of the green manure of the previous crop, and the growth period of late rice is not influenced from 7 middle ten days to 11 months. (2) The fresh corn is a good-selling food, and has large market demand, high added value and considerable economic benefit. (3) The fresh corn straw has high water content, rich nutrition, high fresh weight and easy field returning decomposition. Therefore, the fresh corn is selected as the crop for rotation, and the common corn has no advantages.
The astragalus sinicus green manure and the fresh corn of the invention are not used for flue-cured tobacco, and the straw decomposition process of the astragalus sinicus green manure and the fresh corn does not directly influence the growth of the flue-cured tobacco. The soil testing formula can be normally carried out before the flue-cured tobacco is planted, the fertilizer is accurately applied, and the standardized planting of the flue-cured tobacco is met.
According to the invention, the soil physicochemical property is actively improved by implementing a three-year rotation mode, the soil volume weight is obviously reduced, and the organic matter and quick-acting potassium content of unit mass of soil are increased (Table 2).
Table 2 physicochemical property change of soil in crop rotation mode (2015, Xuan Cheng)
Note: differences in lower case representation after the same column of data were up to a 5% significance level
The three-stage green manure planting and applying technology of the Anhui tobacco field improves the tobacco field soil organic matter supplement amount and the multiple cropping index of the whole farming period, solves the problems of excessive consumption of soil nutrients and insufficient tobacco field organic matter supplement in a flue-cured tobacco-late rice multiple cropping continuous cropping mode, and achieves the purpose of soil nutrient combination.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a flow chart of a three-stage in situ application method of green manure in tobacco fields according to an embodiment of the present invention.
FIG. 2 is a graph comparing the characteristics of the stalks of the fresh corn and the ordinary corn in the mature period.
In the figure: a: the straws of the fresh corn in the normal harvesting period are all in a fresh state; b: the straws of the ordinary corn in the normal harvesting period are in a dehydrated and scorched state. The straws of common corns are not beneficial to being quickly decomposed and returned to the field.
Detailed Description
In order to make the objects, technical solutions and advantages of the present invention more apparent, the present invention is further described in detail with reference to the following embodiments. It should be understood that the specific embodiments described herein are merely illustrative of the invention and are not intended to limit the invention.
In-situ utilization: the method is characterized in that green manure crops or fresh corn are planted in the tobacco field, the whole or partial residues of the plants are directly used in the original planting field through rotary tillage and pressure turning, and other organic matters or pollutants are not required to be introduced from an external source, so that the external source diseases are effectively controlled.
The following detailed description of the principles of the invention is provided in connection with the accompanying drawings.
According to the three-stage green manure in-situ application method for the tobacco field, provided by the embodiment of the invention, in a planting area meeting the planting conditions of flue-cured tobacco, flue-cured tobacco-rice-green manure is planted in sequence in the first year, fresh corn-rice is planted in sequence in the second year, and flue-cured tobacco-fresh corn is planted in sequence in the third year in a new crop rotation mode. Every three years is 1 cultivation period.
Flue-cured tobacco-rice production is carried out in the first year, astragalus sinicus green manure interplanting planting is carried out in the late stage of rice growth, and the astragalus sinicus green manure is returned to the field in the next year with large biomass and is subjected to green covering and decomposition to serve as green manure returning in the first stage.
And in the next year, after the astragalus sinicus green manure is rotted for one week, ditching the field into small high furrows, planting fresh corn on the surfaces of the furrows, harvesting after the furrow is ripe in the middle 7 months, returning the fresh corn straws to the field in situ after rotary tillage and crushing, and finishing the second stage of returning the green manure to the field and fertilizing the soil.
And in the third year, after tobacco curing is finished, replacing late rice in one season with fresh corn, dibbling corn on two slope surfaces of the original tobacco ridge, crushing the corn straws again and returning the crushed corn straws to the field after autumn harvest, and finishing the third stage of green manure returning to the field.
The whole rotation technology is the 'three-section type' green manure returning for three years, and the total green manure returning amount of the tobacco field in the whole rotation period is improved.
As shown in fig. 1, the method for in-situ application of three-stage green manure in a tobacco field according to an embodiment of the present invention includes:
s101: the planting area mainly based on flue-cured tobacco planting gives consideration to the basic growth requirements of rice, green manure and fresh corn. The planting area is a low mountain and hilly area or a river alluvial area, the drainage and irrigation are convenient, soil requires a plough layer with the depth of more than 20cm, the soil layer is loose, the drainage and ventilation are good, and the pH value of the soil is 5.5-6.5.
S102: selecting a suitable crop variety: the flue-cured tobacco variety is a local main cultivated variety Yunyan 97. The rice variety is early-maturing high-yield Wan rice 199. The fresh corn should be selected from waxy corn variety Suyunuo No. 5 which is suitable for spring climate conditions in middle and lower reaches of Yangtze river. The green manure variety selection standard is suitable for the overwintering climate conditions of Anhui, has strong adaptability, and is suitable for the green manure astragalus mongholicus variety Yijiang seeds which is used as both fertilizer and feed and has large biomass.
S103: the crop rotation mode is as follows: the flue-cured tobacco-rice-green manure is planted in sequence in the first year, the fresh corn-rice is planted in sequence in the second year, and the flue-cured tobacco-fresh corn is planted in sequence in the third year. Every three years is 1 rotation period. And (4) sequentially carrying out successive cropping planting on each crop according to the respective optimized planting technology.
S104: after fresh corn sowed in spring is ripe and picked, the straw part can be used for feeding livestock and fishery, a proper amount of fresh straw is returned to field in situ to fertilize soil, and after the fresh corn is rotted by high-temperature water for several weeks, seedling throwing is started to plant late rice in the middle ten days of July; the green manure and the fresh corn straws which are eaten for two years are subjected to rotary tillage and crushing in three stages in a fresh material state, and the soil is fertilized by returning the green manure and the fresh corn straws to the field in situ.
The early-maturing late rice variety is selected and the seedling raising and transplanting technology is combined, so that the field retention period of the rice is shortened.
The green manure milk vetch is interplanted 20 days before the late rice is harvested, and green manure in-situ green covering is carried out at the first stage in the 'full-bloom stage' of the spring of the next year.
Fresh corn sown in spring in the last ten days of 4 months is used as spring stubble crops instead of flue-cured tobacco, and fresh straw is returned to the field in situ by rotary tillage and is used as green manure in the second stage.
Fresh corn is sown in autumn to replace late rice and used as autumn crops, and fresh corn straws are returned to the field in a rotary tillage mode in situ and used as green manure in the third stage.
The application of the principles of the present invention will now be described in further detail with reference to specific embodiments.
1. And selecting a planting area meeting the growth conditions of crops for rotation, wherein the selection of the planting area is adapted to the basic growth requirements of flue-cured tobacco, green manure, fresh corn and rice. The method is characterized by selecting pollution sources (no pollution source within at least 5km around) and transportation main lines, such as urban areas (generally requiring a distance of more than 10 km) and garbage dumps, which are good in ecological conditions, convenient for water diversion, drainage and irrigation, convenient for transportation and transportation, and particularly paying attention to avoiding the common corn planting area so as to avoid the influence of common corn pollen on the quality of fresh corn.
2. Selecting a suitable crop variety: the flue-cured tobacco variety is selected as the variety Yunyan 97 with good stress resistance, black shank resistance and bacterial wilt resistance. The autumn rice variety is a high-yield and high-quality Wan rice 199. The fresh corn is selected from a waxy corn variety Suyunuo No. 5 which is suitable for the climatic conditions of the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze river. The green manure variety is the traditional green manure milk vetch variety Yijiang.
3. Flue-cured tobacco-rice-green manure are planted in turn in the first year of crop rotation:
3.1 planting flue-cured tobacco in spring:
strictly according to the technical regulation for producing cured tobacco with sweet and fragrant charred Hakka in Anhui, the method refers to local standard DB34/T2583-2016 in Anhui province. Sowing of flue-cured tobacco begins in 12 last ten days of each year, and the steps of seedling raising, fertilization, land preparation and ridging, transplanting, field management, harvesting, baking, storage and the like are required.
3.2 planting single-season late rice in tobacco aftercrop:
3.2.1 planting late rice. In order to avoid the time and land conflict between the flue-cured tobacco and the rice, late rice seedling raising is carried out in a seedling raising field in the tobacco field growing terminal stage in the Anhui tobacco rice farming area, and the seedling age is generally controlled to be about 20-25 days. After the tobacco leaves are harvested, the tobacco fields are irrigated by water diversion and irrigated with water, and immediately ploughed, and seedlings are transplanted in due time.
3.2.2 fertilizer management. Residual fertilizer in tobacco ridges is used as base fertilizer for late rice, and tillering fertilizer (12.5 kg/667m of urea) is applied in the growing period27.5kg/667m of potassium chloride2) Applying pregnancy spike fertilizer (urea 10kg/667 m)210kg/667m of potassium chloride2). The effective tillering period of the stubble rice is short, and tillering and early development must be promoted. And applying tillering fertilizer about 5-7 days after planting, and striving for uniform seedlings about 15 days after planting.
3.2.3 moisture management. According to different growth periods of rice, shallow water is adopted for transplanting rice seedlings, water is stored for culturing the seedlings, the water content of the rice in the growth period is guaranteed, the rice is prevented from senilism, and the alternation of dryness and wetness is kept in the later period until the rice is mature.
3.2.4 prevention and control of diseases, pests and weeds. (1) The pesticide composition is used for preventing and controlling rice planthopper by mixing chlorpyrifos, pymetrozine, nitenpyram and thiamethoxam. For preventing and treating rice borer and rice leaf roller, 10% avermectin-flutolanil, 40% chlorantraniliprole, 20% chlorantraniliprole, etc. are used. (2) The composition is prepared from hexaconazole, validamycin-hexaconazole, 20% benzyl propiconazole, 75% oxime bacterium-tebuconazole, 24% thifluzamide, 32.5% benzyl azoxystrobin and the like. The rice blast is controlled by 40% isoprothiolane, 2% kasugamycin, 75% tricyclazole and the like. (3) And (3) preventing and controlling weeds in the rice field: in order to avoid the influence of herbicide residue on the growth of flue-cured tobacco, the herbicide with short residue period and no quinclorac as a main component is selected. The dosage of the medicament for each purpose does not exceed the recommended standard.
3.3 planting and utilizing the winter green manure astragalus sinicus:
3.3.1 Astragalus sinicus seed treatment. The treatment procedures comprise seed drying, seed wiping, seed washing with saline water, seed soaking and the like. And (3) exposing the astragalus sinicus seeds to the sun for half a day 1-2 days before sowing to improve the vitality of the seeds. The seeds and the fine sand are evenly mixed according to the proportion of 2: 1 and then are kneaded until the wax layer on the surface of the seed coat is wiped off to clean and glue the seed coat. The method is characterized in that rhizobium bacteria is required to be inoculated to a field block for planting milk vetch for the first time, and the rhizobium bacteria agent is prepared into an aqueous solution to be adsorbed on seeds. The seeds soaked in warm water are air-dried and inoculated with bacteria. Astragalus sinicus each 667m2The using amount of the rhizobium inoculant is 200-300 g.
3.3.2 sowing the Chinese milk vetch. When the rice is grouted or the rice ear is hooked, the amount of the seeds for broadcasting is 3-4 kg/667m2The seed consumption in the new planting area is higher than that in the old planting area. Generally, the symbiotic period of the milk vetch and the late rice is 20-25 days. The rice stubble is kept to be 15-20 cm in height, so that the moisture preservation and overwintering of the milk vetch are facilitated. When sowing, the field surface should be kept wet or a thin water layer of 1-2 cm is formed. After sowing, the heavy soil should be properly exposed to the sun to achieve soft soil without rotting.
3.3.3 field management of astragalus sinicus. (1) And (5) scientifically fertilizing. The Astragalus sinicus Linn of Anhui province is applied with calcium superphosphate as phosphate fertilizer, and the usage amount of the phosphate fertilizer is 20kg/667m2. 1-1.5 kg/667m of urea is applied to the first true leaf stage of astragalus sinicus2Promoting the formation of nodules and the growth of milk vetch. 2.5-5 kg/667m of urea is used when the Chinese milk vetch begins to grow vigorously from the middle ten days of 2 months to the last ten days of 3 months2. A small amount of potash fertilizer (3-5 kg/667 m) can also be used in the middle of 11 months and when the first leaf of astragalus sinicus appears or rice is cut2). In the middle of 12 monthsEvery 667m2400-500 kg of soil mixed fertilizer is applied, and 25-30 kg of calcium superphosphate is added to enhance the cold resistance and reduce the freezing injury. (2) Covering grass and protecting seedlings. After the rice is harvested, measures such as straw covering, drought resistance, water logging prevention, freezing prevention and the like are carried out to protect the seedlings. In the field with poor irrigation condition, after rice is cut, when the field is wet, a thin layer of rice straw (thin enough to be transparent) is scattered to cover the seedlings. Milk vetch appears as purple red weak seedling, and should be rapidly watered and applied with phosphate fertilizer. (3) Drought and water damage resistance. Irrigation and drainage are carried out in time according to the growth vigor of the seedlings and the soil moisture content. The principle is that the ground has no accumulated water and is not too white for a long time (the water content of the soil is 18-25%). (4) And (4) pest control. Sclerotinia is prevented and treated by spraying 0.1% carbendazim or thiophanate. The chemical method for preventing and treating powdery mildew is to spray 1000 times of thiophanate. The aphid control method is that each 667m2Sprayed with 25% of aphid-resistant spray. The method for preventing and treating thrips is that each 667m2And (4) preventing and controlling by using 25% of aphid-resistant spray.
3.3.4 the Chinese milk vetch is used for green-keeping. The milk vetch used as the base fertilizer is suitable for in-situ pressure turning in full-bloom stage, the fresh grass of the milk vetch is covered 7-10 days before the seeding of the crop after the crop is grafted, and the dosage is not more than 1500kg/667m2And adopting a deep ploughing and deep dry ploughing and retting mode, wherein the ploughing and pressing depth is about 15 cm. The dry tillage can be carried out by using a disc plow or a reverse rotary cultivator, the tillage depth is about 15cm, and after 3-5 days, the furrow plow is dried white, and then shallow water harrowing is carried out. Lime is used for 40-50 kg/667m before sowing2And regulating the pH value of the soil.
4. And (3) planting fresh corn-rice in turn in the next year:
4.1 planting fresh corn in spring:
4.1.1 selection of growing area. Fresh corn planting field blocks are separated from other types of corn in time or space. The space is isolated by more than 400m, and obstacles such as woods, buildings and the like can be selected for shielding.
4.1.2 fertilizing and ridging. The base fertilizer is mainly farmyard manure, is applied again to realize top dressing in advance, and is used in combination with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Applying farmyard manure as base fertilizer of 1000-1500 kg/667m2And 30-40 kg/667m of compound fertilizer2Or 30kg/667m of special fertilizer for corn2And (5) preparing a base fertilizer. And ditching the field into small high ridges with the depth of 20-25 cm and the ridge surface width of 2.0 m.
4.1.3 timelyAnd (6) sowing. The sowing time is preferably 4 months in middle and last ten days, and is not more than 5 months and 1 day at latest. Fresh corn is sown on the surface of the ridge at a row spacing of 60cm, a plant spacing of 25-30 cm, 4 rows of seeds are planted in each ridge, and the row spacing of two rows of adjacent ridges is also 60 cm. The sowing depth is 4-5 cm, 2-3 full seeds are planted in each hole, and the seed consumption is 2kg/667m2. When a hole without seedlings appears, two plants are left on both sides of the hole, and the amount of the remaining plants is about 4000-4200 plants/667 m2
4.1.4 field management. And (4) pouring water, booting water and grouting water. Water flooding is avoided during the seedling stage, and ditching and draining work is done in advance. Each 667m before 10-12 blades2And (5) topdressing 25kg of compound fertilizer and 10kg of urea, and weeding by combining intertillage. Treating the weeds in seedling stage with herbicide bracteal toilet (the main component is topramezone, 5 ml/bag, and adjuvant 60 ml/bottle), and the dosage is 1 bottle/667 m2Matrine (200 ml/bottle) is used for preventing and controlling field pests, and the dosage is 2 bottles/667 m2The amount of the composition is 0.5 bottle/667 m per bottle (100 ml/bottle)2. And 4.1.5 harvesting at proper time. Harvesting in time 20-23 days after pollination when filaments become black, and taking the condition that a small amount of white pulp can appear in seeds in the middle of pinching as a suitable harvesting standard.
4.1.6 utilization of fresh straw green manure. After harvesting of fresh corn, mechanically rotary-cutting fresh corn straws into segments with the length less than 10cm, spraying a proper amount of straw decomposition agent according to the recommended dose, ploughing again, then guiding water to irrigate to form a paddy field, and promoting straw decomposition and returning to the field by using high temperature.
4.2 corn afterreap single-season late rice (the technology is the same as 3.2).
5. And planting flue-cured tobacco-fresh corn in sequence in the third year.
5.1 spring tobacco planting (same technology 4.1)
5.2, fresh corn eating after flue-cured tobacco:
5.2.1 Prep. After flue-cured tobacco, fresh corn is planted, field selection needs to be paid attention to realize effective space-time isolation with common corn, and the common isolation is over 400m or the pollination time of flowering is staggered. And (4) carrying out artificial weeding on tobacco ridges before corn sowing.
And 5.2.2 sowing the corns. The sowing time is selected before the last harvest of the upper leaves of the flue-cured tobacco. At the ridge sideSowing corn on two sides of the middle upper part of the waist, wherein the seed consumption is 2kg/667m2The plant spacing is 25-30 cm, and each hole has 2-3 full seeds. And pulling out the tobacco removing rod as early as possible when the flue-cured tobacco harvesting is finished. Seedlings in 4-leaf stage and seedlings in 6-leaf stage of the corn are set, two plants are respectively reserved on two sides of a plant-lacking hole, and the density is 4000-4200 plants/667 m2
5.2.3 field management. And (4) paying attention to water drawing, water saving, spike flooding and grouting water after pouring. In typhoon season, rainwater is more, and the ditching and drainage work of the tobacco field needs to be done. Fresh corn after smoking uses residual fertilizer of tobacco ridge as base fertilizer, and each 667m before jointing220kg of topdressing fertilizer and 15kg of urea.
5.2.4 prevention and control of diseases, pests and weeds. The herbicide bracteal toilet (the main components are topramezone, 5 ml/bag and auxiliary agent 60 ml/bottle) is used for treating the weeds in the seedling stage, and the dosage is 1 bottle/667 m2The dosage of the matrine (200 ml/bottle) used for preventing and controlling field pests is 2 bottles/667 m each time2The dosage of the gmingt (100 ml/bottle) is 0.5 bottle/667 m each time2
5.2.5 timely harvest. And (4) harvesting in time 20-23 days after pollination when the filaments become black, wherein the harvesting standard is that a small amount of white pulp can appear in seeds in the middle of pinching. The temperature is low in this stage, the suitable harvesting time is selected according to the temperature during harvesting, and the harvesting period can be properly prolonged compared with spring sowing.
5.2.6 utilization of fresh straw green manure. After harvesting of fresh corn, mechanically rotary-cutting fresh corn straws into segments with the length less than 10cm, spraying a proper amount of straw decomposition agent according to the recommended dose, ploughing again, and then guiding water to flood to form a paddy field. At the moment, the environmental temperature is lower, and the decomposition time can be widened to the next year of ploughing by ploughing.
In the planting technology disclosed by the invention, reasonable crop rotation planting of flue-cured tobacco, rice, corn and green manure is realized, the astragalus sinicus and fresh corn straw are used as green manure, the multiple cropping index of the land is improved, the cultivation and use combination of tobacco-planting soil is effectively realized, and the comprehensive total yield of annual agriculture is improved.
The invention is further described below in connection with the positive effects.
The invention provides a crop rotation planting mode, wherein flue-cured tobacco-rice-green manure is planted in sequence in the first year, fresh corn-rice is planted in sequence in the second year, and flue-cured tobacco-fresh corn is planted in sequence in the third year. Every three years is 1 cultivation period.
Early-maturing late rice varieties are selected and combined with seedling raising and transplanting technologies, and the rice field survival period is shortened.
The late-sown early-maturing fresh corn can create effective growth time for the green manure of the previous crop, and the biological total amount of the green manure is accumulated.
Fresh corn straws are continuously returned to the field as green manure for many years, so that the organic matter input of the tobacco field is increased.
The invention provides a tobacco, grain and fertilizer rotation mode with a three-year cycle and a derivative rotation method. A three-section green manure increment returning technology under a rotation mode. A compact tobacco, grain and fertilizer integrated planting method. And (4) sequentially carrying out successive cropping planting on each crop according to a planting technology which saves the most growth period in the field.
Late rice-milk vetch-fresh corn stubble-grafting planting method in Anhui tobacco region
The invention provides an effective and reasonable crop rotation planting mode for Anhui tobacco areas, wherein flue-cured tobacco-rice-green manure is planted in sequence in the first year, fresh corn-rice is planted in sequence in the second year, and flue-cured tobacco-fresh corn is planted in sequence in the third year. Every three years is 1 cultivation period.
The invention selects early-maturing late rice varieties and combines the seedling raising and transplanting technology, shortens the growth period of the rice field, provides time for growth of green manure in autumn, and facilitates the green manure to reach the growth and development stage capable of safely overwintering.
The invention selects the late-sown early-maturing fresh corn to create effective growth time for the previous green manure and accumulate the biological total amount of the green manure.
The fresh corn straws are continuously returned to the field as green manure for many years, the physical and chemical properties of the soil are continuously improved, and the environmental problems caused by low utilization rate of the straws produced by rice planting and burning are also solved.
Compared with common corn, the fresh corn of the invention has the main advantages that: (1) the growth period is short, the whole growth period is about 80 days (the effective accumulated temperature in the growth period is different in spring and autumn), the fresh-eating corn sowed in spring is sowed late in spring, the effective growth period is set aside to 4 middle ten days for the growth of the green manure of the previous crop, and the growth period of late rice is not influenced from 7 middle ten days to 11 months. (2) The fresh corn is a good-selling food, and has large market demand, high added value and considerable economic benefit. (3) The fresh corn straw has high water content, rich nutrition, high fresh weight and easy field returning decomposition. Therefore, the fresh corn is selected as the crop for rotation, and the common corn has no advantages (in the figure 2, A: the straws of the fresh corn in the normal harvesting period are all in a fresh state, B: the straws of the common corn in the normal harvesting period are in a dehydrated and scorched state, and the straws of the common corn are not beneficial to fast decomposition and returning to the field).
The above description is only for the purpose of illustrating the preferred embodiments of the present invention and is not to be construed as limiting the invention, and any modifications, equivalents and improvements made within the spirit and principle of the present invention are intended to be included within the scope of the present invention.

Claims (6)

1. The three-stage green manure in-situ application method for the tobacco field is characterized in that in a tobacco planting area, flue-cured tobacco-rice-green manure is planted in sequence in the first year, fresh corn-rice is planted in sequence in the second year, and flue-cured tobacco-fresh corn is planted in sequence in the third year; every three years is 1 cultivation period; the method specifically comprises the following steps:
planting milk vetch in the last stage of rice growth in the first year, returning green manure with high biomass to the field in the second year, covering green decomposition, and returning green manure to the field in the first stage of the first year;
after the milk vetch green manure is rotten for one week in the second year, ditching a large field into a small high ridge, planting fresh corn on the ridge surface, harvesting after the ripe milk vetch is ripe in the middle 7 months, returning the fresh corn straw to the field after rotary tillage and crushing, and completing the second-stage green manure returning and soil fertility improvement in the second year;
and in the third year, after tobacco curing is finished, replacing late rice with fresh corn, dibbling corn on two slope surfaces of the original tobacco ridge, crushing the corn straws again and returning the crushed corn straws to the field after autumn harvest, and finishing the third-stage green manure returning to the field in the third year.
2. The method for in situ application of three-stage green manure in tobacco fields according to claim 1, wherein the method for in situ application of three-stage green manure in tobacco fields specifically comprises:
in a flue-cured tobacco planting area, the basic growth requirements of rice, green manure and fresh corn are considered; the planting area is in a low mountain and hilly area or a river alluvial area, the irrigation and drainage are convenient, and the soil plough layer is larger than 20 cm;
selecting a suitable crop variety;
the crop rotation mode is as follows: planting flue-cured tobacco-rice-green manure in sequence in the first year, planting fresh corn-rice in sequence in the second year, and planting flue-cured tobacco-fresh corn in sequence in the third year; every three years is 1 crop rotation period; the crops are sequentially planted in succession according to respective optimized planting methods;
after fresh corn sowed in spring is ripe and picked, the straw part is used for feeding livestock and fishery, a proper amount of fresh straw is returned to field in situ to fertilize soil, and after the high-temperature water rot lasts for several weeks, seedling throwing is started in the middle ten of July to plant late rice;
green manure and fresh corn straws which are eaten for two years are subjected to rotary tillage and crushing in three stages in a fresh material mode, and the soil is fertilized by returning the green manure and the fresh corn straws to the field in situ.
3. The tobacco field three-stage green manure in-situ application method of claim 2, characterized in that in the tobacco planting area, the soil layer is loose, the water drainage and ventilation are good, and the soil pH is 5.5-6.5.
4. The method for in situ application of three-stage green manure to a tobacco field as claimed in claim 2, wherein the early-maturing late rice variety is selected for rice for shortening the field retention period of rice.
5. The method for in-situ application of the three-stage green manure in the tobacco field as claimed in claim 2, wherein the green manure milk vetch is interplanted 20 days before the harvest of late rice, and the first-stage green manure in-situ green manure covering is carried out in the full bloom stage of the spring of the next year.
6. The method for in-situ application of the three-stage green manure in the tobacco field according to claim 2, wherein the fresh-eating corn is sown in the spring in the last 4 th month days instead of flue-cured tobacco as the spring stubble crop, and the fresh corn stalks are returned to the field by in-situ rotary tillage and used as the second stage green manure in the second year;
fresh corn is sown in autumn to replace late rice and used as autumn crops, and fresh corn straws are returned to the field in a rotary tillage mode in situ and used as green manure in the third stage of the third year.
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