CN104472058A - Method for increasing alfalfa seed yield - Google Patents

Method for increasing alfalfa seed yield Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104472058A
CN104472058A CN201410748749.4A CN201410748749A CN104472058A CN 104472058 A CN104472058 A CN 104472058A CN 201410748749 A CN201410748749 A CN 201410748749A CN 104472058 A CN104472058 A CN 104472058A
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seed
days
alfalfa
kilograms
alfalfa seed
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王文虎
刘富源
闫卫东
邓建修
张泉
吴欣
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JIUQUAN DAYE SEED INDUSTRY Co Ltd
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JIUQUAN DAYE SEED INDUSTRY Co Ltd
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Abstract

The invention discloses a method for increasing the alfalfa seed yield. The method comprises the steps that soil is prepared and fertilizers are applied from the middle ten days to the last ten days of March and membrane covering, bunch planting and alfalfa seed pelleting are carried out in the middle and last ten days of March; the seedlings of alfalfa emerge in the middle ten days of April, alfalfa enters the squaring stage in the last ten days of May, and 3-4g of mepiquat chloride is sprayed per mu at the squaring stage; boron fertilizers, potassium dihydrogen phosphate and molybdenum fertilizers are sprayed every other ten days from the bud stage to initial flowering, and watering is carried out once at every flowering stage in the middle and last ten days of June; pesticides are sprayed before flowering to control thrips and aphids and alfalfa enters the flowering stage in the first ten days of July; the seeds are harvested when 70-80% of seed pods become brown in the first ten days to the middle ten days of September. The method has the beneficial effects that the used coated seeds are inoculated with rhizobia, so that the application amount of nitrogen fertilizers is reduced, and environmental pollution of the nitrogen fertilizers is alleviated; the production cycle of the alfalfa seeds is shortened from two years to one year, namely, one season of seeds are additionally produced, so that the occupation ratio of the land on which alfalfa is planted in the current year can be reduced, the use ratio of the land is increased, and the seed yield and the incomes of growers are increased.

Description

A kind of method improving Alfalfa Seed Yield
Technical field
The present invention relates to plant seed to produce, be specifically related to a kind of method improving Alfalfa Seed Yield.
Background technology
Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is the high quality forage that cultivation history is the longest, cultivated area is maximum, value is the highest in the world, and its industrialization is day by day risen.More American-European countries are regarded as " green gold ", " fundamental to the building of the country ".China's alfalfa grassland industry is started late, but development rapidly, along with implementations such as National agricultural comprehensive exploitation, development of the West Regions, returning farmland to grassland, returning husbandry to grassland, under the support energetically and project-driving of governments at all levels, only statistics in 2011, China's Alfalfa Growing area has reached 133.3 ten thousand hectares, and with the speed increase of annual 100000 hectares, Gansu Province's Alfalfa Growing area in 2011 has reached 580,000 hectares, is the first in the nation.
In recent years, China's alfalfa seed is produced and is always lagged behind production development needs, and the whole nation is annual about produces alfalfa seed 4.2-5 ten thousand tons, also needs import alfalfa seed 50-500 ton, could meet country and send out returning farmland to grassland, returning husbandry to grassland and Developing Animal industry needs.
For a long time, China alfalfa seed is produced and is all belonged to spring sowing or autumn sowing, then stump, treats that Second Year clover in spring turns green, autumn seed bearing production process.Generally: during spring sowing, in ground, interplant cover crop, crop harvesting relief alfalfa growing to be protected, stump then, waters winter water and survives the winter; Cover crop is not planted in autumn sowing seed-breeding field, stump, waters winter water and survives the winter.After Second Year clover turns green, water, apply fertilizer, weeding, prevention and elimination of disease and pests, autumn gathers in after seed maturity, fortune threshing ground heap dry in the air, beat stone roller threshing, winnow, seed cleaning, preserves the production processes such as sale.The drawback of this production technology: one is need 2 years just to have seed harvest on implantation time, First Year peasant household does not have economic well-being of workers and staff completely in alfalfa seed is produced; Two is that seed production is low, general per mu yield more than ten to two ten kilogram.Existing production technology had both affected the enthusiasm for production at plantation family, was also unfavorable for the market demand of the fast development of China's alfalfa industry and the fast development of alfalfa seed industry.
Summary of the invention
The object of the invention is to overcome the shortcoming of prior art and deficiency, a kind of method improving Alfalfa Seed Yield is provided.The method can shorten the production cycle of alfalfa seed simultaneously, makes the biennial product cycle time of alfalfa seed be 1 year.
Object of the present invention is realized by subordinate's technical scheme:
Improve a method for Alfalfa Seed Yield, comprise the steps: meticulously to have executed base manure mid-March to the last ten-days period wholely, when soil moisture content is suitable, in mid or late March epiphragma bunch planting obducens alfalfa seed, after planting forbid in field planting all cover crops; The neat seedling of clover that mid-April is broadcast, late May clover enter squaring period, this mu spray casing coupling peace 3-4 gram phase; The flower bud phase is secondary to 7 to 12 days sprinklings boron fertilizer, potassium dihydrogen phosphate, molydbenum fertilizers to just spending, and mid or late June sees that the florescence waters a water; Open pesticide control thrips, the aphids such as prebloom spray imidacloprid wp, early July clover enter flowering stage (honey bees pollination will be introduced in the place that insect is few), early September to the middle ten days seed fruit pod 70 ~ 80% browning look results.
Described obducens alfalfa seed is preferably by the method preparation comprising following steps: in seed agitator, put into alfalfa seed, spray cmc soln while stirring and to continue stirring until alfalfa seed moistening, continue to stir after adding the rhizobium melioti accounting for alfalfa seed quality 1%, add cmc soln and Keep agitation to carrying disease germs evenly, then add C raw material to stirring and obtaining obducens alfalfa seed.Described C raw material by by occupying the biological humic acid of alfalfa seed quality 0.5%, the urea of 1%, potassium dihydrogen phosphate, the borax of 0.1%, indolebutyric acid, the methyl α-naphthyl acetate of 0.01%, the bentonite of 7% of 0.01% of 0.2% mix and obtain.
Preferably, the method for described raising Alfalfa Seed Yield, comprises the steps:
One, First Year seed produces:
(1) selection in seed-breeding field: select in open (more than 1000 meters, the visual field), ventilate (usual surface wind more than 2 grades), illumination abundance (average sunshine duration more than 7 hours), soil layer deep (soil depth more than 1 meter), fertility is moderate, and (soil organic matter content is greater than 2%, alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen 100-200 mg/kg, rapid available phosphorus 10-20 mg/kg, available potassium 100-150 mg/kg), pH 6-8, row's of filling convenient (having installed irrigation and drainage facility), weeds less (every square metre lower than 5 strain weeds), not by livestock and poultry harm (raising offset scattered from more than 500 meters apart from poultry) and be beneficial to insect pollination (planting area outward wind break or meadow more) plot, seed-breeding field different cultivars spacing distance is at more than 800m.
(2) wholely: require deep ploughing, rake is thin wholely, and a kind of farm tools is put down, pick up stubble and chad, seeding layer is tight, grasps the suitable cultivated phase (field capacity is 40-60%), the soil hand of field 10-20 cm layer of soil is pinched agglomerating, and mass of soil lands fragmentary immediately, is at this moment suitable time of site preparation.Use sufficient base manure in conjunction with deep ploughing, general mu executes farmyard manure 2500 to 3000 kilograms, 5 kilograms, urea, diammonium phosphate 15 kilograms or 50 kilograms, common phosphate fertilizer, then applies potassium sulfate or 5 kilograms, potassium chloride.
(3) Fruit variety and seed treatment: should according to local natural climate condition during sowing, select to be applicable to local plantation (if Hexi Corridor clover breeding time is in 105-115 days, Hexi Corridor is generally selected " No. 1, middle lucerne " or " No. 3, sweet agriculture ") kind, guarantee to broadcast full stand and robust growth; Obducens process and Rhizobium Inoculation are carried out to seed and needed for band plant growth, nutrient obtains obducens alfalfa seed.
(4) mulch sowing: when water-retaining quantity among field of soil 75-85%, full field covers black mulch film and keeps from heavy weed growth in the field, bunch planting seed on the film completed, to sowing soil and film compacting together (suppression), with the sowing opening on fine earth or the real film of sand seal, emerge after general 7-10 days.Sowing time at mid or late March, the Ching Ming Festival of being no more than at the latest.Seeding quantity every mu obducens alfalfa seed 0.5-0.65 kilogram, line-spacing is determined by soil fertility, (content of organic matter is greater than 2.5% to rich soil, alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen 150-200 mg/kg, rapid available phosphorus 20-40 mg/kg, available potassium 150-250 mg/kg) line-spacing 70-100 centimetre; Medium soil (content of organic matter 1.5-2.5%, alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen 100-150 mg/kg, rapid available phosphorus 10-20 mg/kg, available potassium 100-150 mg/kg) 60-80 centimetre; Thin and weak soil (content of organic matter is less than 1.5%, alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen 50-100 mg/kg, rapid available phosphorus 5.0-10 mg/kg, available potassium 50-100 mg/kg) 40-70 centimetre.After planting forbid in field planting all cover crops.
(5) field management:
1) thinning: a seedling stage generally about late May, thinning during clover plant height 10-15cm, during thinning, seedling 1-2 strain is stayed in every cave;
2) apply fertilizer: combine in squaring period and irrigate, impose diammonium phosphate 3-5kg/ mu, potassium sulfate 3kg/ mu and borax 1kg/ mu;
3) mu spray in squaring period 3-4 gram of casing coupling peace;
4) flower bud phase to the florescence sprayed borax (25 grams/acre)+potassium dihydrogen phosphate (250 grams/acre)+ammonium molybdate (10-15 gram/acre) every 10 days;
5) mulch film is removed: during the envelope row of clover field, manually remove mulch film;
6) irrigate: see that must water foot before spending spends front water 1 time;
7) with imidacloprid wp (70% water dispersible granules 5000 times) or beta-cypermethrin (4.5% missible oil 30 milliliters is watered 25 kilograms and sprays) pesticide control aphid and thrips before blooming, agricultural chemicals is used alternatingly, continuous 2 times, every 7 days 1 time;
8) artificial supplementary pollination: flowering stage, should introduce honey bees pollination, every 15-20 put on mu ground honeybee 1000 (about 1 beehive) in the few place of insect pollination.
(6) roguing: in late June to early July, should remove the weeds such as field daghestan sweet clover, dodder, Hui Li, lomax at any time, duration of flowering removes special-shaped strain, weak strain in time.
(7) seed harvest: 1) gather in period: on September, the middle ten days, should gather in time when 70 ~ 80% pod overstrike.2) harvesting method: using artificial or machinery cut to be had bad luck to threshing ground airing, when leaf water drops to 12 ~ 18%, will make stone roller in time, winnows, screen seed; When directly gathering in the crops with combine, disleave desiccant (general mu sprays 20% paraquat aqua 200 ~ 300mL) will be sprayed before harvesting, after 3 ~ 5d when blade and pod water content fall below 15 ~ 20%, can gather in, threshing ground will be transported into after harvesting and ted in time, play stone roller, threshing, clean.3) preparation before seed warehouse-in: seed storage has to pass through dry process, and methods such as utilizing solar exposure, ventilate, ted makes seed moisture content below 12%; The seed of firm results is often mingled with various impurity (cauline leaf fragment, sandstone, soil ash etc.) and broken, flat little kind grain, needs to clean seed, electronic pneumatic jig can be utilized to clean.The seed storage of cleaning, in ventilation, shady and cool, dry place, waits for corporate buyout.
(8) water winter water and execute winter top dressing: after alfalfa seed gathers in then, allow its continued growth, cylinder accumulation nutrient is beneficial to survives the winter, foot winter water (mu water consumption 150-200 cubic meter) is watered in early November to the middle ten days, water mu application of phosphoric acid two ammonium 5 kilograms before winter water, superphosphate 50 kilograms, potassium sulfate 5 kilograms.
Two, Second Year seed produces:
(1) kind of surviving the winter generally enters period of seedling establishment at Second Year early and middle ten days in April, mu spray 3-4 gram of casing coupling peace when seeing flower bud after turning green;
(2) flower bud phase to the florescence sprayed a borax (25 grams/acre)+potassium dihydrogen phosphate (250 grams/acre)+ammonium molybdate (15 grams/acre) every 10 days;
(3) prevent and kill off weeds in field: in late April to mid-May, when weeds just emerge, mu 5% " lucerne grass is clean " 110-130 milliliter prevents and kill off broad leaved weed, and mu 10.8% haloxyfop-r-methyl 100 milliliters prevents and kill off grassy weed;
(4) irrigate: see that must water foot before spending spends front water 1 time, mu water consumption is 30-80 cubic meter;
(5) with imidacloprid wp (70% water dispersible granules 5000 times) or beta-cypermethrin (4.5% missible oil 30 milliliters is watered 25 kilograms and sprays) pesticide control aphid and thrips before blooming, agricultural chemicals is used alternatingly, continuous 2 times, every 7 days 1 time;
(6) artificial supplementary pollination: flowering stage, should introduce honey bees pollination, every 15-20 put on mu ground honeybee 1000 (1 beehive) in the few place of insect pollination;
(7) roguing: in late June to early July, should remove the weeds such as field daghestan sweet clover, dodder, Hui Li, lomax at any time, duration of flowering removes special-shaped strain, weak strain in time;
(8) seed harvest: 1) gather in period: on August, the middle ten days, should gather in time when 70 ~ 80% pod overstrike.2) harvesting method: using artificial or machinery cut to be had bad luck to threshing ground airing, when leaf water drops to 12 ~ 18%, will make stone roller in time, winnows, screen seed; When directly gathering in the crops with combine, disleave desiccant (general mu sprays 20% paraquat aqua 200 ~ 300mL) will be sprayed before harvesting, after 3 ~ 5d when blade and pod water content fall below 15 ~ 20%, can gather in, threshing ground will be transported into after harvesting and ted in time, play stone roller, threshing, clean.3) preparation before seed warehouse-in: seed storage has to pass through dry process, methods such as utilizing solar exposure, ventilate, ted reduces seed moisture content makes seed moisture content below 12%; The seed of firm results is often mingled with various impurity (cauline leaf fragment, sandstone, dirt etc.) and fragmentation, flat little kind grain, needs to clean seed, electronic pneumatic jig can be utilized to clean.The seed storage of cleaning, in ventilation, shady and cool, dry place, waits for corporate buyout.
(9) water winter water and execute winter top dressing: after alfalfa seed gathers in then, the also mu that waters immediately executes urea 5-8 kilogram, allow it grow, one batch of grass can be gathered in mid or late September to feed cattle and sheep, treat clover continued growth after harvesting, accumulation nutrient, before late October waters winter water, mu uses two ammonium 5 kilograms, superphosphate 50 kilograms, potassium sulfate 5 kilograms.Water foot winter water (mu water consumption 150-200 cubic meter) in early November to the middle ten days to allow and stay a clover to survive the winter.
Later each year production management is undertaken by the field production management of Second Year alfalfa seed.
The present invention has the following advantages and effect relative to prior art tool:
Application the inventive method, this technology plantation " No. 3, sweet agriculture " alfalfa variety 16.3 mu is applied on March 28th, 2012 in Ci Woquan base, Shang Ba town, Jiuquan, gathered in the crops September 7 then, total product alfalfa seed 451.5 kilograms, 27.7 kilograms, average yield per mu seed, fills with winter water November and survives the winter, to turn green next year i.e. on April 4th, 2013 end, August 18 gathered in the crops, total product alfalfa seed 952 kilograms, 58.4 kilograms, average yield per mu seed; Continue on March 26th, 2013 to continue this technology of application plantation " in herd No. 1 " alfalfa variety 22.7 mu in Ci Woquan base, Shang Ba town, Jiuquan, then September 12 results, always produce alfalfa seed 710.5 kilograms, 31.3 kilograms, average yield per mu seed.The same year also plants experimentally " No. 1, middle lucerne " in base, zanjon beach, Nanhua town, Zhangye Gaotai County, area 13.5 mu, March 25 2013 sowing time, harvest time, on September 8th, 2013, total product alfalfa seed 431.5 kilograms, average yield per mu 32 kilograms.The test of two places is all in early November waters winter water then, within 2014, continue results seed, sowing respectively, stung nest spring and always produced alfalfa seed 1416.5 kilograms August 17 and August 12, alfalfa seed 860 kilograms is always produced on zanjon beach, and two places respectively per mu yield seed are 62.4 kilograms and 63.7 kilograms.The seed color and luster that application the present invention produces is good, full seed.
The obducens seed used in the present invention, is vaccinated with rhizobium, and ensure that one broadcasts full stand, utilizes the fixed nitrogen effect of rhizobium, decreases the amount of application of nitrogenous fertilizer and nitrogenous fertilizer to the pollution of environment.
Present invention reduces the production cycle of alfalfa seed, become the alfalfa seed biennial product cycle for produced more than a year one season seed, the sky decreasing Planting Medicago sativa soil then accounts for rate, improves the availability in soil, adds seed production and plants family income.
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with specific embodiment, further detailed description is done to the present invention.Should be understood that the following examples are only not used in for illustration of the present invention to limit the scope of the invention.
Improve a method for Alfalfa Seed Yield, comprise the steps:
One, First Year seed produces:
(1) selection in seed-breeding field: select in open (more than 1000 meters, the visual field), ventilate (usual surface wind more than 2 grades), illumination abundance (average sunshine duration more than 7 hours), soil layer deep (soil depth more than 1 meter), fertility is moderate, and (soil organic matter content is greater than 2%, alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen 100-200 mg/kg, rapid available phosphorus 10-20 mg/kg, available potassium 100-150 mg/kg), pH 6-8, row's of filling convenient (having installed irrigation and drainage facility), weeds less (every square metre lower than 5 strain weeds), not by livestock and poultry harm (raising offset scattered from more than 500 meters apart from poultry) and be beneficial to insect pollination (planting area outward wind break or meadow more) plot, seed-breeding field different cultivars spacing distance is at more than 800m.
(2) wholely: require deep ploughing, rake is thin wholely, and a kind of farm tools is put down, pick up stubble and chad, seeding layer is tight, grasps the suitable cultivated phase (field capacity is 40-60%), the soil hand of field 10-20 cm layer of soil is pinched agglomerating, and mass of soil lands fragmentary immediately, is at this moment suitable time of site preparation.Use sufficient base manure in conjunction with deep ploughing, general mu executes farmyard manure 2500 to 3000 kilograms, 5 kilograms, urea, diammonium phosphate 15 kilograms or 50 kilograms, common phosphate fertilizer, then applies potassium sulfate or 5 kilograms, potassium chloride.
(3) Fruit variety and seed treatment: should according to local natural climate condition during sowing, select to be applicable to local plantation (if Hexi Corridor clover breeding time is in 105-115 days, Hexi Corridor is generally selected " No. 1, middle lucerne " or " No. 3, sweet agriculture ") kind, guarantee to broadcast full stand and robust growth; And obducens process Rhizobium Inoculation is carried out to alfalfa seed and nutrient needed for band plant growth.
Alfalfa seed (No. 1, middle lucerne or No. 3, sweet agriculture) obducens processing method is: 1. prepare adhesive: be mixed with the solution for standby containing carboxymethyl cellulose 3.5% with hot water (40 DEG C) dissolving carboxymethyl cellulose.2. raw material prepares: determine total sowing quantity by mu sowing quantity 0.4-0.5 kilogram; Rhizobium melioti is weighed by 1% of total sowing quantity; The consumption of other raw material is: biological humic acid account for the total consumption of seed 0.5%, urea accounts for 1%, potassium dihydrogen phosphate accounts for 0.2%, and borax accounts for 0.1%, indolebutyric acid 0.01%, and methyl α-naphthyl acetate accounts for 0.01%, bentonite 7%.Above-mentioned other raw material except rhizobium is poured in agitator into stir (being set as C raw material) stand-by.3. the preparation of obducens alfalfa seed: in seed agitator, put into the alfalfa seed that scale is good, spray the cmc soln that has been equipped with while stirring and to continue stirring until alfalfa seed moistening, continue to stir after adding rhizobium melioti, add cmc soln again and Keep agitation to carrying disease germs evenly, then add the C raw material for preparing to stirring.The obducens alfalfa seed stirred is poured into clean threshing ground to shine and when moisture is less than 12%, load packaging bag (note: want airing to obtain when shining obducens seed thin for production and application, prevent from luming.)
(4) mulch sowing: when water-retaining quantity among field of soil 75-85%, full field covers black mulch film and keeps from heavy weed growth in the field, bunch planting seed on the film completed, to sowing soil and film compacting together (suppression), with the sowing opening on fine earth or the real film of sand seal, emerge after general 7-10 days.Sowing time at mid or late March, the Ching Ming Festival of being no more than at the latest.Seeding quantity every mu obducens alfalfa seed 0.5-0.65 kilogram, line-spacing is determined by soil fertility, (content of organic matter is greater than 2.5% to rich soil, alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen 150-200 mg/kg, rapid available phosphorus 20-40 mg/kg, available potassium 150-250 mg/kg) line-spacing 70-100 centimetre; Medium soil (content of organic matter 1.5-2.5%, alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen 100-150 mg/kg, rapid available phosphorus 10-20 mg/kg, available potassium 100-150 mg/kg) 60-80 centimetre; Thin and weak soil (content of organic matter is less than 1.5%, alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen 50-100 mg/kg, rapid available phosphorus 5.0-10 mg/kg, available potassium 50-100 mg/kg) 40-70 centimetre.After planting forbid in field planting all cover crops.
(5) field management:
1) thinning: a seedling stage generally about late May, thinning during clover plant height 10-15cm, during thinning, seedling 1-2 strain is stayed in every cave;
2) apply fertilizer: combine in squaring period and irrigate, impose diammonium phosphate 3-5kg/ mu, potassium sulfate 3kg/ mu and borax 1kg/ mu;
3) mu spray in squaring period 3-4 gram of casing coupling peace;
4) flower bud phase to the florescence sprayed borax (25 grams/acre)+potassium dihydrogen phosphate (250 grams/acre)+ammonium molybdate (10-15 gram/acre) every 10 days;
5) mulch film is removed: during the envelope row of clover field, manually remove mulch film;
6) irrigate: see that must water foot before spending spends front water 1 time;
7) with imidacloprid wp (70% water dispersible granules 5000 times) or beta-cypermethrin (4.5% missible oil 30 milliliters is watered 25 kilograms and sprays) pesticide control aphid and thrips before blooming, agricultural chemicals is used alternatingly, continuous 2 times, every 7 days 1 time;
8) artificial supplementary pollination: flowering stage, should introduce honey bees pollination, every 15-20 put on mu ground honeybee 1000 (about 1 beehive) in the few place of insect pollination.
(6) roguing: in late June to early July, should remove the weeds such as field daghestan sweet clover, dodder, Hui Li, lomax at any time, duration of flowering removes special-shaped strain, weak strain in time.
(7) seed harvest: 1) gather in period: on September, the middle ten days, should gather in time when 70 ~ 80% pod overstrike.2) harvesting method: using artificial or machinery cut to be had bad luck to threshing ground airing, when leaf water drops to 12 ~ 18%, will make stone roller in time, winnows, screen seed; When directly gathering in the crops with combine, disleave desiccant (general mu sprays 20% paraquat aqua 200 ~ 300mL) will be sprayed before harvesting, after 3 ~ 5d when blade and pod water content fall below 15 ~ 20%, can gather in, threshing ground will be transported into after harvesting and ted in time, play stone roller, threshing, clean.3) preparation before seed warehouse-in: seed storage has to pass through dry process, and methods such as utilizing solar exposure, ventilate, ted makes seed moisture content below 12%; The seed of firm results is often mingled with various impurity (cauline leaf fragment, sandstone, soil ash etc.) and broken, flat little kind grain, needs to clean seed, electronic pneumatic jig can be utilized to clean.The seed storage of cleaning ventilating, the moon dries in the air, dry place, waits for corporate buyout.
(8) water winter water and execute winter top dressing: after alfalfa seed gathers in then, allow its continued growth, cylinder accumulation nutrient is beneficial to survives the winter, foot winter water (mu water consumption 150-200 cubic meter) is watered in early November to the middle ten days, water mu application of phosphoric acid two ammonium 5 kilograms before winter water, superphosphate 50 kilograms, potassium sulfate 5 kilograms.
Two, Second Year seed produces:
(1) kind of surviving the winter generally enters period of seedling establishment at Second Year early and middle ten days in April, mu spray 3-4 gram of casing coupling peace when seeing flower bud after turning green;
(2) flower bud phase to the florescence sprayed a borax (25 grams/acre)+potassium dihydrogen phosphate (250 grams/acre)+ammonium molybdate (15 grams/acre) every 10 days;
(3) prevent and kill off weeds in field: in late April to mid-May, when weeds just emerge, mu 5% " lucerne grass is clean " 110-130 milliliter prevents and kill off broad leaved weed, and mu 10.8% haloxyfop-r-methyl 100 milliliters prevents and kill off grassy weed;
(4) irrigate: see that must water foot before spending spends front water 1 time, mu water consumption is 30-80 cubic meter;
(5) with imidacloprid wp (70% water dispersible granules 5000 times) or beta-cypermethrin (4.5% missible oil 30 milliliters is watered 25 kilograms and sprays) pesticide control aphid and thrips before blooming, agricultural chemicals is used alternatingly, continuous 2 times, every 7 days 1 time;
(6) artificial supplementary pollination: flowering stage, should introduce honey bees pollination, every 15-20 put on mu ground honeybee 1000 (1 beehive) in the few place of insect pollination;
(7) roguing: in late June to early July, should remove the weeds such as field daghestan sweet clover, dodder, Hui Li, lomax at any time, duration of flowering removes special-shaped strain, weak strain in time;
(8) seed harvest: 1) gather in period: on August, the middle ten days, should gather in time when 70 ~ 80% pod overstrike.2) harvesting method: using artificial or machinery cut to be had bad luck to threshing ground airing, when leaf water drops to 12 ~ 18%, will make stone roller in time, winnows, screen seed; When directly gathering in the crops with combine, disleave desiccant (general mu sprays 20% paraquat aqua 200 ~ 300mL) will be sprayed before harvesting, after 3 ~ 5d when blade and pod water content fall below 15 ~ 20%, can gather in, threshing ground will be transported into after harvesting and ted in time, play stone roller, threshing, clean.3) preparation before seed warehouse-in: seed storage has to pass through dry process, methods such as utilizing solar exposure, ventilate, ted reduces seed moisture content makes seed moisture content below 12%; The seed of firm results is often mingled with various impurity (cauline leaf fragment, sandstone, dirt etc.) and fragmentation, flat little kind grain, needs to clean seed, electronic pneumatic jig can be utilized to clean.The seed storage of cleaning, in ventilation, shady and cool, dry place, waits for corporate buyout.
(9) water winter water and execute winter top dressing: after alfalfa seed gathers in then, the also mu that waters immediately executes urea 5-8 kilogram, allow it grow, one batch of grass can be gathered in mid or late September to feed cattle and sheep, treat clover continued growth after harvesting, accumulation nutrient, before late October waters winter water, mu uses two ammonium 5 kilograms, superphosphate 50 kilograms, potassium sulfate 5 kilograms.Water foot winter water (mu water consumption 150-200 cubic meter) in early November to the middle ten days to allow and stay a clover to survive the winter.
Later each year production management is undertaken by the field production management of Second Year alfalfa seed.
The production instance applying the method for above-mentioned raising Alfalfa Seed Yield is as follows:
Embodiment 1 is at Ci Woquan base, Shang Ba town, Jiuquan plantation " No. 3, sweet agriculture " alfalfa variety
This technology plantation " No. 3, sweet agriculture " alfalfa variety 16.3 mu is applied on March 28th, 2012 in Ci Woquan base, Shang Ba town, Jiuquan, obtained September 7 then, total product alfalfa seed 451.5 kilograms, 27.7 kilograms, average yield per mu seed, fill with winter water then November to survive the winter, end of turning green April 4 2013 next year, August 18 gathered in the crops, total product alfalfa seed 952 kilograms, 58.4 kilograms, average yield per mu seed.
Embodiment 2 is at Ci Woquan base, Shang Ba town, Jiuquan plantation " No. 1, middle lucerne " alfalfa variety
Continue on March 26th, 2013 to continue this technology of application plantation " in herd No. 1 " alfalfa variety 22.7 mu in Ci Woquan base, Shang Ba town, Jiuquan, then September 12 results, always produce alfalfa seed 710.5 kilograms, 31.3 kilograms, average yield per mu seed.The same year also plants experimentally " No. 1, middle lucerne " in base, zanjon beach, Nanhua town, Zhangye Gaotai County, area 13.5 mu, March 25 2013 sowing time, harvest time, on September 8th, 2013, total product alfalfa seed 431.5 kilograms, average yield per mu 32 kilograms, the test of two places is all in early November waters winter water then, within 2014, continue results seed, sowing respectively, stung nest spring and always produced alfalfa seed 1416.5 kilograms August 17 and August 12, alfalfa seed 860 kilograms is always produced on zanjon beach, and two places respectively per mu yield seed are 62.4 kilograms and 63.7 kilograms.
Above-described embodiment is the present invention's preferably embodiment; but embodiments of the present invention are not restricted to the described embodiments; change, the modification done under other any does not deviate from Spirit Essence of the present invention and principle, substitute, combine, simplify; all should be the substitute mode of equivalence, be included within protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (8)

1. improve a method for Alfalfa Seed Yield, it is characterized in that, comprise the steps: mid-March to the last ten-days period wholely, fertilising, in mid or late March epiphragma bunch planting obducens alfalfa seed, after planting forbid in field planting all cover crops; The neat seedling of clover that mid-April is broadcast, late May clover enter squaring period, this mu spray casing coupling peace 3-4 gram phase; The flower bud phase is secondary to 7 to 12 days sprinklings boron fertilizer, potassium dihydrogen phosphate, molydbenum fertilizers to just spending, and mid or late June sees that the florescence waters a water; Spray insecticide before blooming control thrips, aphid, early July clover enter flowering stage; Early September to the middle ten days, seed fruit pod 70 ~ 80% browning look was gathered in the crops.
2. the method for raising Alfalfa Seed Yield according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: described obducens alfalfa seed is by comprising the method preparation of following steps: in seed agitator, put into alfalfa seed, spray cmc soln while stirring and to continue stirring until alfalfa seed moistening, continue to stir after adding the rhizobium melioti accounting for alfalfa seed quality 1%, add cmc soln and Keep agitation to carrying disease germs evenly, then add C raw material to stirring and obtaining obducens alfalfa seed; Described C raw material by by occupying the biological humic acid of alfalfa seed quality 0.5%, the urea of 1%, potassium dihydrogen phosphate, the borax of 0.1%, indolebutyric acid, the methyl α-naphthyl acetate of 0.01%, the bentonite of 7% of 0.01% of 0.2% mix and obtain.
3. the method for raising Alfalfa Seed Yield according to claim 1, is characterized in that: First Year seed produces comprises the steps:
(1) selection in seed-breeding field: select open, ventilate, illumination is sufficient, soil layer is deep, fertility is moderate, pH6-8, the row of filling is convenient, weeds are less, by livestock and poultry harm and be beneficial to insect pollination plot as seed-breeding field;
(2) wholely: carry out whole ground and mu executes farmyard manure 2500 to 3000 kilograms, 5 kilograms, urea, diammonium phosphate 15 kilograms or 50 kilograms, phosphate fertilizer in the suitable phase of ploughing, then apply potassium sulfate or 5 kilograms, potassium chloride;
(3) Fruit variety and seed treatment: select the alfalfa variety being applicable to local natural climate condition, and obducens process is carried out to alfalfa seed;
(4) mulch sowing: at mid or late March, during water-retaining quantity among field of soil 75-85%, the treated obducens alfalfa seed of full field covering with plastic film bunch planting, will sow soil and mould is real, with the sowing opening on fine earth or the real film of sand seal, emerge after 7-10 days; After planting forbid in field planting all cover crops;
(5) field management:
1) thinning: thinning during clover plant height 10-15cm, seedling 1-2 strain is stayed in every cave;
2) apply fertilizer: combine squaring period and irrigate, impose diammonium phosphate 3-5kg/ mu, potassium sulfate 3kg/ mu and borax 1kg/ mu;
3) mu spray in squaring period 3-4 gram of casing coupling peace;
4) flower bud phase to the florescence sprayed borax, potassium dihydrogen phosphate, an ammonium molybdate every 10 days, and every mu of fountain height is respectively 25 grams, 250 grams, 10-15 gram;
5) mulch film is removed: removing mulch film during the envelope row of clover field;
6) irrigate: see that watering foot before spending spends front water 1 time;
7) prevent eliminating aphis and thrips with imidacloprid wp or beta-cypermethrin before blooming;
8) artificial supplementary pollination: flowering stage introduces honey bees pollination, every 15-20 puts on mu ground honeybee 1000;
(6) roguing: in late June to early July, remove weeds in field at any time, duration of flowering removes special-shaped strain, weak strain in time;
(7) seed harvest: at early and middle ten days in September, gathers in the crops seed when 70 ~ 80% pod overstrike;
(8) water winter water and execute winter top dressing: after alfalfa seed gathers in then, allowing it grow; Before watering winter water, mu uses two ammonium 5 kilograms, superphosphate 50 kilograms, potassium sulfate 5 kilograms, waters foot winter water in early November to the middle ten days.
4. the method for raising Alfalfa Seed Yield according to claim 3, is characterized in that: be vaccinated with rhizobium and nutrient needed for band plant growth through the alfalfa seed of obducens process in step (3).
5. the method for raising Alfalfa Seed Yield according to claim 3, it is characterized in that: the seeding quantity of the obducens alfalfa seed described in step (4) is 0.5-0.65 kilogram, line-spacing is determined according to soil fertility: rich soil 70-100 centimetre, medium soil 60-80 centimetre, thin and weak soil 40-70 centimetre.
6. the method for raising Alfalfa Seed Yield according to claim 3, is characterized in that: the step 7 of step (5) farming family management) in imidacloprid wp and beta-cypermethrin be used alternatingly, continuous 2 times, every 7 days 1 time.
7. the method for raising Alfalfa Seed Yield according to claim 3, is characterized in that: Second Year seed produces comprises the steps:
(1) mu spray 3-4 gram of casing coupling peace when Second Year early and middle ten days in April is shown in flower bud;
(2) flower bud phase to the florescence sprayed borax, potassium dihydrogen phosphate, an ammonium molybdate every 10 days, and every mu of fountain height is respectively 25 grams, 250 grams, 15 grams;
(3) prevent and kill off weeds in field: when late April, weeds just emerged to mid-May, with lucerne grass, clean and haloxyfop-r-methyl prevents and kill off broad leaved weed and grassy weed;
(4) irrigate: see that watering foot before spending spends front water 1 time;
(5) prevent eliminating aphis and thrips with imidacloprid wp or beta-cypermethrin before blooming;
(6) artificial supplementary pollination: flowering stage introduces honey bees pollination, every 15-20 puts on mu ground honeybee 1000;
(7) roguing: in late June to early July, remove weeds in field at any time, duration of flowering removes special-shaped strain, weak strain in time;
(8) seed harvest: at early and middle ten days in August, gathers in the crops seed when 70 ~ 80% pod overstrike;
(9) water winter water and execute winter top dressing: after alfalfa seed gathers in then, the also mu that waters executes urea 5-8 kilogram, allows it grow; Clover continued growth is treated after mid or late September gathers in one batch; Before late October waters winter water, mu uses two ammonium 5 kilograms, superphosphate 50 kilograms, potassium sulfate 5 kilograms; Water foot winter water in early November to the middle ten days to allow and stay a clover to survive the winter.
8. the method for raising Alfalfa Seed Yield according to claim 7, is characterized in that: later each year seed produces the same Second Year of method.
CN201410748749.4A 2014-12-09 2014-12-09 Method for increasing alfalfa seed yield Pending CN104472058A (en)

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CN105638219A (en) * 2016-01-28 2016-06-08 山西省农业科学院高寒区作物研究所 Cultivation method for increasing yield of alfalfa by means of biological inoculation agent
CN106416664A (en) * 2016-08-30 2017-02-22 内蒙古华蒙科创环保科技工程有限公司 Alfalfa planting method in which biogas slurry field returning technology is adopted
CN106961954A (en) * 2017-03-21 2017-07-21 新疆春暖花开种业科技有限公司 A kind of production method of Xinjiang big Leaf alfalfa seed
CN107360834A (en) * 2017-08-05 2017-11-21 青海省畜牧兽医科学院 A kind of cold semiarid areas area clover type of seeding
CN109744062A (en) * 2017-11-02 2019-05-14 云南省农业科学院热区生态农业研究所 A kind of method of dry-hot valley vineyard interplanting alfalfa
CN109892173A (en) * 2017-12-07 2019-06-18 中国科学院亚热带农业生态研究所 A kind of Karst Regional leguminous forage introduction method
CN108752085A (en) * 2018-05-10 2018-11-06 黑龙江省农垦科学院 Rice breeding binder
CN109105163A (en) * 2018-08-01 2019-01-01 中储草生态农业科技有限责任公司 A method of improving Alfalfa cold tolerance
CN110447496A (en) * 2019-09-21 2019-11-15 新疆农业大学 A method of improving Alfalfa seed yield
CN112369156A (en) * 2020-11-12 2021-02-19 安徽省农业科学院畜牧兽医研究所 Efficient yield-increasing treatment method for alfalfa seeds

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