CN103947441B - Nonoculture alfalfa field interplanting in summer silage corn implantation methods - Google Patents

Nonoculture alfalfa field interplanting in summer silage corn implantation methods Download PDF

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CN103947441B
CN103947441B CN201410202798.8A CN201410202798A CN103947441B CN 103947441 B CN103947441 B CN 103947441B CN 201410202798 A CN201410202798 A CN 201410202798A CN 103947441 B CN103947441 B CN 103947441B
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clover
corn
interplanting
cradle
alfalfa
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CN103947441A (en
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刘贵波
赵海明
李源
游永亮
翟兰菊
李爱国
张胜古
王广才
王卫东
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DRY-LAND FARMING INSTITUTE OF HEBEI ACADEMY OF AGRICULTURAL AND FORESTRY SCIENCES
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Abstract

The invention provides a kind of nonoculture alfalfa field interplanting in summer silage corn implantation methods, comprise the steps: A, clover drilling; B, clover cradle and field management: when cradling for the 2nd time the principles of action select to cradle first 5 days and pour water or after rain, soil moisture content is suitable time; C, interplanting corn: cradle iron stubble sowing immediately on the 2nd batch of same day clover; D, Corn production management: corn imposes carbon ammonium 60kg or urea 25kg the typhon mouth phase every mu, and waters immediately or apply with precipitation; E, clover cradle: during corn growth, clover does not cradle; F, harvest corn: use the clear stubble of corn straw silage harvest machinery and results clover, by 2 mixed silages.The present invention makes full use of time, the space parallax of the process of growth of clover and corn, and land resources is made full use of; Make full use of water resource and the sunlight-heat reaources of the 7-9 month, improve comprehensive Herbage harvest, compensate for clover underproduce for summer, solve clover results in a rainy season processing difficult problem simultaneously.

Description

Nonoculture alfalfa field interplanting in summer silage corn implantation methods
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of nonoculture alfalfa field interplanting in summer silage corn implantation methods, be particularly useful for Huang-Huai-Hai plain ALFALFA PRODUCTION, belong to forage grass relay interplanting planting technical field.
Background technology
Alfalfa (MedicagosativaL.) is called for short clover, is the longest, the area leguminous forage the most widely of cultivation history in world wide.Clover belongs to happiness Wen Liang and arid habit crop, optimum growth temperature 20 ~ 25 DEG C, its poor heat resistance." dormancy " relatively state is presented at the alfalfa growing in summer of Temperate Region in China, cause grass yield significantly to decline, 1-2 stubble Herbage harvest accounts for more than 60% of annual production, and plot in rainy season, clover field is moist simultaneously, be difficult to carry out mechanized harvest, and ensiling and airing more difficult.China Huang-Huai-Hai 7-9 month is rainy season, and be water, fertilizer, light, temperature, thermal resource relatively sufficient period, and clover is difficult to effective utilization yet, thus causes the wasting of resources, land utilization rate is not high.
At present, domestic and international clover and corn intercropping plant research are reported more, comparatively common with two kinds of alternate plantations of crop strip-type.Intercropping is that clover and other crop bands are separated by and are planted, and is distributed in different spaces, and two kinds of crops independently exist in two different spaces, and this planting patterns is helpless to improve land utilization rate.
Summary of the invention
The object of the present invention is to provide a kind of nonoculture alfalfa field interplanting in summer silage corn implantation methods, utilize the seasonal photo-thermal water resources condition in Huang-Huai-Hai, in alfalfa ground, interplant silage corn, to improve land utilization rate and Silage annual production.
Nonoculture alfalfa field interplanting in summer silage corn implantation methods of the present invention, technical scheme comprises the steps:
A, clover sowing, clover drilling, sowing line-spacing adopts wide-and narrow-row mode to carry out, wide row 40cm, narrow row 20cm; Seed level 1-2cm, the amount of broadcasting 1-1.5kg/ mu;
B, clover cradle and field management: the 1st cutting occasion in 10-15 day in May, the 2nd cutting occasion 15-20 in June day; When cradling for the 2nd time the principles of action select to cradle first 5 days and pour water or after rain, soil moisture content is suitable time;
C, interplanting corn: cradle iron stubble sowing immediately on the 2nd batch of same day clover, alfalfa growing excessive velocities can be avoided, seedling stage closing are formed to silage corn;
D, Corn production management: corn in the typhon mouth phase, i.e. the corn plant height 50-70cm in field, every mu imposes carbon ammonium 60kg or urea 25kg, and waters immediately or apply with precipitation;
E, clover cradle: during corn growth, clover does not cradle;
F, harvest corn: gather in the crops silage corn mid-September early dough stage, silage corn stubble uses the clear stubble of corn straw silage harvest machinery and results clover, by 2 mixed silages;
G, clover regeneration: after harvest corn, clover Natural re generation, alfalfa growing is unaffected;
H, clover turn green: spring in next year clover period of seedling establishment soil and air humidity all higher time spray the clean management of weeds of lucerne grass; Superphosphate 40kg/ mu can be imposed, urea 10kg/ mu or diammonium phosphate 30kg/ mu, and water immediately.
Described nonoculture alfalfa field interplanting in summer silage corn implantation methods, described in steps A clover sowing autumn sowing sow in spring all can, sow in spring at early and middle ten days in April, autumn sowing was advisable with mid or late August.
Described nonoculture alfalfa field interplanting in summer silage corn implantation methods, should broadcast front moisture creating as soil drought during clover sowing, treat that soil moisture content is suitable, meticulous wholely, apply base fertilizer: composite fertilizer 50kg/ mu or high-quality well-rotted farmyard manure 2000 ~ 3000 ㎏/mu.
Described nonoculture alfalfa field interplanting in summer silage corn implantation methods, the corn seeding described in step C is in the wide row of clover, and Row spacing of maize is 60cm, and density of reserved seedlings 4000-4500 plant/acre determines suitable seeding quantity according to density, seed level 3-5cm.
The technological progress effect of nonoculture alfalfa field interplanting in summer silage corn implantation methods of the present invention comprises:
1, the time of the process of growth of clover and corn, space parallax is made full use of, land resources is made full use of, especially strive the actual environment on ground at Rural Plain Areas, Hebei province army provisions under, play edge Land_use change potentiality, reach the basic goal that agricultural production creates more product on limited arable land.
2, water resource and sunlight-heat reaources is made full use of.The 7-9 month is rainy season, but 7-9 month alfalfa output is lower, and efficiency of water application is not high; Plantation silage corn can make water utilization rate be improved largely.Clover and corn can make full use of the photo-thermal energy of different levels, add light-receiving area, improve photosynthetic efficiency, improve yield and quality.
3, Herbage harvest and breeding benefit is improved.Interplanting silage corn cropping pattern can gather in the crops higher forage yield, compensate for clover underproduce for summer, improves planting benefit, can drive the increase of aquaculture economic benefit simultaneously.
4, clover results in a rainy season processing difficult problem is solved.Hebei Plain agriculture district Summer Rainfall is more concentrated, clover can not or not easily results, airing, ensiling etc., cause production loss, this measure only needs less input just can obtain comparatively high production, simultaneously also makes this difficult problem effectively be solved.
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with embodiment, the present invention is further detailed explanation.
On August 30th, 2012 takes up an area 2 mu in view of water experiment station of academy of agricultural sciences of Hebei province, carries out interplanting test, and wherein flat planting clover (wide-and narrow-row and wait for line-spacing), flat planting corn, cover deal with (wide-and narrow-row) and respectively take up an area 0.5 mu.
Clover autumn sowing, broadcasts front moisture creating, treats that soil moisture content is suitable, meticulous wholely, Bo Qian bottom application composite fertilizer (N, P, K content 45%) 50 kgs/acre, seed level 2cm (upper seeding), the amount of broadcasting 1.5kg/ mu.Clover flat planting line-spacing such as to establish at line-spacing, wide-and narrow-row 2 process, and interplanting is treated to wide-and narrow-row process, respectively takes up an area 0.5 mu, waits line-spacing process line-spacing to be 30cm, and the wide row 40cm of wide-and narrow-row process line-spacing, narrow row 20cm;
On June 25th, 2013 sows silage corn with precipitation in clover field, sow 1 row every 2 row clovers, in the ranks sow at wide row 40cm, simultaneously flat planting silage corn area 0.5 mu, flat planting and cover deal with density of reserved seedlings and are 4000 plants/acre, precision drilling, eliminate a final singling job, when silage corn is emerged, clover does not form closing phenomenon, because precipitation is sufficient, do not carry out any irrigation, base fertilizer is sufficient, does not topdress;
Line-spacing clover, the flat planting wide-and narrow-row clovers such as flat plantings in 2013, flat planting silage corn, cover deal with all selects 3 points to carry out survey product, each some area 10m 2, stubble height 3-5cm.Flat planting clover cradles 5 batches the whole year, and defoliation date is respectively May 12, June 25, July 23, August 25, October 5, and wide-and narrow-row and green forage yield such as process such as line-spacing such as grade are respectively 100202.8kg/hm 2, 97666.7kg/hm 2, indifference between flat planting clover different spacings.
Cover deals with on May 12nd, 2013, June 25 cradled 2 batches of clovers, and cover deals with yield of alfalfa 60727.1kg/hm 2, silage corn growing period is not gathered in the crops by clover, and September 24 surveyed product by silage corn, and cover deals with silage corn green forage yield and is respectively 55268.5kg/hm 2; Flat silage corn of doing was gathered in the crops September 24, green forage yield 57416.1kg/hm 2, combined harvester stubble height answers about 25cm, and silage corn stubble can use the high-order clear stubble of existing stubble harvest machinery in production, too lowly can destroy clover root system, and clover and silage corn stubble can be packed up simultaneously, are conducive to clover regeneration.September silage corn results after, clover Natural re generation, alfalfa growing is not affected.November 20 clover plant height about 35cm.
On March 15th, 2014, clover all normally turned green, growing state indifference, and therefore cover broadcasts silage corn to growth in the 2nd year not impact.On May 1st, 2014 plant height 105-110cm, growth potential is comparatively strong, carries out cradling for the 1st time surveying and produces, wherein wide-and narrow-row and wait that line-spacing is flat is respectively 31828.7kg/hm as yield of alfalfa 2, 32791.7kg/hm 2; Wide-and narrow-row and yield of alfalfa such as process such as silage corn such as interplanting such as line-spacing such as grade are respectively 33879.6kg/hm 2, 34217.6kg/hm 2, a little higher than flat planting clover, therefore cover broadcast silage corn clover is turned green and the 2nd annual production without negative effect.
Experimental scheme scheme and result as follows:
Test takes randomized arrangement mode, clover plot area 16.5m 2, the long 5.5m of row, 10 row districts, cradle 5 batches every year, and the 1st time defoliation date carried out in squaring period mid-May, stubble height 3-5cm.Line-spacing such as to establish at line-spacing, wide-and narrow-row 2 process, waits line-spacing and wide-and narrow-row process line-spacing to be respectively 30cm, 20-40cm; Interplanting crop species 5, planting patterns comprises Sorghum sudanense, silage corn, fodder food beans, draws crotons, millet 5 kinds of crops and flat compare (without interplanting) totally 6 kinds of modes; Test totally 12 combinations, repeat for 3 times.Be provided with 5 kinds of crop Ping Zuo communities simultaneously, do not establish repetition.Clover and silage corn are surveyed product area and are 10.8m 2.
1, First Year result of the test statistics
1-1, Herbage harvest compare:
Within 2012, result of the test is in table 1, to do clover higher with flat for annual yield of alfalfa and hay yield, interplanting clover has and reduces in various degree, and interplanting fodder food beans, millet process alfalfa output amount of decrease are less, and interplanting draws crotons, silage corn, Sorghum sudanense process amount of decrease larger; Interplanting silage corn achieves higher output, and all kinds of interplanting crop yield from high to low order is Sorghum sudanense, silage corn, draws crotons, millet, fodder food beans; Not obvious Deng difference between line-spacing and wide-and narrow-row, but wide-and narrow-row is more conducive to production operation.Comprehensive benefit with interplanting Sorghum sudanense and silage corn higher, flat take second place as clover, interplanting draws crotons, millet and fodder food beans process benefit lower.
Table 12012 year different disposal Herbage harvest and comprehensive benefit application form
1-2, efficiency of water application and Land Equivalent Ratio
Interplanting silage corns in 2012 and Sorghum sudanense efficiency of water application do clover, in table 2 apparently higher than flat.Deng line-spacing and wide-and narrow-row indifference; Interplanting silage corn process Land Equivalent Ratio is higher, is only second to millet, and Sorghum sudanense Land Equivalent Ratio is minimum.Wide-and narrow-row process be equal to or higher than etc. the Land Equivalent Ratio of line-spacing, illustrate that wide-and narrow-row is better than fixing line-spacing, also meet need of production.
Table 22012 year different disposal efficiency of water application and Land Equivalent Ratio statistical form
2, the 2nd year result of the test statistics
Field management in 2nd year: complete the 2nd for 2013 and take turns test.This is taken turns, and test is flat cradles 5 times as clover, and the time is on May 14th, 2013, June 24, July 31, September 7, October 7 respectively, and the process of interplanting crop cradles 3 times altogether, is respectively on May 14th, 2013, June 24, September 27.
June 24 sowed interplanting crop immediately, and crop is sowed with precipitation in interplanting, and within addition with 2012 years, way to manage is identical, and this processing method can not cause clover to form closing phenomenon to interplanting crop.September 25 gathered in the crops silage corn.
2-1, Herbage harvest
Spring front 2 batches of alfalfa output interplanting Sorghum sudanense and draw crotons process to do clover lower than flat, and interplanting silage corn, millet, fodder food beans are peaceful makes alfalfa output and do not have an impact, and therefore in 5 kinds of covers deal with, the process of interplanting silage corn behaves oneself best in table 3.Put down during interplanting crop and cradle 3 times as clover, and the clover of interplanting only cradles 1 time, therefore puts down and makes alfalfa output higher than interplanting clover; Interplanting alfalfa output presents and reduces in various degree, influenced less with interplanting millet, silage corn, with Sorghum sudanense with to draw crotons to affect larger.Interplanting crop is higher with Sorghum sudanense, silage corn Herbage harvest, and therefore, interplanting silage corn is the most reasonable.30 line-spacings and 20-40 line-spacing difference not obvious.Interplanting silage corn comprehensive benefit is better than flat doing clover, and flatly make clover results, airing, ensiling all have difficulties, therefore interplanting silage corn is a kind of good cropping pattern solving a production difficult problem.
Table 32013 year different disposal Herbage harvest and comprehensive benefit application form
2-2, efficiency of water application and Land Equivalent Ratio
What efficiency of water application in 2013 was higher is interplanting silage corn and Sorghum sudanense 2 class crop, in table 4.Clover is done apparently higher than flat; Interplanting silage corn Land Equivalent Ratio is higher, is only second to interplanting Sorghum sudanense; Interplanting silage corn and Sorghum sudanense process with wide-and narrow-row Land Equivalent Ratio higher than etc. line-spacing, the more convenient production farming operation of wide-and narrow-row.
Table 42013 year different disposal efficiency of water application and Land Equivalent Ratio statistical form
Note: clover and growth interplanting crop same period when calculating efficiency of water application, share pour water, precipitation, mix output to calculate both therefore utilizing, but clover and interplanting crop two kinds of crops mix, and the meaning of output is worth to be discussed.
3, conclusion (of pressure testing):
Comprehensive 2 years result of the tests, interplanting silage corn is optimization process.Adopt wide row 40cm, narrow row 20cm line-spacing mode planting clover field, clover field interplanting silage corn planting more than 1 year, sow clover after clover gathers in the crops 2 batches spring, the date is about mid or late June; Silage corn sowing timing cradles the same day the 2nd batch of clover, guarantees that the method on sowing opportunity pours water or cradles after precipitation in good time, accomplishes that a water is dual-purpose; Silage corn growing period does not carry out clover results, late September clover gather in the crops together with silage corn.
Foregoing description only proposes, not as the single restrictive condition to its technical scheme itself as several enforceable technical scheme of nonoculture alfalfa field interplanting in summer silage corn implantation methods of the present invention.

Claims (4)

1. nonoculture alfalfa field interplanting in summer silage corn implantation methods, its feature comprises the steps:
A, clover sowing, clover drilling, sowing line-spacing adopts wide-and narrow-row mode to carry out, wide row 40cm, narrow row 20cm; Seed level 1-2cm, the amount of broadcasting 1-1.5kg/ mu;
B, clover cradle and field management: the 1st cutting occasion in 10-15 day in May, the 2nd cutting occasion 15-20 in June day; Cradle for 2nd time choose opportunities cradle first 5 days and pour water or after rain, soil moisture content is suitable time; During corn growth, clover does not cradle;
C, interplanting corn: cradle clover and sowed immediately the 2nd batch of same day, alfalfa growing excessive velocities can be avoided, seedling stage closing are formed to silage corn;
D, Corn production management: corn in the typhon mouth phase, i.e. the corn plant height 50-70cm in field, every mu imposes carbon ammonium 60kg or urea 25kg, and waters immediately or apply with precipitation;
E, harvest corn: gather in the crops silage corn mid-September early dough stage, silage corn stubble uses the clear stubble of corn straw silage harvest machinery and results clover, by 2 mixed silages;
F, clover regeneration: after harvest corn, clover Natural re generation, alfalfa growing is unaffected;
G, clover turn green: spring in next year clover period of seedling establishment, soil and air humidity all higher time, spray the clean management of weeds of lucerne grass; Impose superphosphate 40kg/ mu and urea 10kg/ mu, or diammonium phosphate 30kg/ mu, and water immediately.
2. nonoculture alfalfa field interplanting in summer silage corn implantation methods according to claim 1, is characterized in that: the clover sowing autumn sowing described in steps A sow in spring all can, sow in spring at early and middle ten days in April, autumn sowing is in mid or late August.
3. nonoculture alfalfa field interplanting in summer silage corn implantation methods according to claim 2, it is characterized in that: as soil drought should broadcast front moisture creating during clover sowing, treat that soil moisture content is suitable, meticulous wholely, apply base fertilizer: composite fertilizer 50kg/ mu or high-quality well-rotted farmyard manure 2000 ~ 3000 ㎏/mu.
4. nonoculture alfalfa field interplanting in summer silage corn implantation methods according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: the corn seeding described in step C is in the wide row of clover, and Row spacing of maize is 60cm, density of reserved seedlings 4000-4500 plant/acre, suitable seeding quantity is determined, seed level 3-5cm according to density.
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