CN109122127B - Intercropping planting method with aphid control and soil heavy metal control functions - Google Patents

Intercropping planting method with aphid control and soil heavy metal control functions Download PDF

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Publication number
CN109122127B
CN109122127B CN201810940635.8A CN201810940635A CN109122127B CN 109122127 B CN109122127 B CN 109122127B CN 201810940635 A CN201810940635 A CN 201810940635A CN 109122127 B CN109122127 B CN 109122127B
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plant
aphids
intercropping
winter wheat
wheat
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CN109122127A (en
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赵风华
廖晓勇
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Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources of CAS
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Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources of CAS
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for
    • A01G22/20Cereals
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for
    • A01G22/40Fabaceae, e.g. beans or peas

Abstract

An intercropping planting method with aphid control and soil heavy metal control functions comprises the following steps: in the first year, arranging intercropping of winter wheat and overwintering forage grass, wherein the overwintering forage grass is a heavy metal enriched plant or a heavy metal super-enriched plant; in early spring of the next year, ladybug larvae liking aphids and aphids feeding preference pasture are cultivated indoors; releasing the ladybug and the aphids onto the pasture when the temperature rises to a period of ensuring the survival of the ladybug and the aphids in the field; then, the wheat aphids which like to eat wheat in the field start to be naturally bred and increased, and the ladybug is also eaten at the later time; and (3) when the number of the wheat aphids reaches the control index, cutting the pasture, forcing the ladybug to be completely transferred to winter wheat to take the wheat aphids, and interplanting the enrichment plants on the land after the pasture is cut. After the winter wheat is yellow, the ladybug migrates to an enrichment plant; after harvesting winter wheat, summer corn or summer soybean is sown. The invention can realize biological control of aphids, heavy metal control, production of winter wheat, summer corn and the like, and production of intercropping economic crops.

Description

Intercropping planting method with aphid control and soil heavy metal control functions
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical fields of crop planting, aphid prevention, soil pollution remediation and the like, in particular to an intercropping planting method with functions of aphid prevention and soil heavy metal pollution remediation.
Background
Currently, a large area of heavy metal polluted land exists in the world. In addition, in order to increase the fertility of farmlands, a lot of farmlands bring more heavy metals such as copper, zinc, arsenic, cadmium and the like in the livestock manure recovery field, and heavy metal pollution of the farmlands can be caused. How to economically and efficiently restore the heavy metal polluted land is researched in the industry. The method is an ideal repairing mode for intercropping the heavy metal (super) enriched plants (the enriched plants can be simply called) in crops, and the repair can be realized while producing.
Secondly, the multiple cropping of winter wheat and summer corn is a field planting mode generally implemented in north China. Researches show that the ladybug can well control wheat aphids, reduce the pesticide consumption and improve the crop quality. If the technology for repairing and preventing heavy metal pollution, the technology for planting winter wheat and summer corn and the biological prevention and treatment technology can be combined, the economic benefit and the ecological benefit are good.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to provide an intercropping planting method with functions of aphid control and soil heavy metal control, and aims to solve the problem that soil heavy metal pollution remediation, aphid control and the like cannot be combined in the prior art.
In order to achieve the above purpose, the invention provides the following technical scheme:
an intercropping planting method with aphid control and soil heavy metal control functions comprises the following steps: in the first year, intercropping winter wheat and overwintering forage grass, wherein the overwintering forage grass is an enriched plant, and the enriched plant comprises a heavy metal enriched plant or a heavy metal super-enriched plant; indoor culturing ladybug and aphids with feeding habits favoring over-wintering forage grass, and releasing the aphids to the over-wintering forage grass when the air temperature rises to a period of guaranteeing field survival of the aphids in the spring of the next year; when the number of the aphids of the winter wheat reaches the control index, cutting the pasture, and forcing the ladybug to be transferred to the winter wheat to take the aphids to realize biological control; if the pasture is a reclinable and regenerative plant, fertilizing to promote the regeneration of the pasture, and if the pasture cannot be regenerated, planting the enrichment plant again; after the winter wheat is yellow, part of ladybug migrates to the enrichment plants; after harvesting winter wheat, sowing summer corn or summer soybean; and (4) mowing the enriched plants for multiple times or once to remove the heavy metals.
Preferably, the over-wintering pasture grass intercropped with winter wheat and the enrichment plant intercropped with summer corn or summer soybean are both of the excellent ecotype of the enrichment plant.
Preferably, the over-wintering pasture is an annual enrichment plant ryegrass excellent ecotype, and the later-harvest enrichment plant is an annual enrichment plant castor-oil plant or piemarker excellent ecotype.
Preferably, when the over-winter forage grass is ryegrass, the row spacing for sowing in the first year is 20cm, the winter wheat and the over-winter forage grass are respectively sown in three rows, the post-harvest enrichment plant of the garland hemp or the castor-oil plant is sown in one row on the ground after the ryegrass is harvested, and the row spacing is 60 cm; after the later crops of summer corns or summer soybeans are harvested, one row is sown on the ground of the harvested winter wheat, and the row spacing is 60 cm.
Preferably, after completion of a multiple cropping cycle, the grain crop wheat corn soybean is exchanged with the intercropping enrichment plant.
Preferably, the whole plant is harvested to enrich the plant of the garland hemp or the castor-oil plant, the garland hemp skin is used for fiber materials, and the stem is used for carbon black processing; the castor bean is used as industrial oil, and the stem and leaf of the castor bean are used for non-human and livestock eating and non-returning field.
Preferably, the overwintering pasture is a superior ecotype of the perennial enrichment plant alfalfa.
Preferably, in the first autumn, the alfalfa is sown in 8 months, and the winter wheat is sown in 10-month last ten days.
Preferably, the alfalfa is mowed 1 time in the seedling stage of the aftercrop summer corn or summer soybean to facilitate the growth of the crop.
Preferably, the alfalfa is harvested and removed with or separately from the crop straw during the autumn corn and soybean harvesting period. .
Analysis shows that the high-efficiency multi-cropping mode provided by the invention can realize six purposes of biological control of aphids, heavy metal pollution remediation, winter wheat production, summer corn production, summer soybean production, pasture production, resource utilization of enriched heavy metal plants and the like by the technical means of intercropping overwintering pasture of winter wheat, artificially culturing ladybug in the field and forcing the ladybug to migrate to wheat, and the like, and has higher economic benefit and ecological benefit.
Detailed Description
The present invention will be described in further detail with reference to specific embodiments.
The first embodiment is as follows:
performing winter wheat overwintering grass intercropping such as ryegrass approximately in the first autumn and 10 months, wherein the row spacing for sowing in the first year is 20cm, the winter wheat and the overwintering grass are respectively sown in three rows, and the later-stubble-enriched plants such as the crowndaisy hemp or the castor-oil plant are sown on the ground after the ryegrass is harvested for one row, and the row spacing is 60 cm; after the later crops of summer corns or summer soybeans are harvested, one row is sown on the ground of the harvested winter wheat, and the row spacing is 60 cm. In actual implementation, the row spacing and row number of winter wheat and ryegrass can be adjusted according to variety characteristics, output overdue, mechanical operation and the like. In winter and spring, ladybug and aphid whose feeding property prefers ryegrass are cultivated indoors, and then released onto ryegrass when the temperature rises to a period capable of ensuring the field survival in spring of the next year. The aphid cultured with the preference to the feeding performance of ryegrass mainly provides enough food for the ladybug when the wheat aphid can not meet the needs of the ladybug. The enriched plant can be used for culturing the ladybug, specifically, the enriched plant can be taken as a certain type of aphid, mite and scabies, and the aphid, the mite and the scabies can be taken as the ladybug larvae, so that the field breeding and release of the ladybug are realized.
When the number of aphids (wheat aphids) of the winter wheat reaches the control index, the ryegrass is mowed, the ladybug is forced to be transferred to the winter wheat to eat the wheat aphids, and the biological control of the wheat aphids is realized.
Then, a copper-zinc-lead super-enriched plant, namely castor-oil plant, is sown on the land mowed with ryegrass, and the castor-oil plant is suitable for spring sowing in Huang-Huai-Hai land.
In May, the winter wheat falls yellow, part of ladybug migrates to castor, and the castor plays the role of ecological island.
After harvesting winter wheat, summer corn is sown.
And (4) harvesting castor at the bottom of 9 months, and then harvesting the corn.
Example two:
as in example one, first, in the first year, intercropping of winter wheat, e.g., over-wintering grasses such as ryegrass, is performed.
Then, ladybug and aphids whose feeding habits favor ryegrass are cultivated indoors, and released onto ryegrass when the air temperature is raised to a period that the field survival can be guaranteed in spring.
And (3) when the number of the aphids of the winter wheat reaches the control index, mowing the ryegrass, and forcing the ladybug to be transferred to the winter wheat to eat the aphids.
And (3) sowing a lead-copper-zinc enriched plant, namely the crowndaisy chrysanthemum on the land with the ryegrass cut, wherein the crowndaisy chrysanthemum is suitable for spring sowing in Huang-Huai-Hai areas.
After winter wheat is yellow, part of ladybug migrates to the chrysanthemum coronarium, and the chrysanthemum abutilon plays the role of an ecological island.
After the winter wheat is harvested, summer corn is sown to form the chrysanthemum coronarium which is intercropped between the summer corn.
Harvesting the crowndaisy hemp at the end of 9 months, and then harvesting the corn.
In the first and second examples, the overwintering pasture and the heavy metal-enriched plant are different plants, and the overwintering pasture and the heavy metal-enriched plant can be selected to be the same plant according to the characteristics of the different plants, for example, the third example below.
In the two embodiments, the whole plant is harvested to enrich the plant of the crowndaisy hemp or the castor-oil plant, the skin of the crowndaisy hemp is used for fiber materials, and the stem is used for carbon black processing; the castor bean is used as industrial oil, and the stem and leaf of the castor bean are used for non-human and livestock eating and non-returning field.
Example three:
in the first year, the intercropping of the winter wheat and the alfalfa is carried out, wherein the alfalfa is sowed in autumn in 8 months (can be interplanted in summer corns in the previous stubbles), the winter wheat is sowed in the last ten days in 10 months, and the planting density ratio can be determined according to prevention expectation and mechanical operation requirements.
The ladybug and the aphids whose feeding habits favor alfalfa are cultured indoors, and released to the alfalfa when the temperature rises to a period that the survival of the field can be ensured in spring. Similarly, the aphid, which prefers alfalfa for feeding, is also in the early stages in order to provide enough food to ladybug.
When the number of aphids (wheat aphids) of the winter wheat reaches the control index (generally appearing in the middle and late 4 months), the alfalfa is cut, the ladybirds are forced to be transferred to the winter wheat to eat the wheat aphids, and biological control of the wheat aphids is realized.
After the winter wheat falls to yellow, the ladybug migrates to the alfalfa.
After harvesting winter wheat, summer corn is sown.
In the late 6 th to late 7 th of the month (aiming at Huang-Huai-Hai region of China or other regions with climates similar to the region), the alfalfa is cut for 1 time in the seedling stage of summer corn so as to ensure the growth of the grain crops in the seedling stage.
In the above examples, the enriched plants intercropped with winter wheat and the enriched plants intercropped with summer corn or summer soybean are excellent ecotypes of the enriched plants. And after completing a multiple planting period, the grain crop wheat, corn and soybean is preferably exchanged with the land for intercropping the enriched plant. In addition, the enriched plants are not suitable for people and livestock or returning the straws to the field after being harvested no matter being mown once or repeatedly mown.
In conclusion, the invention can realize multiple purposes by the way of intercropping (early stage) of the winter wheat overwintering forage grass and intercropping (later stage) of the winter forage grass and the summer corn: biological control of aphids, remediation of heavy metal pollution of soil, production of winter wheat, summer corn, pasture, super-enriched (enriched) heavy metal plants and the like.
It will be appreciated by those skilled in the art that the invention may be embodied in other specific forms without departing from the spirit or essential characteristics thereof. The embodiments disclosed above are therefore to be considered in all respects as illustrative and not restrictive. All changes which come within the scope of or equivalence to the invention are intended to be embraced therein.

Claims (10)

1. An intercropping planting method with aphid control and soil heavy metal control functions is characterized by comprising the following steps:
in the first year, intercropping winter wheat and overwintering forage grass, wherein the overwintering forage grass is an enriched plant, and the enriched plant comprises a heavy metal enriched plant or a heavy metal super-enriched plant;
indoor culturing ladybug and aphids with feeding habits favoring over-wintering forage grass, and releasing the aphids to the over-wintering forage grass when the air temperature rises to a period of guaranteeing field survival of the aphids in the spring of the next year;
when the number of the aphids of the winter wheat reaches the control index, cutting the pasture, and forcing the ladybug to be transferred to the winter wheat to take the aphids to realize biological control;
if the pasture is a reclinable and regenerative plant, fertilizing to promote the regeneration of the pasture, and if the pasture cannot be regenerated, planting the enrichment plant again;
after the winter wheat is yellow, part of ladybug migrates to the enrichment plants;
after harvesting winter wheat, sowing summer corn or summer soybean;
and (4) mowing the enriched plants for multiple times or once to remove the heavy metals.
2. The intercropping planting method of claim 1, wherein the overwintering pasture intercropped with winter wheat and the enriched plant intercropped with summer corn or summer soybean are both of the enriched plant elite ecotype.
3. The intercropping planting method of claim 2, wherein the overwintering forage grass is an annual enrichment plant lolium perenne elite ecotype, and the succeeding enrichment plant is an annual enrichment plant castor-oil plant or abutilon elite ecotype.
4. The intercropping planting method of claim 3, wherein when the over-wintering forage grass is ryegrass, the row spacing for sowing in the first year is 20cm, the winter wheat and the over-wintering forage grass are respectively sown in three rows, and the post-harvest enrichment plant of the garland hemp or the castor-oil plant is sown on the ground after the ryegrass is harvested for one row, and the row spacing is 60 cm; after the later crops of summer corns or summer soybeans are harvested, one row is sown on the ground of the harvested winter wheat, and the row spacing is 60 cm.
5. The intercropping method of claim 4, wherein after one multiple planting cycle, the grain crop wheat corn soybean is exchanged with land of the intercropping enrichment plant.
6. The intercropping planting method according to claim 5, characterized in that the whole plant is harvested to enrich the plant garland hemp or castor-oil plant, the garland hemp skin is used for fiber material, the stalks are used for carbon black processing; the castor bean is used as industrial oil, and the stem and leaf of the castor bean are used for non-human and livestock eating and non-returning field.
7. The intercropping planting method of claim 1, wherein the overwintering pasture is a superior ecotype of the perennial enriched plant alfalfa.
8. The intercropping planting method of claim 7, wherein the alfalfa is sown in the autumn of the first year in 8 months and the winter wheat is sown in the first 10 th of the month.
9. The intercropping planting method of claim 8, wherein the aftercrop summer corn or summer soybean is cut alfalfa 1 time in the seedling stage to facilitate the growth of the crop.
10. The intercropping method of claim 9, wherein the alfalfa is harvested and removed with or separately from the crop straw during the autumn corn and soybean harvest period.
CN201810940635.8A 2018-08-17 2018-08-17 Intercropping planting method with aphid control and soil heavy metal control functions Active CN109122127B (en)

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CN102601105A (en) * 2012-03-26 2012-07-25 西安科技大学 Method for removing heavy metal copper in soil by using plants
EP2850074A1 (en) * 2012-05-16 2015-03-25 E. I. Du Pont de Nemours and Company 1,3-diaryl-substituted heterocyclic pesticides
CN103947441B (en) * 2014-05-14 2016-01-20 河北省农林科学院旱作农业研究所 Nonoculture alfalfa field interplanting in summer silage corn implantation methods
CN105993264B (en) * 2016-05-28 2017-10-17 中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所 A kind of newly-ploughed sloping upland of Ili River Valley prevents the tillage system reform of the soil erosion
CN106613227A (en) * 2016-12-20 2017-05-10 西南科技大学 Crop rotation planting method for forage crops and grain crops

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