CN103461046A - Astragalus sinicus single-season rice high-yield efficient seed reservation method - Google Patents

Astragalus sinicus single-season rice high-yield efficient seed reservation method Download PDF

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CN103461046A
CN103461046A CN2013104348688A CN201310434868A CN103461046A CN 103461046 A CN103461046 A CN 103461046A CN 2013104348688 A CN2013104348688 A CN 2013104348688A CN 201310434868 A CN201310434868 A CN 201310434868A CN 103461046 A CN103461046 A CN 103461046A
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milk vetch
chinese milk
seed
seeds
yield
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聂军
廖育林
谢坚
鲁艳红
杨曾平
周兴
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HUNAN SOIL AND FERTILIZER INST
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HUNAN SOIL AND FERTILIZER INST
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Abstract

The invention provides an astragalus sinicus single-season rice high-yield efficient seed reservation method which comprises the following steps: a, selection of astragalus sinicus seeds: before sowing, selecting the same variety of astragalus sinicus so as to prevent other varieties of astragalus sinicus from being planted in a range within 2 kilometers; b, treatment of the astragalus sinicus seeds: before sowing, insolating the astragalus sinicus seeds in the sun for half a day to one day, then peeling, selecting the astragalus sinicus seeds through a salt soaking method, and finally washing away the salt on the astragalus sinicus seed with clean water; c, sowing: before sowing, digging a perimeter ditch in a field, and then sowing uniformly; d, field monitoring before harvesting of seeds: performing prevention and control on weeds and disease and insect damage; e, harvesting of the seeds: harvesting by virtue of manual power or a combine harvester, wherein harvesting is performed when the black legume rate of the astragalus sinicus is up to 85% during manual harvesting, and harvesting is performed when the black legume rate of the astragalus sinicus is up to 90-95% during harvesting based on the combine harvester. The method has the characteristics of being high in seed yield, promoting the rapid recovery and development of southern green manure crops, improving the soil fertility, reducing the application amount of fertilizers, protecting the ecological environment and the like, and can be used for not only improving the double-cropping index of the rice field and improving the income of farmers, but also achieving a soil fertility effect.

Description

A kind of one season of Chinese milk vetch the rice field high-yield and high-efficiency method of reserving seed for planting
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of one season of Chinese milk vetch rice field high-yield and high-efficiency method of reserving seed for planting.
Background technology
Chinese milk vetch is a kind of kind of the green manure at the South Rice Region of China establishing in large scale, has the fixed nitrogen getting fat, promotes soil fertility, improves the effects such as environment, once in China's agricultural production in several thousand, occupies extremely important effect.Before chemical fertilizer is used in a large number, the production of Chinese milk vetch has been made major contribution with utilization to ensureing south China increases in grain production and agricultural development.Since the eighties in last century, but dropped into because the Chinese milk vetch plantation needs a large amount of labours, the Chinese milk vetch breeding lacks the scale technology, and the Chinese milk vetch cultivated area descends rapidly under a large amount of backgrounds that shift of China rural laborer.The problems such as due to the sharply decline of Chinese milk vetch area, the input of the farmyard manure such as feces of livestock and poultry also reduces in a large number in addition, and the south China farmland quality descends, soil productivity is not high are on the rise.For this reason, country proposes to recover the very important decision of development green manure.Yet supply falls short of demand that phenomenon is very general for seed, especially Chinese Milk Vetch Seeds lacks.Therefore, the Chinese milk vetch high yield is reserved seed for planting and is of great practical significance to promoting the fast quick-recovery development of South Rice Region of China green manure.
It is a weakest link on current green manure crop produces that Chinese milk vetch is reserved seed for planting.In the south rice production area in 60-70 age in 20th century, traditional Chinese milk vetch is reserved seed for planting and is normally carried out in the late rice rice seedling bed, and the late rice rice seedling bed Chinese milk vetch of this small size output of reserving seed for planting is very low, usually only has 25 kg/acres of left and right.Generally believing at that time that the Chinese milk vetch high yield is reserved seed for planting is preferably in nonirrigated farmland and carries out, but the Chinese milk vetch output of reserving seed for planting in nonirrigated farmland is 35 kg/acres of left and right only in the past.
A large amount of work has been done in recovery development green manure production and aspect utilizing in these several years by Hunan Province, general office of provincial government has put into effect " suggestion of producing about recovering development green manure ", within 2013, strive recovering development green manure and produce 1,000 ten thousand mu, wherein Chinese milk vetch just has 5,000,000 mu, the Chinese Milk Vetch Seeds seeding quantity is by 2 kg/acres, and this just needs 1,000 ten thousand kilograms.Because Hunan Province expands numerous base without Chinese Milk Vetch Seeds, required seed can only depend on the investigation mission outside the city or town seed and solve kind of a source problem, and the investigation mission outside the city or town Chinese Milk Vetch Seeds exists that variet complexity, inferior strain (old kind) are spread unchecked, grass yield is low, supply and the problem such as price fluctuation is large, be unfavorable for very much the recovery development process of green manure.
Recent years, because Chinese Milk Vetch Seeds market is huge, and price still can.Therefore, some large plantation family of Hunan Province, village co op and part peasant attempted large tracts of land rice field Chinese milk vetch and reserved seed for planting.Because Hunan rainwater in spring is many, the damage by disease and insect such as the powdery mildew of Chinese milk vetch and stalk break are serious, cause bearing pods few, and the wet weather in sowing season is continuous, and the timely sowing of Chang Buneng and de-pod, cause seed shedding in field, perhaps before de-pod, go rotten, general seed production is 20 kilograms of left and right.The tradition Chinese milk vetch is reserved seed for planting, and not only output is not high, and amount of labour demanded is large simultaneously, inefficiency.The sowing of tradition Chinese milk vetch, trench digging, results all adopt manual method, waste time and energy, and are not suitable with the requirement of modern agricultural production.Especially Chinese Milk Vetch Seeds is gathered in the crops, and traditional Chinese Milk Vetch Seeds results are when waiting black pod rate of Chinese milk vetch to reach 85%, manually cradle Chinese milk vetch overground part stem stalk and seed, the stem stalk is placed under sunlight to the 1-2 days that is exposed to the sun, then pounds out seed with mallet.By this conventional method results, every mu at least needs artificial 5 more than work.Therefore, traditional Chinese milk vetch inapplicable South Rice Region of China of technology of reserving seed for planting rises the requirement of Chinese milk vetch development once again.
At present, southern one season the rice development speed very fast, area is increasing, with regard to Hunan Province just have every year one season more than 120 ten thousand hectares of rice areas.One season rice produce and also to there is the enough time gap and carry out Chinese milk vetch and reserve seed for planting.Therefore; southern one season rice field carry out the Chinese milk vetch high-yield and high-efficiency reserve seed for planting the exploration of technology to promoting the development of the fast quick-recovery of southern green manure crop, promote soil productivity, reduce applying quantity of chemical fertilizer, preserving the ecological environment etc. has important practical significance, and also will provide great technical support in the recovery of southern rice workspace and development for the south China Chinese milk vetch.
Summary of the invention
The object of the invention is to for the deficiencies in the prior art provide a kind of seed production high, promote the development of the fast quick-recovery of southern green manure crop, promote soil productivity, reduce applying quantity of chemical fertilizer, one season of the Chinese milk vetch rice field high-yield and high-efficiency of preserving the ecological environment is reserved seed for planting method.
The present invention is achieved through the following technical solutions above-mentioned purpose:
A kind of one season of Chinese milk vetch the rice field high-yield and high-efficiency method of reserving seed for planting, comprise the steps:
A, Chinese milk vetch seed selection:
Select prior to seeding same kind Chinese milk vetch, not other kind Chinese milk vetch of plantation in 2 kilometer range;
B, Chinese Milk Vetch Seeds are processed:
Prior to seeding Chinese Milk Vetch Seeds is exposed to the sun half a day to one day in the sun, then removes kind of a skin, the mode of soaking with salt is selected Chinese Milk Vetch Seeds, finally with clear water, rinses the salinity of cleaning on Chinese Milk Vetch Seeds;
C, sowing:
Before sowing, in field, open and enclose ditch, want during sowing evenly;
D, before seed results, carry out the field monitoring, weeds and damage by disease and insect are carried out to prevention and control;
E, seed results:
Can adopt artificial or combine results, while adopting artificial results, results when the black pod rate of Chinese milk vetch reaches 85% while adopting the rice combine results, are gathered in the crops when the black pod rate of Chinese milk vetch reaches 90-95%.
In described step a, described Chinese Milk Vetch Seeds kind is divided into early-maturing variety, medium variety and late-maturing variety, early-maturing variety: can adopt No. 4, Hunan fertilizer, Liuyang kind (fertile No. 5 of Hunan), Zhong Huo Yongxiu, Zhong, Xinyang, Wangcheng kind; Medium variety: can adopt No. 1, Hunan fertilizer, Zi Huo Yujiang County, fertile No. 2 ,Yi rivers, Hunan large leaf, late variety: can adopt Ningbo bridge kind, Pinghu large leaf or Hunan fertile No. 3.
In described step b, before the Chinese milk vetch sowing, Chinese Milk Vetch Seeds is carried out to legume inoculation and phosphate fertilizer seed dressing.
In described step b, go the step of kind of skin specific as follows: to be contained in rubbing in woven bag after Chinese Milk Vetch Seeds and fine sand are mixed thoroughly according to the ratio of 2: 1 and the galling of Chinese milk vetch kind skin to be got final product in 5-10 minute.
In described step c, open that to enclose the ditch concrete steps as follows: the field that area is less than 1 mu, surrounding trench digging or trench digging placed in the middle; The field that area is greater than 1 mu, except the surrounding trench digging, also should increase middle ditch every 5-10 rice distance; Described surrounding ditch depth 20-25 centimetre, middle ditch depth 15-20 centimetre.
In described steps d, 1-2 days prior to seeding, first to the Chinese Milk Vetch Seeds Rhizobium Inoculation, and the field per hectare is spread fertilizer over the fields superphosphate 225-300 kilogram, potassium chloride 75-90 kilogram.
In described steps d, at the Chinese milk vetch full-bloom stage, put honeybee in a suitable place to breed.
The field of plantation Chinese milk vetch is selected the field of rice yield higher than 7t/ha.
That the sowing of described Chinese milk vetch can adopt is artificial, power-driven powder-spraying device or live mechanical planting.
In described step a, the salt in the mode that salt soaks and water ratio are 1.05~1.09.
Adopt said method, the present invention has following advantage:
1, the present invention has overcome during conventional Chinese milk vetch breeding produces, the various drawbacks that peasant household's small size is reserved seed for planting separately, the proposition of novelty the technology of large tracts of land, intensive production Chinese Milk Vetch Seeds, for Chinese milk vetch large-scale promotion and plantation provide technical support.
2, technology mode and the method for operating of the proposition Chinese milk vetch large tracts of land breeding of this method novelty, cooperatively interact by multiple technologies, increased substantially on the one hand the output of Chinese Milk Vetch Seeds, and the labour who has reduced on the other hand during Chinese milk vetch is produced drops into.
3, the present invention combines Chinese milk vetch reserve seed for planting technology and Chinese milk vetch field management technology, utilized a season rice to plant Chinese milk vetch idle season, the Chinese Milk Vetch Seeds of gathering at the beginning of next year by the end of May to 6 month, not only improved the cropping index in rice field, improve peasant's income, also can reach the effect of improvement of soil fertility.
Embodiment
Below further describe the embodiment of this patent.
The first step, land for growing field crops are selected
In the Yi Jidao district, select rice yield to carry out contiguous plant in rice field easily higher than 7t/ha, irrigation and drainage, different Chinese milk vetch kinds are reserved seed for planting and will be kept the distance more than 2 kilometers simultaneously.
Second step, seed treatment
For improving the vigor of Chinese Milk Vetch Seeds, promote seed sprouting, Chinese Milk Vetch Seeds was placed under sunlight and tans by the sun half a day to one day in 1-2 days prior to seeding.Seed and fine sand are mixed thoroughly according to the ratio of 2: 1, then be contained in rubbing in woven bag and Chinese milk vetch kind skin frayed in 5-10 minute.Wipe and break in the seed coat with fine sand, can accelerate the absorption of seed to moisture, improve germination vigor.Chinese Milk Vetch Seeds is poured in the salt solution that proportion is 1.05-1.09 (100 kg of water are with salt 1-1.08 kilogram) and stirred, remove sclerotium, weeds and impurity in seed, then with clear water, rinse 2-3 all over clean salinity.Have ready conditions and can carry out the Chinese Milk Vetch Seeds Rhizobium Inoculation.
The 3rd step, trench digging
Before and after sowing, the field surrounding will be held successfully and enclose ditch, will hold longitudinal furrow and traverse furrow successfully in the middle of field, so that draining.The field that area is less, surrounding trench digging, or trench digging placed in the middle; The sticky heavy or larger field of area of soil property, except the surrounding trench digging, also should increase middle ditch every 5-10 rice distance.Surrounding ditch depth 20-25 centimetre, middle ditch depth 15-20 centimetre, all the energy drain ditch is unimpeded to accomplish every ditch, and ditch system reaches while becoming a fine day and does not occur that the field face stays water, does not occur field ponding when rainy.Mid or late March will be cleared up each ditch system in time, field accumulated water when preventing south rainy season set in April.
The 4th step, Chinese milk vetch sowing
In mid or late September to mid-October, with artificial, power-driven powder-spraying device or live mechanical planting.During the rear sowing of one season rice results, before sowing, first straw is shifted out to field, then sow, when a season, rice was sowed before gathering in the crops, straw is removed when rice is selected after gathering in the crops in one season of results.During the artificial seeding, want evenly, back and forth or cruciform sowing in length and breadth.
The 5th step, Chinese milk vetch field management
After rice harves, the Chinese milk vetch rice field of reserving seed for planting will prevent the harm of people, animal, fowl, guarantees seedling.As Continuous Drought, the weak seedling of aubergine appears in Chinese milk vetch, should pour water rapidly.
The 6th step, weeds control
The weeds of paddy fields in south china are mainly the grassy weeds such as amur foxtail.After the Spring Festival, select and become a fine day weather, spray the quick-acting safety such as haloxyfop-r-methyl (cover grass energy) and can prevent and kill off the weed killer herbicide of the grassy weeds such as amur foxtail.20 milliliters of cover grass energies add 30 kilograms of sprayings of water and can substantially remove the grassy weeds such as amur foxtail, and other weeds can manually be pulled out.
The 7th step, damage by disease and insect prevention and control
The Chinese milk vetch disease has stalk break, powdery mildew and zonate leaf spot disease.Insect pest has thrips, aphid and Liriomyza.
Field stalk break their early stage, the wettable topsin with 70% or 50% wettable carbendazim 50-100 gram be to 1000 times, water, the control of spraying.
Powdery mildew generally in 10 months, start morbidity, disease relapse when March next year, temperature went up the last ten-days period.Attention digs trenches to drain the water away, and prevents the waterlogging of suffering from drought; Add 50 kilograms, water or with 30% Te Fuling wetting powder 20-40 gram, 1000 times, water sprayed and prevented and treated with 20% triazolone missible oil 5-10 gram.
Zonate leaf spot disease generally occurs when the Chinese milk vetch rough leaf, bloom while bearing pods cause harm serious.The method of control is to hold drain ditch successfully, lowering of watertable and field humidity, and Potassium, strengthen the resistance against diseases of plant; With 0.05% carbendazim 10-20 gram, to water, 1000 times of sprayings prevent and treat.
When thrips occurs, to water, 50 kilograms of sprayings prevent and treat 25% aphid mist 15 grams of keeping away.
The Aphox of every mu of use of aphid 25% (warding off the aphid mist) 20 grams are watered 50 kilograms of sprayings.When Winter-Spring weather is arid, aphid is caused harm heavier.
The Aphox of every mu of use of Liriomyza 25% (warding off the aphid mist) 15 grams are watered 50 kilograms of spraying controls.
The 8th step, seed results
At the beginning of next year by the end of May to 6 month, when the black pod rate of Chinese milk vetch reaches 85%, can adopt the method results of artificial results, also can, when black pod rate reaches 90-95%, adopt rice combine to gather in the crops.

Claims (10)

  1. One kind one season of Chinese milk vetch the rice field high-yield and high-efficiency method of reserving seed for planting, it is characterized in that, comprise the steps:
    A, Chinese milk vetch seed selection:
    Select prior to seeding same kind Chinese milk vetch, not other kind Chinese milk vetch of plantation in 2 kilometer range;
    B, Chinese Milk Vetch Seeds are processed:
    Prior to seeding Chinese Milk Vetch Seeds is exposed to the sun half a day to one day in the sun, then removes kind of a skin, the mode of soaking with salt is selected Chinese Milk Vetch Seeds, finally with clear water, rinses the salinity of cleaning on Chinese Milk Vetch Seeds;
    C, sowing:
    Before sowing, in field, open and enclose ditch, want during sowing evenly;
    D, before seed results, carry out the field monitoring, weeds and damage by disease and insect are carried out to prevention and control;
    E, seed results:
    Can adopt artificial or combine results, while adopting artificial results, results when the black pod rate of Chinese milk vetch reaches 85% while adopting the rice combine results, are gathered in the crops when the black pod rate of Chinese milk vetch reaches 90-95%.
  2. One season of Chinese milk vetch according to claim 1 the rice field high-yield and high-efficiency method of reserving seed for planting, it is characterized in that, in described step a, described Chinese Milk Vetch Seeds kind is divided into early-maturing variety, medium variety and late-maturing variety, early-maturing variety: can adopt No. 4, Hunan fertilizer, Liuyang kind (fertile No. 5 of Hunan), Zhong Huo Yongxiu, Zhong, Xinyang, Wangcheng kind; Medium variety: can adopt No. 1, Hunan fertilizer, Zi Huo Yujiang County, fertile No. 2 ,Yi rivers, Hunan large leaf, late variety: can adopt Ningbo bridge kind, Pinghu large leaf or Hunan fertile No. 3.
  3. One season of Chinese milk vetch according to claim 1 the rice field high-yield and high-efficiency method of reserving seed for planting, it is characterized in that, in described step b, before the Chinese milk vetch sowing, Chinese Milk Vetch Seeds is carried out to legume inoculation and phosphate fertilizer seed dressing.
  4. One season of Chinese milk vetch according to claim 1 the rice field high-yield and high-efficiency method of reserving seed for planting, it is characterized in that, in described step b, go the step of kind of skin specific as follows: to be contained in rubbing in woven bag after Chinese Milk Vetch Seeds and fine sand are mixed thoroughly according to the ratio of 2: 1 and the galling of Chinese milk vetch kind skin to be got final product in 5-10 minute.
  5. One season of Chinese milk vetch according to claim 1 the rice field high-yield and high-efficiency method of reserving seed for planting, it is characterized in that, in described step c, open that to enclose the ditch concrete steps as follows: the field that area is less than 1 mu, surrounding trench digging or trench digging placed in the middle; The field that area is greater than 1 mu, except the surrounding trench digging, also should increase middle ditch every 5-10 rice distance; Described surrounding ditch depth 20-25 centimetre, middle ditch depth 15-20 centimetre.
  6. One season of Chinese milk vetch according to claim 1 the rice field high-yield and high-efficiency method of reserving seed for planting, it is characterized in that, in described steps d, 1-2 days prior to seeding, first to the Chinese Milk Vetch Seeds Rhizobium Inoculation, and the field per hectare is spread fertilizer over the fields superphosphate 225-300 kilogram, potassium chloride 75-90 kilogram.
  7. One season of Chinese milk vetch according to claim 1 the rice field high-yield and high-efficiency method of reserving seed for planting, it is characterized in that, in described steps d, at the Chinese milk vetch full-bloom stage, put honeybee in a suitable place to breed.
  8. One season of Chinese milk vetch according to claim 1 the rice field high-yield and high-efficiency method of reserving seed for planting, it is characterized in that, the field of plantation Chinese milk vetch is selected the field of rice yield higher than 7t/ha.
  9. One season of Chinese milk vetch according to claim 1 the rice field high-yield and high-efficiency method of reserving seed for planting, it is characterized in that, that described Chinese milk vetch sowing can adopt is artificial, power-driven powder-spraying device or live mechanical planting.
  10. One season of Chinese milk vetch according to claim 1 the rice field high-yield and high-efficiency method of reserving seed for planting, it is characterized in that, in described step a, the salt in the mode that salt soaks and water ratio are 1.05~1.09.
CN2013104348688A 2013-09-23 2013-09-23 Astragalus sinicus single-season rice high-yield efficient seed reservation method Pending CN103461046A (en)

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Cited By (10)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN103828587A (en) * 2014-03-20 2014-06-04 湖南省土壤肥料研究所 Rice field milk vetch sowing-free circulation seed reserving method
CN104081997A (en) * 2014-07-09 2014-10-08 苏州市美人半岛齐力生态农产品专业合作社 High yield planting method for milk vetch
CN104221668A (en) * 2014-08-30 2014-12-24 安徽省舒城县舒丰现代农业科技开发有限责任公司 Astragalus sinicus cultivation method
CN106386325A (en) * 2016-08-28 2017-02-15 铜仁市万山区清泉种养殖农民专业合作社 Method for planting selenium enriched astragalus sinicus
CN108575618A (en) * 2018-04-11 2018-09-28 湖南省土壤肥料研究所 A kind of winter-fallowed paddy field Chinese milk vetch dish fertilizer double-purpose efficient cultural method
CN109169122A (en) * 2018-11-23 2019-01-11 湖南山水道生态文化发展有限公司 The implantation methods of Chinese milk vetch
CN110115210A (en) * 2018-02-06 2019-08-13 涂慧燕 Method of raising seedling is planted between a kind of rice
CN110419406A (en) * 2019-08-22 2019-11-08 河南省农业科学院植物营养与资源环境研究所 A kind of High Yielding of Chinese Milk Vetch Seeds production method
CN110934049A (en) * 2019-11-29 2020-03-31 汉中市农业科学研究所(陕西省水稻研究所) Rice field fertilizer decrement and efficiency improvement method
CN111837554A (en) * 2020-08-04 2020-10-30 安徽信福乡田生态农业有限公司 Rice fertilizer reduction and synergism method for returning milk vetch to field

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Cited By (14)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN103828587B (en) * 2014-03-20 2015-11-18 湖南省土壤肥料研究所 A kind of rice field Chinese milk vetch is exempted to broadcast circulation and to be reserved seed for planting method
CN103828587A (en) * 2014-03-20 2014-06-04 湖南省土壤肥料研究所 Rice field milk vetch sowing-free circulation seed reserving method
CN104081997A (en) * 2014-07-09 2014-10-08 苏州市美人半岛齐力生态农产品专业合作社 High yield planting method for milk vetch
CN104221668A (en) * 2014-08-30 2014-12-24 安徽省舒城县舒丰现代农业科技开发有限责任公司 Astragalus sinicus cultivation method
CN104221668B (en) * 2014-08-30 2016-08-17 安徽省舒城县舒丰现代农业科技开发有限责任公司 A kind of cultural method of Herba Astragali Melilotoidis (Herba Astragali Sinici)
CN106386325A (en) * 2016-08-28 2017-02-15 铜仁市万山区清泉种养殖农民专业合作社 Method for planting selenium enriched astragalus sinicus
CN110115210A (en) * 2018-02-06 2019-08-13 涂慧燕 Method of raising seedling is planted between a kind of rice
CN110115210B (en) * 2018-02-06 2021-08-27 涂慧燕 Rice intercropping seedling raising method
CN108575618A (en) * 2018-04-11 2018-09-28 湖南省土壤肥料研究所 A kind of winter-fallowed paddy field Chinese milk vetch dish fertilizer double-purpose efficient cultural method
CN109169122A (en) * 2018-11-23 2019-01-11 湖南山水道生态文化发展有限公司 The implantation methods of Chinese milk vetch
CN110419406A (en) * 2019-08-22 2019-11-08 河南省农业科学院植物营养与资源环境研究所 A kind of High Yielding of Chinese Milk Vetch Seeds production method
CN110934049A (en) * 2019-11-29 2020-03-31 汉中市农业科学研究所(陕西省水稻研究所) Rice field fertilizer decrement and efficiency improvement method
CN110934049B (en) * 2019-11-29 2022-08-09 汉中市农业科学研究所(陕西省水稻研究所) Rice field fertilizer decrement and efficiency improvement method
CN111837554A (en) * 2020-08-04 2020-10-30 安徽信福乡田生态农业有限公司 Rice fertilizer reduction and synergism method for returning milk vetch to field

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Application publication date: 20131225