CN105027728A - Method for fixing carbon and reducing emission in south paddy fields in winter - Google Patents

Method for fixing carbon and reducing emission in south paddy fields in winter Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105027728A
CN105027728A CN201510580894.0A CN201510580894A CN105027728A CN 105027728 A CN105027728 A CN 105027728A CN 201510580894 A CN201510580894 A CN 201510580894A CN 105027728 A CN105027728 A CN 105027728A
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China
Prior art keywords
winter
field
rice
carbon
green manure
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CN201510580894.0A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
陈安磊
陈春兰
王卫
涂成
谢小立
魏文学
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Institute of Subtropical Agriculture of CAS
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Institute of Subtropical Agriculture of CAS
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Priority to CN201510580894.0A priority Critical patent/CN105027728A/en
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P60/00Technologies relating to agriculture, livestock or agroalimentary industries
    • Y02P60/20Reduction of greenhouse gas [GHG] emissions in agriculture, e.g. CO2
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P60/00Technologies relating to agriculture, livestock or agroalimentary industries
    • Y02P60/20Reduction of greenhouse gas [GHG] emissions in agriculture, e.g. CO2
    • Y02P60/22Methane [CH4], e.g. from rice paddies

Abstract

The invention discloses a method for fixing carbon and reducing emission in south paddy fields in winter. The method comprises steps of first, applying green fertilizer and planting in paddy fields in winter and re-applying green fertilizer in a broadcast sowing way before late rice harvest, second, covering the paddy fields via straws in winter, covering the straws on the paddy fields after paddy harvest rather than burning, third, conducting a moisture management mode smoothing water discharging, preventing waterlogging for the paddy fields in the whole winter via digging water discharging trenches, reducing methane emission via removing waterlogging environment, reducing emission via reducing substrate produced by greenhouse air, and fourth, turning over the paddy fields and restoring the green fertilizer and re-applying the same to the field, smashing the green fertilizer and harvesting before spring ploughing, conducting water-ploughing and turning the green fertilizer into the mud, restoring carbon and nitrogen nutrients fixed by the green fertilizer in winter into the paddy field soil in the above way, and maintaining long term effect of carbon fixation and emission reduction via addition of the soil carbon and nitrogen storage. The method is simple and convenient to operate, and enables the paddy fields in a fallow period to be effectively utilized; and beneficial effects of carbon fixation and emission reduction in winter can be achieved.

Description

The method of a kind of south rice field carbon fixation and emission reduction in winter
Technical field
The invention belongs to rice field time out carbon fixation and emission reduction technical field, more specifically relate to the method that a kind of rice field organic resource efficiency utilization reduces pollution of area source and reduces greenhouse gas emission.
Background technology
Paddy soil is greenhouse gases (CO 2, CH 4, N 2o) one of important sources.China is that second largest Rice Cropping is national in the world, Monitoring of Paddy Rice Plant Area accounts for 27% of world's cultivated area, because of its special water management pattern and feature of fostering and apply fertilizer, the discharge of China's rice field greenhouse gases is paid close attention to widely, and the mechanism of action of how decontrol greenhouse gas emission and generation thereof has carried out large quantifier elimination in environment, ecology and global climate change study field.At present, the correlative study of rice field greenhouse gas emission and relevant decontrol technology mainly concentrate on this period in growth period duration of rice, and relate to less for the carbon fixation and emission reduction key technology in non-growth period duration of rice (winter).
At present, there are three outstanding problems in paddy fields in south china living resources, and one is the organic burning problem in the rice fields such as straw, and two is that shortening reduces (double cropping rice makes the single cropping rice into) problem, and three is problems that winter crops cultivated area significantly reduces.The problems referred to above directly cause the significantly minimizing of rice field living resources, and corresponding is that rice field time out extends (more than 6 months) and faces larger greenhouse gas emission risk, has slackened the soil fertilities that rice makes mode.How to reduce the burning of stalk, expand the area of winter crops, reduce leisure area and time, be not only the challenge of the maintenance of improvement of soil fertility effect and Improvement of Ecological Environment, or utilize leisure rice field to reach the opportunity of carbon fixation and emission reduction effect.Winter, tradition Land use systems in rice field mainly contained three kinds: winter planting's green manure, plantation rape and leisure patterns.But the crop-plantings such as rape exist labour drops into the problems such as high, special in Red soil hilly area due to landform and labor shortage thereof, make the practical application difficulty of this pattern at present increasing, the cultivated area of the green manure such as paddy fields in south china phase in winter slack Chinese milk vetch is also sharply being reduced, and makes rice field leisure in winter become a kind of important pattern in south China rice district gradually.But south China rice field time out hydro-thermal is abundant, accumulated temperature is relatively high, rice field remains nutrient, and too high (being mainly derived from growth period duration of rice remains nutrient and farmland residual organic matter, as root, stubble, straw etc.), greenhouse gas emission increased risk, carbon fixation and emission reduction pressure is huge.
How to utilize winter rice field to have great reality and theory significance to the greenhouse effect during slowing down Rice Growing, but also lack the method for time out rice field greenhouse gases carbon fixation and emission reduction at present.Therefore, when AND ENERGY RESOURCES CONSUMPTION IN CHINA continuation increase, reduction of greenhouse gas discharge promise to undertake that pressure is large, the design of a kind of suitable south rice field carbon sequestration discharge-reducing method in winter is imperative.
Summary of the invention
For the deficiency of above-mentioned existence, the object of the invention is to be to provide a kind of south rice field carbon sequestration discharge-reducing method in winter, easy to implement the method, easy and simple to handle.The method can solve rice field in winter, south and utilize difficult problem (key is labour's insufficient investment problem), the very effective good effect reaching rice field carbon fixation and emission reduction in winter.
In order to realize above-mentioned object, the present invention adopts following technical measures:
Carbon, nitrogen crop is consolidated as main using the green manure that input cost is less, late rice straw incorporation is adopted to reduce crop straw burning problem, nutrient and the growth period duration of rice of the also straw decomposition generation in field simultaneously, remain the nutrient source that nutrient can be used as green manure growth, farmland residue utilization can be realized simultaneously, residual nutrient is fixed, greenhouse gases produce substrate abatement, also the field water management pattern of synchronously carrying out is by eliminating field accumulated water environment to cut down the discharge of paddy methane in winter with Green manuring and rice straw mulching, and drainage management is also beneficial to the growth of green manure in winter.Above-mentioned measure is combined together the effect reaching rice field carbon fixation and emission reduction in winter.
A method for south rice field carbon fixation and emission reduction in winter, the steps include:
1, winter rice field Green manuring.Mode of broadcasting sowing (the broadcasting sowing mode of general farming operation) cover within first 15 ~ 20 days, is adopted to broadcast green manure, by reaching rice field biological sequestration in winter, nitrogen effect to carbon, nitrogen fixation in green manure biomass forming process in late rice harvesting.
2, rice straw mulching also field.Straw original position mulching and returning after late rice harvesting, substitutes rice straw burning mode, directly can reduce carbon, nitrogen discharged problem that burning causes, and also the stalk in field can be that green manure growth provides nutrient to originate, shelter from heat or light soil moisture conservation and cold-proof freeze proof effect simultaneously.
3, the water management pattern that draining is unobstructed.Whole winter keeps field not accumulated water by the mode in the ditch that begins to rehearse, discharge of methane is cut down by eliminating field accumulated water environment, draining simultaneously promotes green manure growth and fixes the absorption of the readily available nutrient of soil, and then the mode producing substrate by reducing greenhouse gases plays emission reduction effect.
4, green manure original position is turned over and is gone back field.Before spring ploughing, (early or mid April) green manure original position smashes harvesting, then carry out water and plough press-in mud, the nutrient such as carbon, nitrogen fixing for green manure in winter can be returned in paddy soil by which and go, reach by the mode in increase soil carbon, nitrogen storehouse the long-term effect consolidating green manure carbon fixation and emission reduction.
Described green manure kind is any combination of Chinese milk vetch, sweet potato and pea wherein a kind of or to three kind.
Described straw incorporation amount is local late rice straw biomass; Green manure also field amount is all biological amount of green manure in winter.
Described green manure seeding quantity is local suitable seeding quantity or local peasant household custom seeding quantity.
Above step is followed successively by 1,2,3,4 and combines as a whole technology, both the method for a kind of south rice field carbon fixation and emission reduction in winter.
The present invention compared with prior art, has the following advantages and effect:
This invention technology adopts green manure as the crucial plant of rice field carbon fixation and emission reduction in winter, coordinate rice straw mulching, drainage measure, can effectively play carbon fixation and emission reduction effect, this technical method can widely use at southern winter-fallowed paddy field, having (1) Green manuring coordinates drainage management by reducing the substrate of greenhouse gases generation and eliminating the modes such as field accumulated water environment, realizes the effect of whole non-growth period duration of rice (winter) carbon fixation and emission reduction; (2) utilize the winter of the rice field organic waste such as straw, the growth for green manure provides nutrient, effectively can reduce the greenhouse gas emission that crop straw burning brings simultaneously; (3) small investment, does not need the farming operations such as irrigation, cultivated land; Simple to operate, plant on the spot, use on the spot, there is the advantage of saving artificial and transport capacity.
Accompanying drawing explanation
The method flow diagram of a kind of south of Fig. 1 rice field carbon fixation and emission reduction in winter.
Wherein: 1-Green manuring, 2-rice straw mulching also field, the water management pattern that 3-draining is unobstructed, 4-Chinese milk vetch original position is turned over and is gone back field.
Embodiment
The present invention is set forth further below in conjunction with specific embodiment.Should be understood that they are only further illustrate of the present invention, instead of limitation of the invention.
embodiment 1:
According to Fig. 1, the method for a kind of south rice field carbon fixation and emission reduction in winter, the steps include:
1, Green manuring.The present embodiment is carried out at Taoyuan Station of Agro-Ecology Research, The Chinese Academy of Sciences's rice field long term experiment, and green manure selects Chinese milk vetch as the plant of carbon fixation and emission reduction.Before late rice paddy rice harvesting, employing in about 15 ~ 20 days is broadcasted sowing mode cover and is broadcast Chinese milk vetch, and seeding quantity seeding quantity is 22.5 ~ 30.0kg/hm 2.
2, rice straw mulching also field.After late rice harvesting, late rice grass amount full dose original position also field, also during field, straw dispersion is made thinner, and forms face, field homogeneous overburden.
3, the water management pattern that draining is unobstructed.Field begins to rehearse ditch, keeps the draining of face, field unobstructed, not accumulated water.
4, green manure original position is turned over and is gone back field.In Chinese milk vetch full-bloom stage (early or mid April, first 15 days of rice transplanting), mower original position is adopted evenly to smash Chinese milk vetch, then carry out water plough pressure Chinese milk vetch enter mud, Chinese milk vetch and soil are fully mixed, increase the carbon of soil, the mode of nitrogen content by Chinese milk vetch at the decomposition of growth period duration of rice, consolidate the long-term effect of carbon fixation and emission reduction measure in winter further.
comparative example 1
Chinese milk vetch is not planted and for a long time without straw incorporation in this comparative example 1 rice field in winter, also with embodiment 1 rice field in winter long-term planting Chinese milk vetch and late rice rice straw mulching is formed and contrasts in field.Water management pattern is with embodiment 1.In order to evaluate: the solid carbon of (1) green manure in winter, nitrogen effect; (2) winter planting's Chinese milk vetch, straw incorporation are to improving the long-term effect in soil carbon, nitrogen storehouse.
comparative example 2
The water management pattern of this comparative example 2 rice field not draining in winter, contrast with the unobstructed water management pattern formation of paddy field drainage in winter in embodiment 1, the test cycle of carrying out is a winter.Green manuring and late rice rice straw mulching also field with embodiment 1.In order to evaluate drainage management to the effect reducing discharge of methane.
Evaluation:
A, winter planting's Chinese milk vetch increase biological fixation carbon, nitrogen quantity.
Compared with not planting Chinese milk vetch medium-term and long-term winter with comparative example 1, in the present embodiment 1, rice field Chinese milk vetch can obtain average annual 3657kg/hm winter 2dry matter (1990 ~ 2014).Chinese milk vetch carbon, nitrogen content calculate by 43.5% and 2.86%, and winter, Chinese milk vetch plantation can fix 1591kg/hm every year 2carbon and 105kg/hm 2nitrogen.
B, late rice rice straw mulching also field directly can reduce rice straw burning loss carbon, nitrogen quantity.
Medium-term and long-term without compared with late rice rice straw mulching also field with comparative example 1, this example 1 late rice rice straw mulching also field can be rice field and provides dry matter average out to 7941kg/hm 2the straw of (1990 ~ 2014), straw carbon, nitrogen content calculate by 43.0% and 0.80%, and also the carbon of the direct incineration loss of straw can be reduced in field to late rice rice straw mulching, nitrogen quantity is respectively 3415kg/hm 2and 64kg/hm 2.
C, drainage management significantly reduce methane emission.
Compared with the water management pattern of not draining in comparative example 2, in the present embodiment 1, the unobstructed water management pattern of paddy field drainage in winter can reduce by the methane emission in winter of more than 72.3%.
D, long-term Chinese milk vetch plantation and rice straw mulching also can significantly improve topsoil carbon, nitrogen storehouse in field.
Do not plant Chinese milk vetch medium-term and long-term winter with comparative example 1 also to compare in field with without late rice rice straw mulching, the present embodiment 1 medium-term and long-term winter planting Chinese milk vetch and late rice rice straw mulching also field, topsoil soils (0 ~ 20cm) carbon, nitrogen storehouse improve 10.1t/hm respectively after 25 years 2and 1.4t/hm 2, C, N reserves improve 22.4% and 23.1% respectively, decrease the discharge capacity of paddy soil carbon, nitrogen from total amount.
From comprehensive effect, winter paddy field cultivation Chinese milk vetch, rice straw mulching, drainage management and Chinese milk vetch also field of turning over can reach the effect of good carbon fixation and emission reduction.

Claims (1)

1. southern winter rice field carbon fixation and emission reduction a method, the steps include:
A, winter rice field Green manuring: before late rice harvesting, employing is broadcasted sowing mode cover and is broadcast green manure, by reaching rice field biological sequestration in winter, nitrogen effect to carbon, nitrogen fixation in green manure biomass forming process;
B, rice field rice straw mulching in winter also field: straw original position mulching and returning after paddy rice harvesting, substitute rice straw burning mode, the carbon, the nitrogen discharged problem that cause are burned in direct minimizing, and also the stalk in field provides nutrient to originate for green manure grows simultaneously, sheltering from heat or light preserves soil moisture with cold-proof freeze proof;
The water management pattern that C, draining are unobstructed: whole winter keeps field not accumulated water by the mode in the ditch that begins to rehearse, discharge of methane is cut down by eliminating field accumulated water environment, draining simultaneously promotes green manure growth and fixes the absorption of the readily available nutrient of soil, and then the mode producing substrate by reducing greenhouse gases plays reduction of discharging effect;
D, green manure original position are turned over and are gone back field: before spring ploughing, harvesting smashed by green manure, then carry out water and plough press-in mud, by which, carbon fixing for green manure in winter, nitrogen nutrient are returned in paddy soil and are gone, reach by the mode in increase soil carbon, nitrogen storehouse the long-term effect consolidating green manure carbon fixation and emission reduction;
Described green manure kind is any combination of Chinese milk vetch, sweet potato and pea wherein a kind of or to three kind;
Described straw incorporation amount is local late rice straw biomass, and green manure also field amount is all biological amount of green manure in winter.
CN201510580894.0A 2015-09-14 2015-09-14 Method for fixing carbon and reducing emission in south paddy fields in winter Pending CN105027728A (en)

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Cited By (8)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN105794351A (en) * 2016-03-18 2016-07-27 常州大学 Carbon-fixing and discharge-reducing method for biological carbon in southern-and-northern rice field system
CN106701819A (en) * 2017-03-07 2017-05-24 上海师范大学 Method for increasing content of GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) in brown rice
CN107094558A (en) * 2017-05-18 2017-08-29 湖南农业大学 A kind of method that use rye grass improves double cropping of rice yield with straw-returning section fertilizer
CN108093728A (en) * 2017-12-13 2018-06-01 江苏省农业科学院 The method that paddy methane discharges after reduction wheat stalk returning
CN108738454A (en) * 2018-05-24 2018-11-06 华中农业大学 A kind of improvement of soil fertility integrated approach reducing ratooning rice rice field greenhouse gas emission
CN110963577A (en) * 2018-09-30 2020-04-07 中国科学院亚热带农业生态研究所 Continuous development management method for aquaculture sewage treatment tank
CN111066403A (en) * 2019-11-28 2020-04-28 中国科学院城市环境研究所 Synchronous emission reduction CH4And N2O and method for improving soil fertility
CN113099987A (en) * 2021-03-17 2021-07-13 中国农业科学院作物科学研究所 Rice field emission reduction method based on returning of leguminous green manure to field

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Cited By (11)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN105794351A (en) * 2016-03-18 2016-07-27 常州大学 Carbon-fixing and discharge-reducing method for biological carbon in southern-and-northern rice field system
CN106701819A (en) * 2017-03-07 2017-05-24 上海师范大学 Method for increasing content of GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) in brown rice
CN106701819B (en) * 2017-03-07 2021-06-25 上海师范大学 Method for increasing content of polyamine metabolism-related products of brown rice and rice
CN107094558A (en) * 2017-05-18 2017-08-29 湖南农业大学 A kind of method that use rye grass improves double cropping of rice yield with straw-returning section fertilizer
CN108093728A (en) * 2017-12-13 2018-06-01 江苏省农业科学院 The method that paddy methane discharges after reduction wheat stalk returning
CN108738454A (en) * 2018-05-24 2018-11-06 华中农业大学 A kind of improvement of soil fertility integrated approach reducing ratooning rice rice field greenhouse gas emission
CN108738454B (en) * 2018-05-24 2022-03-08 华中农业大学 Soil fertilization integration method for reducing greenhouse gas emission of ratoon rice field
CN110963577A (en) * 2018-09-30 2020-04-07 中国科学院亚热带农业生态研究所 Continuous development management method for aquaculture sewage treatment tank
CN111066403A (en) * 2019-11-28 2020-04-28 中国科学院城市环境研究所 Synchronous emission reduction CH4And N2O and method for improving soil fertility
CN111066403B (en) * 2019-11-28 2021-05-14 中国科学院城市环境研究所 Synchronous emission reduction CH4And N2O and method for improving soil fertility
CN113099987A (en) * 2021-03-17 2021-07-13 中国农业科学院作物科学研究所 Rice field emission reduction method based on returning of leguminous green manure to field

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Application publication date: 20151111