CN1820578A - Method for anti-drought afforestation by collecting water, preserving water and supplementing water - Google Patents

Method for anti-drought afforestation by collecting water, preserving water and supplementing water Download PDF

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Publication number
CN1820578A
CN1820578A CNA200510048297XA CN200510048297A CN1820578A CN 1820578 A CN1820578 A CN 1820578A CN A200510048297X A CNA200510048297X A CN A200510048297XA CN 200510048297 A CN200510048297 A CN 200510048297A CN 1820578 A CN1820578 A CN 1820578A
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Prior art keywords
water
fish scale
scale pit
film
rank
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CNA200510048297XA
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Inventor
马金山
白成
于洪波
朱恭
陈云
任智斌
鲁云
许维玲
张绪龙
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Sowth And North Mountain Environment Afforestation Engineering Headquarters Lan
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Sowth And North Mountain Environment Afforestation Engineering Headquarters Lan
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Priority to CNA200510048297XA priority Critical patent/CN1820578A/en
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/10Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in agriculture
    • Y02A40/22Improving land use; Improving water use or availability; Controlling erosion
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P60/00Technologies relating to agriculture, livestock or agroalimentary industries
    • Y02P60/40Afforestation or reforestation

Abstract

The water collecting, water preserving and water supplementing drought-resisting afforestation method includes the steps of: digging fish scale pits or horizontal ditches to collect water; covering with plastic mulching to preserve water; and drop irrigation, pipe inserting root irrigation, water injecting irrigation, etc. to supplement water for seeding, planting sapling and afforesting. The method with the technological measures can increase water content in soil, reduce water evaporation, raise soil temperature, promote growth of sapling and raise the sapling survival rate. The method has been applied in greening two mountains in Lanzhou with excellent application effect.

Description

A kind of utilization is catchmented, the method for water conservation, moisturizing drought resisting forestation
Technical field
The invention belongs to a kind of method of drought resisting forestation.
Background technology
The arid problem is a worldwide problem.According to the interrelated data introduction, arid, semiarid zone spread all over more than 60 countries and regions, the world, account for 1/3 of global land surface; China has 2,200,000 km approximately 2Land surface belong to arid, semiarid zone, account for 52.5% of China's land gross area.The Lanzhou is located in China loess plateau, Qinghai-Tibet Platean and covers the zone of transition on new plateau, belongs to the westernmost end in China loess plateau, and on the spot zoning is the central and north, Gansu loess plateau Gansu Province loess hill, channel basin type area.The Lanzhou climate type belongs to the semiarid continental monsoon climate in north temperate zone, and the average annual precipitation 320mm in urban district mainly concentrates on two seasons of autumn in summer (the 7-9 month), and year evaporation discharge 1446mm is nearly 5 times of mean annual precipitation.Lanzhou vegetation rareness, water and soil loss, air pollution, ecotope is very fragile, is seriously restricting the sustainable development of area, Lanzhou and even whole Gansu Province economy, society, affects the Lanzhou people's production and life.Be positioned at suburbs, Lanzhou north-south mountains gross area 12309.1Km 2The Lanzhou north-south mountains that soil moisture natural evaporation amount is big, moisture are the principal elements that is restricting this area ecological recovery and revegetation engineering.How to keep planting surviving and relative stability of forest, under non-irrigated condition, how to utilize technical measures such as natural precipitation and water-keeping material, reduce soil evaporation, keep seedling root to obtain suitable moisture, be three problems of scientific and technical personnel's unremitting effort research during the last ten years always.Just begin greening work from the liberation initial stage, and carried out drought resistant plantation Study on Technology and exploration; But because arid problem, by the initial stage eighties, north-south mountains is preserved more than 10,000 mu in forest land, storage rate 25.5%; Though carried out after nineteen eighty-three a large amount of on water conservancy project journey afforestation, formed forest land preferably, owing to reasons such as cost height, operating cost are big, be difficult to large-scale promotion in ecological construction from now on.2000, in order to ensure the Lanzhou north-south mountains landscape engineering of finishing country's project verification, improve the effect of building and also carry out technological reserve, carried out " three water " Study on Technology work jointly by Lanzhou north-south mountains afforestation project headquarter and Gansu Province's forestry scientific research for the north-south mountains greening.And achievement in research applied nearly 15.68 ten thousand mu in the construction of north-south mountains landscape engineering, and survival rate reaches more than 85%, and effect is remarkable; For technical support has been made in engineering construction, also explored a new approach for the ecological construction in arid and semi-arid area.
Summary of the invention
At Lanzhou geography and climate feature, the present invention is according to for many years afforestation experiment, find out that a cover catchments, the method for water conservation and moisturizing (being called for short " three water ") drought resisting forestation, and in the north-south mountains afforestation project of Lanzhou, use nearly 250,000 mu, utilization is catchmented, the water conservation technical measures, improves survival rate, storage rate and promotion tree growth.Survival rate and storage rate have all reached the national afforestation quality requirement.
Technical measures of the present invention are:
A kind of utilization is catchmented, the method for water conservation and moisturizing drought resisting forestation, and its step comprises following three links:
A) catchment
Be the basis of catchment method wholely, be mainly two kinds of methods: the whole ground in fish scale pit and horizontal rank.
The fish scale pit
In gradient 25-35 ° deserted mountain, adopt whole ground, fish scale pit.Specification is divided into two kinds, that is: big fish scale pit major diameter 1.2m, minor axis 0.8m; 0.7 meter of little fish scale pit major diameter, 0.5 meter of minor axis.Hole is a semilune, the ridging ridge, outer, and high, low " the bottom of a pan " shape in centre around being trimmed in the cave, 0.2 meter of the degree of depth, scholar's earth is ploughed deeply 0.4 meter.About the fish scale pit, between left and right apart from being 2~3 meters, be " product " font and arrange.
Horizontal rank
In the slow deserted mountain of the gradient, adopt whole ground, horizontal rank.Specification requirement: wide 80-100cm, the wide 20cm in the outer ridge, high 20cm; Be trimmed to low inside and high outside little sloping shape in the rank, about about 10 ° of the gradient; To show soil during whole ground and be filled to plantation point place, and plough deeply 40cm.The length on horizontal rank can be decided according to landform.
B) water conservation
Promptly carry out overlay film wholely after finishing, select the plastic film that meets for use, film thickness 0.04mm according to whole ground specification.Plastic film specification that meets with method of soil preparation and compound film quality require into: the small dimension film of length 0.7m, width 0.5m is adopted in little fish scale pit, guarantees to expose membrane area at 0.22~0.24m 2The big specification film of length 1.0~1.2m, width 0.8~1.0m is then adopted on big fish scale pit and horizontal rank, guarantees to expose membrane area at 0.7~0.8m 2Mulching film planting mouth method for obligating: the fish scale pit overlay film is at central point; Horizontal rank overlay film is at 20cm place, the long limit of a close side.Opening is the bar shaped of wide 1.5cm, long 15-20cm.
C) moisturizing
In damage caused by a drought comparatively serious period, adopt the mode of moisturizing, guarantee the growth of nursery stock.The water source relies on two kinds of methods to solve, and the one, compile natural rainfall and be stored in the retaining cellar for storing things, the 2nd, utilize water engineering facility nearby; Take drip irrigation, intubate to irritate modes such as root, water-injection irrigation, carry out moisturizing and irrigate.It is cardinal principle that moisturizing is irrigated with the water saving, can improve the survival rate of afforestation effectively, promotes the growth of trees.
Useful value of the present invention
This technical measures are applicable to the ecological construction of precipitation in 280-400mm arid and semi-arid area, and drought-enduring shrub species can be adopted the cultivation of seed sowing and container seedling, improves survival rate about 40%;
Adapt to widely, easy and simple to handle, foster and manage and protect conveniently, but large tracts of land is promoted;
Cost of forestation is low, about the about 220-320 of investment per mu unit, only accounts for the 10-15% of water conservancy project journey afforestation.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is a structural representation of the present invention
Fig. 2 is whole ground, a fish scale pit schematic diagram
Concrete ten thousand formulas of implementing
Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing, the present invention is further described again
" three water " afforestation technology is meant that plant pit catchments, mulch film water conservation and arid season moisturizing three measures, then comprises whole ground, plastic mulching, three links of nursery stock root moisturizing in practice.
Catchment wholely
The effect of " three water " afforestation and soil preparation engineering is mainly reflected in two aspects, and first chesson improves soil structure, for seedling root provides little territory subenvironment condition preferably; It two is to improve the ability compile natural rainfall, increases and keeps soil moisture content, to satisfy the requirement that arboreal growth is grown.According to the land occupation condition and the afforestation practice of Lanzhou north-south mountains, " three water " afforestation and soil preparation mode is based on partial soil preparation, and concrete grammar is the whole ground in fish scale pit, horizontal rank.
The fish scale pit
In the deserted mountain of the gradient steep (more than 30 °), adopt whole ground, fish scale pit.Specification is divided into two kinds, that is: big fish scale pit major diameter 1.2m, minor axis 0.8m; 0.7 meter of little fish scale pit major diameter, 0.5 meter of minor axis.Hole is a semilune, the ridging ridge, outer, and high, low " the bottom of a pan " shape in centre around being trimmed in the cave, 0.2 meter of the degree of depth, soil is ploughed deeply 0.4 meter.About the fish scale pit, between left and right apart from being 2 meters, be " product " font and arrange.
Horizontal rank
Whole ground, horizontal rank is adopted in deserted mountain in the gradient slow (below 30 °) and main roads both sides.Specification requirement: wide 80cm, the wide 20cm in the outer ridge, high 20cm; Be trimmed to low inside and high outside little sloping shape in the rank, about about 10 ° of the gradient; To show soil during whole ground and be filled to plantation point place, and plough deeply 40cm.The length on horizontal rank can be decided according to landform.
The overlay film water conservation
Cover plastic film by shop in the tree planting cave or in the horizontal ditch, directly compile rainwater, improve plant pit interior soil moisture content, ground temperature, promotion seedling growth and prolong vegetative period to the nursery stock root; Can intercept water evaporates, effectively keep moisture.Plastic film is the good material that catchments, and is again water-keeping material simultaneously.The key of overlay film water conservation technical measures mainly contains two aspects: the selection of one plastic film, its two plastic film covers construction technology.
The selection of film
In recent years, " three water " the used mulch film of afforesting, thickness 0.04mm, quality requirement are under normal circumstances, and be not damaged in 3 years.The mulch film specification has: length 1.1m, width 0.9m mulch film are adopted in horizontal rank and big fish scale pit; Length 0.7m, width 0.5m mulch film are adopted in little fish scale pit.Mulch film is reserved the central opening standard: wide 1.5cm, the fillet shape of long 15cm.
Film covering method
Overlay film work can be carried out simultaneously with whole ground, utilizes soil moisture content preferably, and the rand overlay film is put in order on the limit.Also can be after putting in order ground, a rainfall by the time has that to carry out effect under the condition of certain soil moisture content better.The requirement face is smooth, and horizontal rank of membrane area and big fish scale pit are at 0.75m 2, little fish scale pit is at 0.22m 2
Method of forestation
Method of forestation is the concrete grammar of afforestation construction, and the difference by employed material generally is divided into direct seeding forestation, plants 3 kinds of straight seedling afforestation.These 3 kinds of methods all can be applicable to " three water " afforestation.
Direct seeding forestation
Direct seeding forestation, because of saving of labor, easy and simple to handle relatively, catchment, use in the water conservation afforestation more.The seeds that are used for afforestation seeding in the area, Lanzhou only limit to germinate rapidly and the less seed of water requirement when germinateing, and caragana microphylla, wool top, shrubby flase indigo, Ammopiptanthus mongolicus etc. are arranged., to mid-August according to soil moisture content in good time carry out in clear and bright front and back sowing time, and the general soil water content reaches 12%, just can carry out direct seeding forestation.
Tree planting
Tree planting, based on container seedling, the seeds that are used for fish scale pit or the tree planting of horizontal rank mainly contain: caragana microphylla, Chinese tamarisk, white perverse etc., can mid-March in every year to rainfall by the end of October and soil moisture content preferably under the situation, the container seedling of planting.Caragana microphylla and the white perverse every cave 1-3 bag seedling of planting, bonding cave seedling amount is in the 3-8 strain; 1 bag in the every cave of other seeds.
Planting [by vegetative propagation
Based on cutting forset-plantation, seeds are Chinese tamarisk.Cutting selects for use the 1-2 of the thick 1.0-2.0cm in footpath to give birth to healthy and strong coppice shoot, is cut into length 20-30cm.Earlier use the drill rod jack during cuttage, the back compacting is inserted in cuttage then, transplants a cutting and exposes about 5cm, and 2-3 branch inserted in every cave.
Foster and manage and protect
Foster that to manage and protect be to create comparatively superior environment by soil management after afforestation, satisfy the demand of nursery stock to moisture, nutrient, illumination, temperature and air, it is rapid, vigorous to make it to grow.The tending management measure mainly contains after-culture, moisturizing, desilting, stump, protects forest and prevent from fire etc.In damage caused by a drought comparatively serious period, take drip irrigation, intubate to irritate modes such as root, water-injection irrigation, carry out moisturizing and irrigate, guarantee the growth of nursery stock.

Claims (1)

1, a kind of utilization catchment, the method for water conservation, moisturizing drought resisting forestation, its step comprises following three links:
A) catchment
Be the basis of catchment method wholely, be mainly two kinds of methods: the whole ground in fish scale pit and horizontal rank
The fish scale pit
In gradient 25-35 ° deserted mountain, adopt whole ground, fish scale pit, specification is divided into two kinds, that is: big fish scale pit major diameter 1.2m, minor axis 0.8m; 0.7 meter of little fish scale pit major diameter, 0.5 meter of minor axis; Hole is a semilune, the ridging ridge, outer, and high, low " the bottom of a pan " shape in centre around being trimmed in the cave, 0.2 meter of the degree of depth, soil is ploughed deeply 0.4 meter, about the fish scale pit, between left and right apart from being 2~3 meters, is " product " font and arranges;
Horizontal rank
In the slow deserted mountain of the gradient, adopt whole ground, horizontal rank, specification requirement: wide 80-100cm, the wide 20cm in the outer ridge, high 20cm; Be trimmed to low inside and high outside little sloping shape in the rank, about about 10 ° of the gradient; To show soil during whole ground and be filled to plantation point place, and plough deeply 40cm.The length on horizontal rank can be decided according to landform;
B) water conservation
Promptly carry out overlay film, film thickness 0.04mm after finishing wholely; The small dimension film of length 0.7m, width 0.5m is adopted in little fish scale pit, guarantees to expose membrane area at 0.22~0.24m 2The big specification film of length 1.0~1.2m, width 0.8~1.0m is then adopted on big fish scale pit and horizontal rank, guarantees to expose membrane area at 0.7~0.8m 2Mulching film planting mouth method for obligating: the fish scale pit overlay film is at central point; Horizontal rank overlay film is at 20cm place, the long limit of a close side, and opening is the bar shaped of wide 1.5cm, long 15-20cm;
C) moisturizing
The one, compile natural rainfall and be stored in the retaining cellar for storing things, the 2nd, utilize water engineering facility nearby; Take drip irrigation, intubate to irritate modes such as root, water-injection irrigation, carry out moisturizing and irrigate.
CNA200510048297XA 2005-12-31 2005-12-31 Method for anti-drought afforestation by collecting water, preserving water and supplementing water Pending CN1820578A (en)

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CN101843204A (en) * 2010-02-10 2010-09-29 石河子大学 Shiny-leaved yellowhorn non-irrigation culture method
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