CN111316853A - Stone mountain damaged surface vegetation and planting method thereof - Google Patents

Stone mountain damaged surface vegetation and planting method thereof Download PDF

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Publication number
CN111316853A
CN111316853A CN202010126044.4A CN202010126044A CN111316853A CN 111316853 A CN111316853 A CN 111316853A CN 202010126044 A CN202010126044 A CN 202010126044A CN 111316853 A CN111316853 A CN 111316853A
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seedling raising
straw
straw seedling
planting
shrubs
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王国利
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Shanxi Miaobaobao Environmental Protection Technology Co ltd
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Shanxi Miaobaobao Environmental Protection Technology Co ltd
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Priority to CN202010126044.4A priority Critical patent/CN111316853A/en
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/005Cultivation methods
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01BSOIL WORKING IN AGRICULTURE OR FORESTRY; PARTS, DETAILS, OR ACCESSORIES OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINES OR IMPLEMENTS, IN GENERAL
    • A01B79/00Methods for working soil
    • A01B79/02Methods for working soil combined with other agricultural processing, e.g. fertilising, planting
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G9/00Cultivation in receptacles, forcing-frames or greenhouses; Edging for beds, lawn or the like
    • A01G9/02Receptacles, e.g. flower-pots or boxes; Glasses for cultivating flowers
    • A01G9/029Receptacles for seedlings
    • A01G9/0291Planting receptacles specially adapted for remaining in the soil after planting

Abstract

The invention relates to a vegetations on damaged surfaces of rocky mountains and a planting method thereof, which belong to the technical field of ecological restoration of damaged surfaces of rocky mountains and mainly solve the problem of ecological restoration under difficult field conditions; the vegetation on the damaged surface of the rocky mountain comprises trees and/or shrubs and/or flowers and/or vines and is characterized in that: the arbor is intensively planted by adopting a straw seedling raising pot; the shrubs, flowers and plants or vine climbing plants are shrubs cultivated by adopting a straw seedling raising rod intensive seedling raising technology, and the trees and the straw seedling raising pots are planted in tree planting pits excavated by adopting hierarchical re-greening technologies such as identifying feasible grooving, cofferdam, backfilling, pit digging and the like by fully utilizing the existing landform according to the current situation of the damaged surface of the rocky mountain; the shrubs and the straw seedling raising rods are planted in tree planting pits which are excavated according to the situation of the damaged surface of the rocky mountain, are guided by factors, are suitable for local conditions, flexibly and diversely fully utilize the existing landform and adopt an identification feasible re-greening technology.

Description

Stone mountain damaged surface vegetation and planting method thereof
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of ecological restoration of a rocky mountain damaged surface, and particularly relates to a rocky mountain damaged surface vegetation and a planting method thereof.
Background
The conventional afforestation technology under the general site conditions in the world is mature, and a good afforestation effect is obtained, but the ecological restoration under the difficult site conditions is far behind the requirements of forestry and ecological construction. For a long time, a great deal of research and research are carried out on ecological restoration technologies of various difficult places in the global scope, and more results are obtained, but still more limitations exist. Because the ecological damage caused by land development and the difference of the formed landforms such as landforms and the like are greatly changed, the regional social and economic development is unbalanced, and the ecological restoration needs to be made according to local conditions. Many difficult places such as rocky mountain damaged surfaces and the like cannot obtain obvious afforestation and greening effects due to lack of corresponding ecological restoration key technologies, and nowadays, people increasingly attach importance to the ecological environment, and regret barren mountains and barren slopes are left. Especially, the ecological treatment effect on the damaged mountain with steep slope and narrow abdominal area is not ideal.
It is known that a large amount of stone mountain damaged surfaces are formed along with the development of economy and long-term over-development, such as road construction, hydraulic engineering, tourism development, mining and the like. The vegetation on the damaged mountain surface is seriously damaged, mountain stones are exposed, surface soil is stripped, water and soil loss is serious, potential safety hazards are prominent, the ecology and the investment environment are seriously influenced, and the local economic development is restricted. Along with the ecological construction and the sound of the poverty-debilitation, the ecological restoration engineering of the damaged surface of the mountain is very necessary. But the existing practical difficulties are also obvious: damaged mountain surfaces, in particular damaged mountain surfaces such as coal mine abandoned lands and stone yard abandoned lands formed by mining coal mines, stone quarries and sand quarries, are often rejected by management organizations and ecological restoration enterprises due to a series of limiting factors such as high height, danger, steepness, soil lack, little water, high construction difficulty, high technical requirements and the like.
The common methods for ecologically repairing damaged surfaces of rocky mountain bodies are a net hanging spray seeding technology, a surface layer soil covering technology, a direct transplanting technology and the like, but the technologies all have more defects: the net hanging spray seeding has poor effect in the north, particularly in rocky mountains, the phenomena of serious degeneration and withering begin to appear after the spray seeding is carried out for 1 year, and the repairing significance is lost; the surface layer foreign soil is backfilled, the engineering quantity is large, and the cost is high. Application number CN201811181709.0 discloses a method for ecologically and rapidly restoring a mountain high and steep damaged surface. The method comprises the steps of excavating a step terrain on a mountain high and steep damaged surface by adopting a layered construction method, excavating and constructing the reserved protective layer by using a handheld pneumatic drill, excavating to a design building base surface by manual stripping, excavating to a planting hole with the same upper opening and lower bottom by adopting a hydraulic rock breaking hammer on the building base surface, filling soil mixed with a base fertilizer, and planting by selecting plants similar to the ecological environment of the mountain damaged surface, so that survival and subsequent maintenance are facilitated. Application number CN201620289640.3 discloses a greening structure for high and steep slopes. The side slope body, the external surface of side slope and along side slope body height direction and along a plurality of planting holes that all distribute side by side of side slope body horizontal direction, it has kind of plant to plant in the planting hole, two adjacent planting holes of height direction with the spacing distance in two adjacent planting holes of horizontal direction equals, and the planting hole upside along side slope body horizontal direction corresponds installs an irrigation transverse pipe, has seted up a plurality of round holes on the irrigation transverse pipe, every round hole with the planting hole along side slope body horizontal direction corresponds, and the round hole is connected through the burette with planting the hole. Both the two methods are direct transplanting technologies, but due to the lack of core technologies for ensuring the survival of vegetation and water storage and retention measures, the survival of vegetation is difficult to ensure, the construction and later maintenance costs are high, irrigation facilities need to be laid, and the like.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention innovatively applies the straw seedling raising container integration technology to ecological restoration of the damaged surface of the rocky mountain, and successfully applies the technology in engineering practice. Overcomes the defects and problems of the prior art and provides a novel ecological restoration and construction method for the damaged surface of the rocky mountain. The survival rate of the seedlings planted on the damaged surface of the rocky mountain repaired by the method is remarkably improved, and the natural ecosystem of the repaired area is quickly restored.
The technical scheme adopted by the invention for solving the technical problems is as follows:
a stone mountain damaged surface vegetation comprises trees and/or shrubs and/or flowers and/or vines and is characterized in that: the arbor is intensively planted by adopting a straw seedling raising pot; the shrubs, flowers and plants or vine climbing plants are shrubs cultivated by adopting a straw seedling growing rod intensive seedling growing technology, the trees and the straw seedling growing pots are planted in tree planting pits excavated by adopting hierarchical greening technologies such as identifying feasible grooving, cofferdam, backfilling, pit digging and the like, and the current landform landforms are flexibly and variously fully utilized according to the situation of the damaged surface of the rocky mountain; the shrubs and the straw seedling growing rods are planted in tree planting pits excavated by hierarchical greening technologies such as identifying feasible grooving, cofferdam, backfilling, pit digging and the like according to the situation of the damaged surface of the rocky mountain and according to the situation of the damaged surface, the existing landform and landform are guided by factors, the local conditions are adjusted, and the existing landform and landform are flexibly and variously fully utilized; the step formed by the stone mountain naturally or the step formed by the artificial soil preparation is planted with trees, the slope surface is less than 65 degrees, and the combination of trees, shrubs, grasses and vines is adopted; on the slope surface with the angle larger than 65 degrees, irrigation, grass and vines are combined, and the irrigation, grass and vines are combined, namely shrubs, flowers and plants and vines which are cultivated by adopting a straw seedling raising rod intensive seedling raising technology;
the straw seedling growing rod for cultivating shrubs and creeper plants has the specification that the diameter of an inscribed circle is 100-200 mm, and the length is 150-300 mm; the straw seedling raising rod for cultivating the flowers and the plants has the specification that the diameter of an inscribed circle is 80-120 mm, and the length is 100-150 mm;
the shrubs are caragana microphylla, amorpha fruticosa, native developed root systems and other suitable shrubs; the flowers and plants are bluegrass, alfalfa, tall fescue and mulberry flower; the climbing plant is selected from herba Euphorbiae Humifusae, caulis Seu folium Ampelopsis Brevipedunculatae, caulis Sargentodoxae, and caulis Seu folium Rosae chinensis;
the intensive seedling culture medium of the straw seedling culture rod is prepared by mixing and proportioning planting soil, sand, straw crushed materials, vermiculite, microbial fertilizer, rooting powder and the like;
the straw seedling raising pot is characterized in that the diameter of an upper opening is 320-400 mm, the height is 220-320 mm, the diameter of a lower bottom is 220-300 mm, and the wall thickness is 15-20 mm;
the arbor is drought-resistant and barren and has strong applicability; the root system is developed and can hold soil; conserving water; the vitality is strong, and the management is extensive; the growing is rapid, the branches of the rural tree species are dense, the height is 1.0-1.2 m or the ground diameter is less than or equal to 4cm, and the rural tree species are provided with soil balls, such as Chinese pine, golden leaf elm, torch, Xinjiang poplar, arborvitae, wild peach and wild apricot;
a method for planting vegetations on damaged surfaces of rocky mountains is characterized by comprising the following steps: the method comprises the following steps:
step one, adopting a straw seedling pot intensive planting technology to plant a tree;
in the step 1, the specification of the straw seedling raising pot is as follows: the diameter of the upper opening is 320-400 mm, the height is 220-320 mm, the diameter of the lower bottom is 220-300 mm, and the wall thickness is 15-20 mm;
in the step 1, the arbor is selected to be drought-resistant and barren and has strong applicability; the root system is developed and can hold soil; conserving water; the vitality is strong, and the management is extensive; the tree grows rapidly, branches densely, the height is 1.0-1.2 m or the ground diameter is less than or equal to 4cm, and the tree is provided with soil balls, such as Chinese pine, golden leaf elm, torch, Xinjiang poplar, arborvitae, wild peach, wild apricot and the like;
in the step 1, the intensive planting matrix of the straw seedling raising pot is prepared by mixing and proportioning planting soil, sand, straw crushed materials, vermiculite, microbial fertilizer, rooting powder and the like;
in the step 1, the intensive planting mode of the straw seedling raising pot is as follows: selecting a site which is smooth around the site of the project and has watering conditions, and manually leveling the site; in order to prevent the root systems of the field planting seedlings from penetrating through the pot walls of the straw seedling-raising pots to enter soil, a greenhouse film is laid on a leveled field, then the field planting straw seedling-raising pots are placed on the greenhouse film in order, and watering channels are reserved every 2-3 m;
in the step 1, the planting time of the arbor is 2-3 months, and transplanting conditions are met when the root system is completely repaired and a new root system net is formed and the pot seedlings become an organic whole;
secondly, cultivating shrubs, flowers and plants and vine climbing plants with developed root systems by adopting a straw seedling raising rod intensive seedling raising technology;
in the step 2, the straw seedling raising rod used for cultivating shrubs and creeper plants is selected to have the specification of an inscribed circle with the diameter of 100-200 mm and the length of 150-300 mm; the straw seedling raising rod for cultivating the flowers and the plants has the specification that the diameter of an inscribed circle is 80-120 mm, and the length is 100-150 mm;
in the step 2, caragana microphylla, amorpha fruticosa and the like are selected as shrubs with developed root systems; the flowers and plants are selected from bluegrass, alfalfa, tall fescue, mulberry flower and the like; the climbing plant is selected from humifuse euphorbia, parthenocissus tricuspidata, wisteria sinensis, rose of climbing vine, etc.;
in the step 2, the bare-rooted seedlings are transplanted to the straw seedling raising rods in a shrub and climbing vine vegetation cultivation mode; directly planting seeds on the straw seedling raising rods for flowers and plants;
in the step 2, the intensive seedling raising substrate of the straw seedling raising rod is prepared by mixing and proportioning planting soil, sand, straw crushed materials, vermiculite, microbial fertilizer, rooting powder and the like;
in the step 2, the intensive seedling raising mode of the straw seedling raising rod is as follows: selecting a field which is smooth around the site of the project and has a watering condition, manually preparing the field into strips with the width of 2-3 m and the length of 4-6 m, forming ridges around the field, wherein the ridges are 20-30 cm high, paving a greenhouse film in the ridges, and compacting and fixing the greenhouse film around the ridges; the well sowed or transplanted straw seedling raising rods (rod seedlings) are placed in the strips in order, and the distance between the rods is 1 cm; watering adopts rhizosphere water supply, namely directly irrigating water into the strips; the plastic arched shed can be flexibly selected and built according to the transplanting season and the plant production requirement during seedling raising;
in the step 2, the shrub and climbing vine vegetation grows to be more than 30cm and has transplanting conditions when branches and leaves are flourishing; transplanting conditions are met when the flowers and the plants grow to be more than 5 cm;
thirdly, according to the geological structure, the gradient, peripheral facilities and the like of a restoration area, a mechanical or artificial soil preparation scheme is adopted according to local conditions, unstable rocks, cracks and the like are eliminated, and potential safety hazards are eliminated;
fourthly, in order to reduce damage to the original slope and vegetation, the method does not adopt mechanical secondary slope regulation, and fully utilizes the existing landform to directly excavate the tree planting pit;
in the step 4, standard plant-row spacing is not adopted, but the existing landform and geomorphology are fully utilized flexibly, variously and creatively according to the situation of the damaged surface of the stone mountain, and the hierarchical greening technology of identifying feasible grooving, cofferdam, backfilling, pit digging and the like is adopted;
in the step 4, on the premise of ensuring the safety of construction and maintenance in principle, the trees are planted and shrubs and flowers and plants are dotted through artificial soil preparation and a soil preparation platform which collects more than 1 square meter; planting shrubs and flowers and plants on the land preparation platform with the land preparation platform size less than 1 square meter; the slope surface is smaller than 65 degrees, arbor + shrub + grass + vine combination is adopted, and the slope surface is larger than 65 degrees, shrub + grass + vine combination is adopted;
in the step 4, the specification of the tree planting pit of the arbor is 60 × 60 × 60cm, and the specification of the tree planting pit of the shrub, the flower and plant and the creeper vegetation is 30 × 30 × 30 cm;
in the step 4, after the tree planting pit is excavated, in order to effectively keep moisture, a mulching film is paved around the pit;
fifthly, transplanting the planted or cultivated arbors, shrubs, flowers, vines and the like and the straw seedling container (comprising a straw seedling pot and a straw seedling rod) into a tree planting pit, and covering soil and compacting;
in the step 5, the seedlings are planted integrally in the straw seedling raising container without removing the container, and the straw seedling raising container is continuously decomposed to become plant root zone organic matters;
in the step 5, the seedlings in the straw seedling raising container are saturated to absorb water before being transplanted;
in the step 5, after the seedlings of the straw seedling raising container are transplanted, the residue soil is directly backfilled without replacing the additional soil;
in the step 5, after the residue soil is backfilled, righting, trampling and watering are carried out;
in the step 5, after watering is finished, a greenhouse film is covered, and a cross opening is formed in the film, so that the water evaporation is reduced, and the watering penetration in the maintenance period is not influenced;
and in the step 5, covering gravels on the greenhouse film to reduce water evaporation.
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the following beneficial effects:
1. the most innovative point of the invention is to apply the straw seedling raising container integration technology to the ecological restoration of the damaged surface of the rocky mountain. The method is adopted to carry out ecological restoration on the damaged surface of the mountain, the survival rate of one-time planting is extremely high, the defect of slow vegetation coverage speed in the traditional technology is overcome,
2. the damaged surface of the mountain is high in radiation in summer, dry and difficult in water supply, and is generally far away from the city center, so that the mountain is inconvenient to transport, has less water sources and is very unfavorable for later maintenance management. The mountain body restoration, especially in the early stage of plant growth, has more water demand, the straw seedling raising container has good water carrying, water storing and retaining functions, the straw seedling raising container is saturated and absorbs water before planting, the water can be slowly released after planting, and the requirement of seedling growth can be ensured. The maintenance cost after planting the nursery stock is reduced, meanwhile, the phenomenon of watering a large number in the construction and maintenance process is avoided, and potential safety hazards such as landslide and the like caused by watering a large number are reduced. Meanwhile, the periphery and the upper part of the pit are covered with the film, so that the loss of water is reduced.
3. The straw seedling raising container can prevent water and soil loss of the seedling root region. Another limiting factor faced by ecological restoration of damaged mountain surfaces is: water and soil in the root area of the nursery stock are easy to lose, and the planted plants often die due to lack of continuous nutrient and water supply. By using the straw seedling raising container integration technology, the container wall plays a regional protection role on soil, water and root areas in the container, so that nutrients and water in the root areas cannot be lost, and the requirements for seedling growth can be continuously supplied.
4. Arbor, bush that straw seedling raising container field planting and cultivation are the root-protecting seedling, and after the forest survives, the root system constantly grows, can the broken wall stretch out to along stone crack, space and withered branch fallen leaves gathering area, constantly extend to the place that has water source and nutrient, constantly assimilate useful component in the external environment, make self constantly grow and strengthen, this growth process needs the soil in the straw seedling raising container constantly to provide nutrient and moisture.
5. The straw seedling raising container and the internal matrix form a small environment, the small environment carries the matrix to basically ensure the early growth of seedlings, and the straw seedling raising container is continuously decomposed under the action of environmental factors such as root systems, microorganisms, moisture, heat and the like along with the continuous growth of plants to become organic matters in plant root areas, so that the nutrients are continuously released and provided for the growth of the plants.
6. By adopting the invention, the vegetation configuration of the technical scheme of ecological restoration of the damaged surface of the mountain adopts a mode of combining arbor, shrub, grass and vine, the developed root system of arbor and shrub can penetrate through the planting layer and deeply enter a rock crack to form a stable structure of interweaving the planting layer and the rock stratum root system, and deep water is absorbed, which is beneficial to the stability of the slope; flowers and plants and the like have good covering and shielding effects on mountains and can also play a role in retarding slope runoff.
7. By adopting the method, the technical scheme of ecological restoration of the damaged mountain surface adopts a mode of combining the straw seedling raising pot and the straw seedling raising rod. The length of the straw seedling raising rod for shrubs is 150mm-300mm, which is beneficial to inducing deep extension of plant roots, and the length of the straw seedling raising rod for flowers and plants is 100mm-150mm, which is beneficial to inducing wide distribution of shallow root systems of plants. The combination of deep root and shallow root plants is favorable for vegetation nutrient absorption and slope surface deep and shallow layer stabilization, deep layer anchoring and shallow layer reinforcement.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic view of a pure arbor structure according to the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a schematic diagram of a pure shrub structure according to the present invention;
fig. 3 is a schematic structural view of the slope shrub gentle slope or flat surface arbor of the present invention.
Wherein: 1-stone mountain; 1-step; 2-straw seedling-raising pot; 3, arbor; 4, shrub; 5-straw seedling raising rod.
Detailed Description
As shown in fig. 1, fig. 2 and fig. 3, the stone mountain damaged surface vegetation comprises trees 3 and/or shrubs 4 and/or flowers and/or vines, and is characterized in that: the arbor 3 is an arbor intensively planted by adopting the straw seedling raising pot 2; the shrubs 4, flowers and plants or vine climbing plants are the shrubs 4 cultivated by adopting a straw seedling raising rod intensive seedling raising technology, the arbor 3 and the straw seedling raising pot 2 are implanted into a tree planting pit excavated by adopting hierarchical greening technologies such as identifying feasible grooving, cofferdam, backfilling, pit digging and the like according to the situation of the damaged surface of the rocky mountain, according to local conditions and flexibly and diversely making full use of the existing landform; the shrubs 4 and the straw seedling growing rods 5 are planted in tree planting pits which are excavated according to the hierarchical re-greening technologies such as groove building, cofferdam construction, backfill construction, pit digging and the like which are identified and feasible, according to the situation of the damaged surface of the rocky mountain, and according to the situation of the rocky mountain, the existing landform and landform are flexibly and diversely fully utilized; the step 1-1 formed naturally by the stone mountain 1 or the step 1-1 formed by artificial soil preparation is planted with arbor 3, the slope surface is less than 65 degrees, and arbor + shrub + grass + vine are combined; on the slope surface with the angle larger than 65 degrees, irrigation, grass and vines are combined, and the irrigation, grass and vines are combined, namely shrubs, flowers and plants and vines which are cultivated by adopting a straw seedling raising rod intensive seedling raising technology;
the straw seedling growing rod for cultivating shrubs and creeper plants has the specification that the diameter of an inscribed circle is 100-200 mm, and the length is 150-300 mm; the straw seedling raising rod for cultivating the flowers and the plants has the specification that the diameter of an inscribed circle is 80-120 mm, and the length is 100-150 mm;
the shrub 4 is caragana microphylla and amorpha fruticosa; the flowers and plants are bluegrass, alfalfa, tall fescue and mulberry flower; the climbing plant is selected from herba Euphorbiae Humifusae, caulis Seu folium Ampelopsis Brevipedunculatae, caulis Sargentodoxae, and caulis Seu folium Rosae chinensis;
the intensive seedling culture medium of the straw seedling culture rod is prepared by mixing and proportioning planting soil, sand, straw crushed materials, vermiculite, microbial fertilizer, rooting powder and the like;
the straw seedling raising pot is characterized in that the diameter of an upper opening is 320-400 mm, the height is 220-320 mm, the diameter of a lower bottom is 220-300 mm, and the wall thickness is 15-20 mm;
the arbor is drought-resistant and barren and has strong applicability; the root system is developed and can hold soil; conserving water; the vitality is strong, and the management is extensive; the growing is rapid, the branches of the rural tree species are dense, the height is 1.0-1.2 m or the ground diameter is less than or equal to 4cm, and the rural tree species are provided with soil balls, such as Chinese pine, golden leaf elm, torch, Xinjiang poplar, arborvitae, wild peach and wild apricot;
a method for planting vegetations on damaged surfaces of rocky mountains is characterized by comprising the following steps: the method comprises the following steps:
step one, adopting a straw seedling pot intensive planting technology to plant a tree;
in the step 1, the specification of the straw seedling raising pot is as follows: the diameter of the upper opening is 320-400 mm, the height is 220-320 mm, the diameter of the lower bottom is 220-300 mm, and the wall thickness is 15-20 mm;
in the step 1, the arbor is selected to be drought-resistant and barren and has strong applicability; the root system is developed and can hold soil; conserving water; the vitality is strong, and the management is extensive; the tree grows rapidly, branches densely, the height is 1.0-1.2 m or the ground diameter is less than or equal to 4cm, and the tree is provided with soil balls, such as Chinese pine, golden leaf elm, torch, Xinjiang poplar, arborvitae, wild peach, wild apricot and the like;
in the step 1, the intensive planting matrix of the straw seedling raising pot is prepared by mixing and proportioning planting soil, sand, straw crushed materials, vermiculite, microbial fertilizer, rooting powder and the like;
in the step 1, the intensive planting mode of the straw seedling raising pot is as follows: selecting a site which is smooth around the site of the project and has watering conditions, and manually leveling the site; in order to prevent the root systems of the field planting seedlings from penetrating through the pot walls of the straw seedling-raising pots to enter soil, a greenhouse film is laid on a leveled field, then the field planting straw seedling-raising pots are placed on the greenhouse film in order, and watering channels are reserved every 2-3 m;
in the step 1, the planting time of the arbor is 2-3 months, and transplanting conditions are met when the root system is completely repaired and a new root system net is formed and the pot seedlings become an organic whole;
secondly, cultivating shrubs, flowers and plants and vine climbing plants with developed root systems by adopting a straw seedling raising rod intensive seedling raising technology;
in the step 2, the straw seedling raising rod used for cultivating shrubs and creeper plants is selected to have the specification of an inscribed circle with the diameter of 100-200 mm and the length of 150-300 mm; the straw seedling raising rod for cultivating the flowers and the plants has the specification that the diameter of an inscribed circle is 80-120 mm, and the length is 100-150 mm;
in the step 2, caragana microphylla, amorpha fruticosa and the like are selected as shrubs with developed root systems; the flowers and plants are selected from bluegrass, alfalfa, tall fescue, mulberry flower and the like; the climbing plant is selected from humifuse euphorbia, parthenocissus tricuspidata, wisteria sinensis, rose of climbing vine, etc.;
in the step 2, the bare-rooted seedlings are transplanted to the straw seedling raising rods in a shrub and climbing vine vegetation cultivation mode; directly planting seeds on the straw seedling raising rods for flowers and plants;
in the step 2, the intensive seedling raising substrate of the straw seedling raising rod is prepared by mixing and proportioning planting soil, sand, straw crushed materials, vermiculite, microbial fertilizer, rooting powder and the like;
in the step 2, the intensive seedling raising mode of the straw seedling raising rod is as follows: selecting a field which is smooth around the site of the project and has a watering condition, manually preparing the field into strips with the width of 2-3 m and the length of 4-6 m, forming ridges around the field, wherein the ridges are 20-30 cm high, paving a greenhouse film in the ridges, and compacting and fixing the greenhouse film around the ridges; the well sowed or transplanted straw seedling raising rods (rod seedlings) are placed in the strips in order, and the distance between the rods is 1 cm; watering adopts rhizosphere water supply, namely directly irrigating water into the strips; the plastic arched shed can be flexibly selected and built according to the transplanting season and the plant production requirement during seedling raising;
in the step 2, the shrub and climbing vine vegetation grows to be more than 30cm and has transplanting conditions when branches and leaves are flourishing; transplanting conditions are met when the flowers and the plants grow to be more than 5 cm;
thirdly, according to the geological structure, the gradient, peripheral facilities and the like of a restoration area, a mechanical or artificial soil preparation scheme is adopted according to local conditions, unstable rocks, cracks and the like are eliminated, and potential safety hazards are eliminated;
fourthly, in order to reduce damage to the original slope and vegetation, the method does not adopt mechanical secondary slope regulation, and fully utilizes the existing landform to directly excavate the tree planting pit;
in the step 4, standard plant-row spacing is not adopted, but the existing landform and geomorphology are fully utilized flexibly, variously and creatively according to the situation of the damaged surface of the stone mountain, and the hierarchical greening technology of identifying feasible grooving, cofferdam, backfilling, pit digging and the like is adopted;
in the step 4, on the premise of ensuring the safety of construction and maintenance in principle, the trees are planted and shrubs and flowers and plants are dotted through artificial soil preparation and a soil preparation platform which collects more than 1 square meter; planting shrubs and flowers and plants on the land preparation platform with the land preparation platform size less than 1 square meter; the slope surface is smaller than 65 degrees, arbor + shrub + grass + vine combination is adopted, and the slope surface is larger than 65 degrees, shrub + grass + vine combination is adopted;
in the step 4, the specification of the tree planting pit of the arbor is 60 × 60 × 60cm, and the specification of the tree planting pit of the shrub, the flower and plant and the creeper vegetation is 30 × 30 × 30 cm;
in the step 4, after the tree planting pit is excavated, in order to effectively keep moisture, a mulching film is paved around the pit;
fifthly, transplanting the planted or cultivated arbors, shrubs, flowers, vines and the like and the straw seedling container (comprising a straw seedling pot and a straw seedling rod) into a tree planting pit, and covering soil and compacting;
in the step 5, the seedlings are planted integrally in the straw seedling raising container without removing the container, and the straw seedling raising container is continuously decomposed to become plant root zone organic matters;
in the step 5, the seedlings in the straw seedling raising container are saturated to absorb water before being transplanted;
in the step 5, after the seedlings of the straw seedling raising container are transplanted, the residue soil is directly backfilled without replacing the additional soil;
in the step 5, after the residue soil is backfilled, righting, trampling and watering are carried out;
in the step 5, after watering is finished, a greenhouse film is covered, and a cross opening is formed in the film, so that the water evaporation is reduced, and the watering penetration in the maintenance period is not influenced;
and in the step 5, covering gravels on the greenhouse film to reduce water evaporation.

Claims (7)

1. A rocky mountain damaged-surface vegetation comprises trees (3) and/or shrubs (4) and/or flowers and/or vines, and is characterized in that: the arbor (3) is formed by intensive planting by adopting a straw seedling raising pot (2); the shrubs (4), flowers and plants or vine climbing plants are the shrubs (4) cultivated by adopting a straw seedling raising rod intensive seedling raising technology, the arbor (3) and the straw seedling raising pot (2) are implanted into a tree planting pit which is excavated by adopting hierarchical greening technologies such as identifying feasible grooving, cofferdam, backfilling, pit digging and the like according to the situation of the damaged surface of the rocky mountain and according to the situation of the landform and the condition of the rocky mountain; the shrubs (4) and the straw seedling-raising rods (5) are implanted into tree-planting pits excavated according to the situation of damaged surfaces of stone mountains, according to local conditions, flexibly and diversely, the existing landform and landform are fully utilized, and the hierarchical re-greening technology such as groove building, cofferdam, backfill, pit digging and the like is adopted to identify and enable the existing landform, arbor (3) is planted on the step (1-1) formed by the stone mountains 1 naturally or the step (1-1) formed by artificial land preparation, the slope surface is smaller than 65 degrees and combined by arbor + shrub + grass + vine, the slope surface larger than 65 degrees is combined by shrub + grass + vine, and the shrub + grass + vine combination refers to shrubs, flowers and plants and vine-climbing plants cultivated by the straw seedling-raising rod intensive seedling-raising technology.
2. The rocky mountain damage surface vegetation of claim 1, wherein: the straw seedling growing rod used for cultivating shrubs (4) and creeper plants has the specification that the diameter of an inscribed circle is 100-200 mm, and the length is 150-300 mm; the straw seedling raising rod for cultivating flowers and plants has the specification that the diameter of an inscribed circle is 80-120 mm, and the length is 100-150 mm.
3. The rocky mountain damage surface vegetation of claim 1, wherein: the shrubs (4) are caragana microphylla, amorpha fruticosa, natural shrubs with developed root systems and the like which are suitable for growing; the flowers and plants are bluegrass, alfalfa, tall fescue and mulberry flower; the climbing plant is selected from herba Euphorbiae Humifusae, caulis Seu folium Ampelopsis Brevipedunculatae, caulis Sargentodoxae, and flos Rosae chinensis.
4. The rocky mountain damage surface vegetation of claim 1, wherein: the intensive seedling raising medium of the straw seedling raising rod is prepared by mixing and proportioning planting soil, sand, straw crushed materials, vermiculite, microbial fertilizer, rooting powder and the like.
5. The rocky mountain damage surface vegetation of claim 1, wherein: the straw seedling raising pot is 320-400 mm in diameter of an upper opening, 220-320 mm in height, 220-300 mm in diameter of a lower bottom and 15-20 mm in wall thickness.
6. The rocky mountain damage surface vegetation of claim 1, wherein: the arbor is drought-resistant and barren and has strong applicability; the root system is developed and can hold soil; conserving water; the vitality is strong, and the management is extensive; the tree grows rapidly, branches densely, and native tree species with height of 1.0-1.2 m or ground diameter of less than or equal to 4cm, and has soil ball, such as Chinese pine, Ulmus pumila, torch, Xinjiang poplar, Chinese arborvitae, wild peach, and wild apricot.
7. A method for planting vegetations on damaged surfaces of rocky mountains is characterized by comprising the following steps: the method comprises the following steps:
step one, adopting a straw seedling pot intensive planting technology to plant a tree;
in the step 1, the specification of the straw seedling raising pot is as follows: the diameter of the upper opening is 320-400 mm, the height is 220-320 mm, the diameter of the lower bottom is 220-300 mm, and the wall thickness is 15-20 mm;
in the step 1, the arbor is selected to be drought-resistant and barren and has strong applicability; the root system is developed and can hold soil; conserving water; the vitality is strong, and the management is extensive; the tree grows rapidly, branches densely, the height is 1.0-1.2 m or the ground diameter is less than or equal to 4cm, and the tree is provided with soil balls, such as Chinese pine, golden leaf elm, torch, Xinjiang poplar, arborvitae, wild peach, wild apricot and the like;
in the step 1, the intensive planting matrix of the straw seedling raising pot is prepared by mixing and proportioning planting soil, sand, straw crushed materials, vermiculite, microbial fertilizer, rooting powder and the like;
in the step 1, the intensive planting mode of the straw seedling raising pot is as follows: selecting a site which is smooth around the site of the project and has watering conditions, and manually leveling the site; in order to prevent the root systems of the field planting seedlings from penetrating through the pot walls of the straw seedling-raising pots to enter soil, a greenhouse film is laid on a leveled field, then the field planting straw seedling-raising pots are placed on the greenhouse film in order, and watering channels are reserved every 2-3 m;
in the step 1, the planting time of the arbor is 2-3 months, and transplanting conditions are met when the root system is completely repaired and a new root system net is formed and the pot seedlings become an organic whole;
secondly, cultivating shrubs, flowers and plants and vine climbing plants with developed root systems by adopting a straw seedling raising rod intensive seedling raising technology;
in the step 2, the straw seedling raising rod used for cultivating shrubs and creeper plants is selected to have the specification of an inscribed circle with the diameter of 100-200 mm and the length of 150-300 mm; the straw seedling raising rod for cultivating the flowers and the plants has the specification that the diameter of an inscribed circle is 80-120 mm, and the length is 100-150 mm;
in the step 2, caragana microphylla, amorpha fruticosa and the like are selected as shrubs with developed root systems; the flowers and plants are selected from bluegrass, alfalfa, tall fescue, mulberry flower and the like; the climbing plant is selected from humifuse euphorbia, parthenocissus tricuspidata, wisteria sinensis, rose of climbing vine, etc.;
in the step 2, the bare-rooted seedlings are transplanted to the straw seedling raising rods in a shrub and climbing vine vegetation cultivation mode; directly planting seeds on the straw seedling raising rods for flowers and plants;
in the step 2, the intensive seedling raising substrate of the straw seedling raising rod is prepared by mixing and proportioning planting soil, sand, straw crushed materials, vermiculite, microbial fertilizer, rooting powder and the like;
in the step 2, the intensive seedling raising mode of the straw seedling raising rod is as follows: selecting a field which is smooth around the site of the project and has a watering condition, manually preparing the field into strips with the width of 2-3 m and the length of 4-6 m, forming ridges around the field, wherein the ridges are 20-30 cm high, paving a greenhouse film in the ridges, and compacting and fixing the greenhouse film around the ridges; the well sowed or transplanted straw seedling raising rods (rod seedlings) are placed in the strips in order, and the distance between the rods is 1 cm; watering adopts rhizosphere water supply, namely directly irrigating water into the strips; the plastic arched shed can be flexibly selected and built according to the transplanting season and the plant production requirement during seedling raising;
in the step 2, the shrub and climbing vine vegetation grows to be more than 30cm and has transplanting conditions when branches and leaves are flourishing; transplanting conditions are met when the flowers and the plants grow to be more than 5 cm;
thirdly, according to the geological structure, the gradient, peripheral facilities and the like of a restoration area, a mechanical or artificial soil preparation scheme is adopted according to local conditions, unstable rocks, cracks and the like are eliminated, and potential safety hazards are eliminated;
fourthly, in order to reduce damage to the original slope and vegetation, the method does not adopt mechanical secondary slope regulation, and fully utilizes the existing landform to directly excavate the tree planting pit;
in the step 4, standard plant-row spacing is not adopted, but the existing landform and geomorphology are fully utilized flexibly, variously and creatively according to the situation of the damaged surface of the stone mountain, and the hierarchical greening technology of identifying feasible grooving, cofferdam, backfilling, pit digging and the like is adopted;
in the step 4, on the premise of ensuring the safety of construction and maintenance in principle, the trees are planted and shrubs and flowers and plants are dotted through artificial soil preparation and a soil preparation platform which collects more than 1 square meter; planting shrubs and flowers and plants on the land preparation platform with the land preparation platform size less than 1 square meter; the slope surface is smaller than 65 degrees, arbor + shrub + grass + vine combination is adopted, and the slope surface is larger than 65 degrees, shrub + grass + vine combination is adopted;
in the step 4, the specification of the tree planting pit of the arbor is 60 × 60 × 60cm, and the specification of the tree planting pit of the shrub, the flower and plant and the creeper vegetation is 30 × 30 × 30 cm;
in the step 4, after the tree planting pit is excavated, in order to effectively keep moisture, a mulching film is paved around the pit;
fifthly, transplanting the planted or cultivated arbors, shrubs, flowers, vines and the like and the straw seedling container (comprising a straw seedling pot and a straw seedling rod) into a tree planting pit, and covering soil and compacting;
in the step 5, the seedlings are planted integrally in the straw seedling raising container without removing the container, and the straw seedling raising container is continuously decomposed to become plant root zone organic matters;
in the step 5, the seedlings in the straw seedling raising container are saturated to absorb water before being transplanted;
in the step 5, after the seedlings of the straw seedling raising container are transplanted, the residue soil is directly backfilled without replacing the additional soil;
in the step 5, after the residue soil is backfilled, righting, trampling and watering are carried out;
in the step 5, after watering is finished, a greenhouse film is covered, and a cross opening is formed in the film, so that the water evaporation is reduced, and the watering penetration in the maintenance period is not influenced;
and in the step 5, covering gravels on the greenhouse film to reduce water evaporation.
CN202010126044.4A 2020-02-27 2020-02-27 Stone mountain damaged surface vegetation and planting method thereof Pending CN111316853A (en)

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Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN111771597A (en) * 2020-07-24 2020-10-16 中交广州水运工程设计研究院有限公司 Mangrove forest afforestation method for strongly weathered tuff geology and intertidal zone with higher elevation
CN112715084A (en) * 2020-12-22 2021-04-30 广东省科学院广州地理研究所 High-altitude side slope vegetation restoration method

Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN111771597A (en) * 2020-07-24 2020-10-16 中交广州水运工程设计研究院有限公司 Mangrove forest afforestation method for strongly weathered tuff geology and intertidal zone with higher elevation
CN112715084A (en) * 2020-12-22 2021-04-30 广东省科学院广州地理研究所 High-altitude side slope vegetation restoration method
CN112715084B (en) * 2020-12-22 2022-06-03 广东省科学院广州地理研究所 High-altitude side slope vegetation restoration method

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