CN104762946A - Filler and method for ecologically repairing damaged mountain - Google Patents

Filler and method for ecologically repairing damaged mountain Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104762946A
CN104762946A CN201510116204.6A CN201510116204A CN104762946A CN 104762946 A CN104762946 A CN 104762946A CN 201510116204 A CN201510116204 A CN 201510116204A CN 104762946 A CN104762946 A CN 104762946A
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CN
China
Prior art keywords
filler
mountain
layer
building waste
restoration
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Pending
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CN201510116204.6A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
况红玲
陈宝林
瞿燕群
王燕
杨兰芳
杜丹
阮飞
肖巨红
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WUHAN FAYA GARDEN GROUP CO Ltd
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WUHAN FAYA GARDEN GROUP CO Ltd
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Priority to CN201510116204.6A priority Critical patent/CN104762946A/en
Publication of CN104762946A publication Critical patent/CN104762946A/en
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G2/00Vegetative propagation
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02DFOUNDATIONS; EXCAVATIONS; EMBANKMENTS; UNDERGROUND OR UNDERWATER STRUCTURES
    • E02D3/00Improving or preserving soil or rock, e.g. preserving permafrost soil

Abstract

The invention belongs to the technical field of ecological repair, and specifically relates to a filler and a method for ecologically repairing a damaged mountain. The filler comprises a construction waste layer, a mixing layer of construction waste and river sludge, and a planting soil layer which are arranged from bottom to top in a sequence. The method comprises the steps of 1) filling mountain pits of the damaged mountain through the repairing filler; 2) planting trees or lawn on the planting soil layer of the repairing filler. According to the filler, the construction wastes in urban construction are fully utilized, so that a large amount of construction wastes can be utilized, and moreover, various materials are reasonably matched by property, so that the mountain with complex geologic structure applies well.

Description

A kind of filler of breakage mountain body restoration of the ecosystem and method
Technical field
The invention belongs to ecological restoration technical field, be specifically related to a kind of filler and method of breakage mountain body restoration of the ecosystem.
Background technology
Because China is in infrastructure period, road construction launches at various places large gauge, the kilometer road of speedway, railway also constantly extends, and highway and railway is often crossed over mountain after mountain, the massif vegetation of Shi highway, railway both sides peels off, vegetation wound is also seen everywhere, and environment and ecology is Challenge all.Carry out corresponding vegetation repair although also have, also not obvious viewed from repairing effect, environment pollution is also severeer, sets up vegetable layer especially difficult especially on precipitous stone slope.
Because plant expansion covering power is strong, usually through all kinds of plant of kind, rock mass is afforested.Domatic greening to the gradient comparatively suddenly, based on bare rock, adopts two kinds of methods at present usually.One is scar vertical greening technology, and this technology utilizes the feature of rock mass surface physical relief, by the container seedling at hollow position plantation vine plant, realizes the greening of rock mass.But the method is comparatively large by the restriction of rock mass natural conditions, the hollow place plantation vine plant that can only soil be had on rock mass to cover, scientifically cannot adjust the position of planting, be difficult to guide the growth of plant.Another kind method builds stone masonry pushing off the slag parapet to carry out engineering protection, soil body plantation vine plant inside slag blocking wall simultaneously, plant growth for many years after, barricade cover by vine plant, form wall greening band, but in fact the method does not repair rock mass itself, fail to realize the domatic reparation on ecological environment of rock mass.
Summary of the invention
For solving the deficiencies in the prior art, the invention provides a kind of filler and method of breakage mountain body restoration of the ecosystem.
A filler for breakage mountain body restoration of the ecosystem, comprises building waste layer from bottom to top, the mixed layer of building waste Ji Hehu road mud, plantation soil layer.
Preferably, the volume ratio of the mixed layer of described building waste layer and described building waste Ji Hehu road mud is 3:1 ~ 1:1.
Preferably, in the mixed layer of described building waste Ji Hehu road mud, the volume ratio of building waste and He Hu road mud is 2:1 ~ 1:1.
Present invention also offers a kind of method of breakage mountain body restoration of the ecosystem, comprise the following steps:
1) cheat with the mountain of reparation filler landfill breakage mountain body provided by the present invention;
2) to plant trees or lawn on the plantation soil layer repairing filler;
Preferably, the kind of described trees is aiphyllium, deciduous tree or shrub.
Preferably, when plant soil layer plants trees time, planting soil layer thickness is more than or equal to 1 meter; When planting turf plant on soil layer, planting soil layer thickness is 0.3 meter.
The filler of breakage mountain body restoration of the ecosystem provided by the present invention and method, be applicable to the reparation of Central China's breakage mountain body.
Beneficial effect
Filler provided by the present invention takes full advantage of the discarded building waste that urban construction brings, the discarded building waste of on the one hand a large amount of digestion, on the one hand again based on the attribute rational proportion of various material, the breakage mountain body of various comparatively complicated geologic structure can well be adapted to.With the filler of environmental protection and low cost, solve landslide that weather or the filler of weather to breakage mountain body cause, cave in, the problem such as soil erosion.Repair winding road with gentle slope, hill-side, so that water, construction, effectively solves landslide and massif reparation initial stage water and soil washes away, and causes the problem of mountain skeleton instability, is applicable to the reparation of Central China's breakage mountain body.
Detailed description of the invention
Be described principle of the present invention and feature below, example, only for explaining the present invention, is not intended to limit scope of the present invention.
The restoration of the ecosystem of breakage mountain body
Planting soil urban waste building waste, the cleaning mud in He Hu road, building site being discarded transfer is cheated by the mountain of Construction Design Schemes landfill breakage mountain body, builds massif skeleton, moulds rolling mountain peak landform.Building waste is placed in orlop, and the middle mud for cleaning out from He Hu road, the superiors are planting soil.Planting soil to be planted aiphyllium, deciduous tree, shrub or lawn.
Embodiment 1
Planting of aiphyllium
Aiphyllium mainly uses sweet osmanthus, Elaeocarpus decipiens, ligustrum lucidum ait etc., plants and adopts the fluffy method for planting of band.By adopting following technical proposals, nursery stock can be made to have higher survival rate, and ensure that nursery stock grows fine.
(1) flow process is planted
Choosing set → cut root → cultivations fibrous root → balance prune → select planting generation → excavations pack → load and transport → dig cave, soil treating → plantation → support colligation → water → trunk straw rope wraps up → spray and prevent excessive transpiration.
(2) key problem in technology of each step and solution
1, choosing tree: key problem in technology to select tree-like attitude grace, eugonic plant.
2, balance is pruned: adopt sparse branching pruning method, repair overlapping branch in tree crown, interior thorax branch, parallel branch, the branch of excessive growth, to the suitable cutting back of major branch to full bud place, overground part is made to reduce water consumption, so both can accomplish that guarantee survived, can ensure again to be formed to have the tree-like of graceful skeleton in the future, or the way of partial blade can be gone to reduce transpiration by sparse branching, the tender tip, fruit must all cut off simultaneously.
3, transplanting period is selected: select cloudy and without rain, fine and weather that is few wind carries out.
4, excavation, packaging, transport: root out root surface dust about 10cm, excavate slightly at a distance from cutting outside root annular groove, is that 80cm place stops to vertical depth, then adopt double-layer network method, native ball is wrapped up, as soil drought, then should pour water, in order to avoid native ball is loose before excavation a couple of days.
5, large tree shipment was carried out in night, to blade face water spray before setting out, and hid plant rain cover cloth, prevented moisture excessive evaporation.After large tree is lifted into cave, repair disconnected branch, vertical trunk, after temporary fixed, put down wire rope.
6, cave, soil treating is dug: plant pit excavates width 40cm larger than native ball, and 2/3 of Shen Weixue footpath, cave, according to tree-walk, native ball concrete condition during excavation, specifically determines footpath, cave, the dark size in cave.In plant pit, inserting the thick Nutrition Soil of about 20cm (organic fertilizer containing becoming thoroughly decomposed), ensureing that around root system, nutrient is sufficient.Plant pit excavates and within several days, digs before planting, and mining process observes plant pit situation, whether runs into concrete block, with or without ponding, with or without abnormal conditions such as lime pits, as found to contact owner, designing unit in time, request is changed plantation point or is proposed measures to rectify and reform, solves abnormal problem in time.
7, plant: select tree crown plentiful, perfect facing to mainly viewing and admiring direction.The depth of planting is slightly higher than earth's surface for standard with native ball upper surface.Trunk Zhi Wenhou, removes packing material, and is backfilling and compacted with loose Nutrition Soil, adds one deck rammed earth one deck.
8, colligation is supported: adopt the method that gusseted and the stake of " ten " word support.Windproof rope is fixed on fir pile, and fir pile squeezes into 1 meter of in ground, and gusseted will effectively prevent trunk from excessively rocking, in order to avoid coring is broken, the stake of " ten " word can be moved by anti-native ball.Stub is all painted, and unified colligation height, reaches effect attractive in appearance.
9, maintenance management: water immediately after transplanting, not only will irrigate root, also will all over watering blade and branch, and water at the beginning unsuitable too urgent, plant pit outer rim fine earth is trained in " fermented glutinous rice pool ", and the water yield of watering wants foot, and ridging envelope weir.Cover at root the fertilizer soil that one deck fully becomes thoroughly decomposed, play winter warming effect.Select plant part, outside its native ball, peep hole bores to check plant root moisture situation in about 50cm place, to adjust irrigation times.
Embodiment 2
Planting of deciduous tree
Deciduous tree mainly contains Luan Shu, Albizzia kalkora, magnolia delavayi, camplotheca acuminata, China tree etc., according to deciduous tree raise standard.
(1) flow process is planted
Dig plant pit → basal dressing → placement nursery stock → add soil 1/2, compaction in layers → add soil to earth's surface → support colligation → do fermented glutinous rice pool → water vola water.
(2) key problem in technology of each step and solution
1, plant pit, basal dressing is dug: the dark 20cm of plant pit depth ratio root system, the large 30cm of width, good to ensure root system surrounding soil; In plant pit, inserting the thick Nutrition Soil of about 10cm (organic fertilizer containing becoming thoroughly decomposed) ensureing that around root system, nutrient is sufficient.
2, placing sapling: select tree-like plentiful, complete one facing to mainly viewing and admiring direction, placing plant pit once success, reducing repeatedly moving root system as far as possible, in order to avoid damage fibrous root.
3, soil, compaction in layers is added: when planting, root system must ensure fully, to be closely combined with soil, and ensures the condition that root is unfolded and grown.Add soil will add one deck and tamp one deck, the gap especially between root system, soil must put in place in filling.
4, support colligation: support fixing after plantation immediately, support and adopt shoulder pole stake to keep same direction, sustained height.
5, water end water: arbor builds fortifield village after planting around plant pit, be commonly called as in " fermented glutinous rice pool ", then water, watering should not be too anxious, and irrigation amount wants sufficient, repeatedly irrigates, and the Bao Yan that earths up.
Embodiment 3
Planting of shrub
(1) flow process is planted:
Selection of seedling → construction layout → soil treating → pit digging → nursery stock digging → packed and transported → prune → plant → support → pour water → inspect for acceptance.
(2) selection of seedling
Following principle need be grasped: select pure, the tree-like grace of kind, robust growth, without disease and pest, pattern is rich and gaudy, flower is large, the florescence is long, fragrance is dense, meets the kind of designing requirement specification when selecting kind.Shrub, should notice that branch is leafy luxuriant especially, leaves and prunes leeway.
1, construction layout
Accurate settingout is the basis ensureing that plantation is attractive in appearance.Determine the planting location of nursery stock, follow closely timber or spread gray line and indicate, on timber, indicate plantation seeds, a number simultaneously.
2, soil treating
Before plantation soil is once investigated and measures, pH value between 6 to 7, free from admixture, pollution-free.Determine that soil is qualified and carry out scarifying 30 to 40cm to soil afterwards, the linear gradient nature in the greenbelt after smooth, do not have ponding, land drainage is good.
3, pit digging
After nursery stock position is determined, the specification size according to different nursery stock excavates kind of a plant hole, and plant plant hole diameter 40cm larger than the native ball of nursery stock, the degree of depth is equal with native bulb diameter.When digging cave, table soil is placed respectively with subsoil, cave wall is vertical, suitable for reading in the same size with end opening, must guard against and scrapes out up big and down small taper or pan bottom shape.
4, nursery stock digging
Shrub plant soil bulb diameter is not less than 0.5 times of hat width, and native ball thickness is 0.7 to 0.8 times of diameter.After soil ball digging with straw rope in laterally around several weeks, longitudinally tightly wrap up.
5, pack, transport
Seedling packing, particularly for short and small shrub, adopts " container " to case method, and with unified specification, size carton or wooden-box package, the mud ball being so both convenient to load and unload, check, in turn ensure that plant is not loose, damage, greatly can ensure seedling quality.
Load and transport in time after seedling packing, during shipment trees, drink spike, put down gently, do not draw and drag.First pad straw bag and so in vehicle, laid in order during entrucking, do not pressed too tight, finally build with tarpaulin, and tie with rope.
Handling seedling and short refuting will with light packsly gently be unloaded, and forbid to lose seedling, drag seedling in order to avoid damage and crack mud ball and damage branch.
6, prune
To prune the root system of splitting, injured before planting, require that clip is smooth, in order to healing.Pruning mainly in order to keep the trees nutrient equilibrium of supply and demand, improving survival rate and cultivating tree-like, reduce nature injury.To requiring to prune according to working drawing simultaneously, for guaranteeing certain tree-like and survival rate, the pruning of shrub being accomplished that middle height is outer low, interior thin outer close as far as possible.For concentrated nutrient, the flowering shrub transplanted at the florescence will extract the blade of whole buds and part.
7, plant
Seedling growth must work out plan, balanced for seedling according to plan.The planting generation suitable according to plant is promptly planted, and as planted at non-suitable planting generation, formulating corresponding technical measures, transporting to nursery stock and planting in time, and the nursery stock having little time to plant must be heeled in.Nursery stock takes out native ball packing material behind location, then adds native tamping, and waters sufficient head water immediately, and finally ridging to native ball is all covered.When planting, trees orientation should be selected plentiful complete facing to primary viewing, and isolated planting trees should be preced with complete.The planting of plants degree of depth should ensure after soil shrinkage, collar and earth's surface contour.
8, support: large shrub all should support after planting, support available bamboo bar placement cross hang, shoulder pole supports or gusseted fixes.
9, pour water: rebuild tree dish after planting immediately or stay and set pond, the same day pours water, fill with foot and fill with thoroughly, after spending one week, fill with again once depending on soil dry-wet situation, to ensure survival rate.
10, inspect for acceptance: construction terminates predecessor company technician and inspects for acceptance, to guarantee to reach quality requirement.
Embodiment 4
Planted by, lawn in ground
(1) place cleaning
Planting before lawn must place cleaning, removes the various foreign material such as stone, brickbat, rubble hindering construction.
(2) heap makes landform
Should make landform according to plan pile, formal style lawn requires that landform is smooth, the gradient generally 0.2-0.5% (middle high, surrounding is low, or banking), in order to draining.
In landform is smooth, as earthwork amount of movement is comparatively large, then topsoil should be scooped up, preservation of temporarily banking up, then takes out subsoil, or raising landform, then indigenous top soil is put back to surface layer.
(3) Soil tillage
Soil should be ploughed deeply, and the degree of depth is generally not less than 30cm.In whole ground process, all foreign material such as chad, tile, grass roots etc. must be removed.The foreign material content such as chad are lower than 10%.When ploughing, break up the clods, grogs diameter is less than 1cm.
(4) soil is improved
When whole ground, the table soil bad to quality will be improved.As sticky in topsoil heavy, the grit soil containing chiltern or coarse sand, thin cinder 50-70% should be mixed into.
(5) organic fertilizer
Apply sufficient base manure, based on fertilizer during whole ground simultaneously.Fertilizer must be pulverized, sprinkle evenly, and ploughs under in soil after spreading.
(6) spray herbicide
For preventing weeds propagation and widespread in the future, within about 20 days before littering, spray chemical herbicide penta sodium pentachlorophenate, every mu of 1-2kg, or spray 2,4 – D butyl esters, every mu of consumption 100-250 gram.
(7) roll extrusion, repair, water
After the smooth cleaning of soil scarifying, then carry out a roll extrusion, finishing, and fully water, allow native sedimentation, lawn of just can planting at least two days later.
(8) to plant lawn
1, tall fescue turf adopts seeding method.
2, the Bermuda in mixed lawn adopts and completely spreads laying method:
In advance turf is cut into the length of side and be about 30cm, the square careless block of thick about 3-4cm, block-by-block is paved with whole lawn planting ground.About 2cm gap to be stayed between each divot.Bian Pu limit is suppressed, and makes careless block and soil close contact.
After completing divot, using wooden instrument lightly, pat equably, with fixing lawn, and filling up careless block gap with drying fine ground garden mould.Go height to fill out in time to irregular plot low, keep whole planting-site grass face smooth, then water permeable, after 2-3 days, carry out roll extrusion again.
Later roll extrusion of once watering week about, until careless block flattens completely.When littering, as on careless block with a small amount of weeds, choose clean immediately.As weeds are too much, then eliminate.
(9) trimming fertilising
Lawn edge often uses the flat board shovel of bead cutter or crescent shovel, skewer turf, is trimmed on careless limit.During trimming, must cut sth. askew, degree of depth 10-15cm, makes lawn and flower bed, the division is clearly demarcated for tree altar, is also convenient to draining.
After new paving green returning of lawn, enrich a urea nitrogenous fertilizer, every mu of consumption 8-10kg.
Effect example 1
Feng huangshan Mountain Ecological Restoration Project
Be positioned at East Lake, Wuhan City new and high-tech development zone, project is taken up an area total and amasss about 600,000 square metres, wherein breakage mountain body floor space 300,000 square metres.Most High aititude 117m, minimum height above sea level 23m, discrepancy in elevation 94m.Massif slope change scope is large, and between 10 ~ 90 degree, mountain shape is comparatively precipitous, shows and uneven.Because field geology structural stability is poor, the gradient is precipitous, and vegetation is rare, and severe water and soil erosion, completes restoration of the ecosystem and have sizable difficulty.Between year June in June, 2008 to 2019, repair with the filler of breakage mountain body restoration of the ecosystem provided by the present invention and method, respond well, in improving urban environment, soil and water conservation, water conservation etc., ecological benefits are remarkable.
Effect example 2
Ling Jia mountain Ecological Restoration Project
Ling Jiashan is positioned at wuchang, wuhan district, and in east-west, be continuous 3 kms.Average height is about 20-30 rice.The massif gross area is 280,000 square metres, and wherein breakage mountain body floor space is about 170,000 square metres.Because Ling Jia mountain massif utilizes the time long, cause this area's geologic structure poor stability, the gradient is precipitous, soil compaction, and ecological use effect is low, and the rare kind of vegetation is few.Between year March in March, 2009 to 2010, repair with the filler of breakage mountain body restoration of the ecosystem provided by the present invention and method, respond well, improving, ecological benefits in urban environment, soil and water conservation, water conservation etc. are aobvious.
Effect example 3
Iron dustpan mountain Ecological Restoration Project
Iron dustpan mountain Ecological Restoration Project is positioned at East Lake, Wuhan City new and high-tech development zone, and project floor space totally 38 ten thousand square metres, wherein breakage mountain body floor space is about 130,000 square metres.Iron dustpan mountain massif badly broken, after long-term utilization exploitation, physical features is rugged, and mountain shape is precipitous, and vegetative coverage is few, and reparation difficulty is large.Between year October in October, 2008 to 2009, repair with the filler of breakage mountain body restoration of the ecosystem provided by the present invention and method, carried out breakage mountain body arbor and planted, make zonality arbor survival rate more than 98%.It is respond well that later stage reaches ecological recovery, defines the stable structure of community based on zonal vegetation, implements vegetation coverage after 3 years and reach more than 95%.
The foregoing is only better embodiment of the present invention, not in order to limit the present invention, within the spirit and principles in the present invention all, any amendment done, equivalent replacement, improvement etc., all should be included within protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (8)

1. a filler for breakage mountain body restoration of the ecosystem, is characterized in that: comprise building waste layer from bottom to top, the mixed layer of building waste Ji Hehu road mud, plantation soil layer.
2. the filler of breakage mountain body restoration of the ecosystem according to claim 1, is characterized in that: the volume ratio of the mixed layer of described building waste layer and described building waste Ji Hehu road mud is 3:1 ~ 1:1.
3. the filler of breakage mountain body restoration of the ecosystem according to claim 1 and 2, is characterized in that: in the mixed layer of described building waste Ji Hehu road mud, the volume ratio of building waste and He Hu road mud is 2:1 ~ 1:1.
4. a method for breakage mountain body restoration of the ecosystem, is characterized in that, comprises the following steps:
1) to repair the hole, mountain of filler landfill breakage mountain body;
2) to plant trees or lawn on the plantation soil layer repairing filler;
Wherein, described reparation filler comprises building waste layer, the mixed layer of building waste Ji Hehu road mud, plantation soil layer from bottom to top.
5. the method for breakage mountain body restoration of the ecosystem according to claim 4, is characterized in that, in described reparation filler: the volume ratio of the mixed layer of described building waste layer and described building waste Ji Hehu road mud is 3:1 ~ 1:1.
6. the method for breakage mountain body restoration of the ecosystem according to claim 4, is characterized in that, in described reparation filler: in the mixed layer of described building waste Ji Hehu road mud, the volume ratio of building waste and He Hu road mud is 2:1 ~ 1:1.
7., according to the method for the arbitrary described breakage mountain body restoration of the ecosystem of claim 4 to 6, it is characterized in that: the kind of described trees is aiphyllium, deciduous tree or shrub.
8., according to the method for the arbitrary described breakage mountain body restoration of the ecosystem of claim 4 to 6, it is characterized in that: when plant soil layer plants trees time, planting soil layer thickness is more than or equal to 1 meter; When planting turf plant on soil layer, planting soil layer thickness is 0.3 meter.
CN201510116204.6A 2015-03-17 2015-03-17 Filler and method for ecologically repairing damaged mountain Pending CN104762946A (en)

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Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN105875265A (en) * 2016-04-21 2016-08-24 江苏工程职业技术学院 Preparation and construction process of gap soil for high-survival-rate afforestation planting
CN107152073A (en) * 2017-06-09 2017-09-12 张诒治 A kind of method that utilization rubbish repairs deserted mountain
CN110972888A (en) * 2019-12-16 2020-04-10 河海大学 Method for preparing porous vegetation solidified soil by utilizing sludge and construction waste

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CN202185450U (en) * 2011-06-02 2012-04-11 青岛正友砼业集团有限公司 Automatic production system for using building rubbishes to regenerate greening and planting soil
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Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN105875265A (en) * 2016-04-21 2016-08-24 江苏工程职业技术学院 Preparation and construction process of gap soil for high-survival-rate afforestation planting
CN107152073A (en) * 2017-06-09 2017-09-12 张诒治 A kind of method that utilization rubbish repairs deserted mountain
CN110972888A (en) * 2019-12-16 2020-04-10 河海大学 Method for preparing porous vegetation solidified soil by utilizing sludge and construction waste

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