CN109673195A - A method of for muddy coast saline land greening and restoration of the ecosystem - Google Patents

A method of for muddy coast saline land greening and restoration of the ecosystem Download PDF

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Publication number
CN109673195A
CN109673195A CN201910032761.8A CN201910032761A CN109673195A CN 109673195 A CN109673195 A CN 109673195A CN 201910032761 A CN201910032761 A CN 201910032761A CN 109673195 A CN109673195 A CN 109673195A
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soil
tree
ecosystem
restoration
species
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Inventor
张建锋
吴统贵
单奇华
孙士咏
陈光才
汪庆兵
王荣嘉
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Research Institute of Subtropical Forestry of Chinese Academy of Forestry
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Research Institute of Subtropical Forestry of Chinese Academy of Forestry
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01BSOIL WORKING IN AGRICULTURE OR FORESTRY; PARTS, DETAILS, OR ACCESSORIES OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINES OR IMPLEMENTS, IN GENERAL
    • A01B79/00Methods for working soil
    • A01B79/02Methods for working soil combined with other agricultural processing, e.g. fertilising, planting
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/005Cultivation methods
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G20/00Cultivation of turf, lawn or the like; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/10Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in agriculture
    • Y02A40/22Improving land use; Improving water use or availability; Controlling erosion
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P60/00Technologies relating to agriculture, livestock or agroalimentary industries
    • Y02P60/40Afforestation or reforestation

Abstract

A method of for muddy coast saline land greening and restoration of the ecosystem, belonging to agronomy and ecological engineering technology field.It is comprised the following steps that: 1) on the spot being improved;2) Tree Species Selection;3) it plants trees;4) tending management.A kind of above-mentioned method for muddy coast saline land greening and restoration of the ecosystem, design is reasonable, muddy coast saline land greening and restoration of the ecosystem are carried out by this method, soil can effectively be improved, reduce soil salt content, by vegetation coverage, effectively change the primary herbal structure of community in muddy coast salt-soda soil and species diversity, promotes to study area protophyte into a new succession process;Be conducive to biometric safeguard diversity, promote the ecological functions such as water and soil conservation, water conservation, promotes coastal beautiful scenery construction.

Description

A method of for muddy coast saline land greening and restoration of the ecosystem
Technical field
The invention belongs to agronomy and ecological engineering technology field, and in particular to one kind for muddy coast saline land greening with The method of restoration of the ecosystem.
Background technique
China has more than 18000 kilometers of mainland coastline, and wherein muddy coast accounts for about 48.5%.Shale beach area by typhoon, The influences such as storm tide are big, and soil salt content is high, and fresh water is insufficient, and adaptation tree species are few, are all vegetation construction and afforestation in the whole world therefore The difficult point of greening.The exposed shale beach of large area not only causes natural resources to waste, but also landscape visual effect is bad, environment Pollution occurs often.In the uncontrollable situation of other conditions, by selecting suitable vegetable material to carry out afforestation and salt The restoration of the ecosystem of alkali ground, helps to improve the ecological environment, the beautiful coastal scenery of construction, Coordinate development Ecology Precedence and green hair Exhibition can either construct one of green screen for coastal area, and reinforced region restoration of the ecosystem is prevented and reduced natural disasters, and environment is improved;It again can be with Reserve land resources are provided, biomass energy is greatly developed, play guarantee facilitation for economic development;Meanwhile on edge Haiti area constructs scientific and reasonable Ecological safety pattern and is of great significance.
Summary of the invention
In view of the problems of the existing technology, it is an object of the invention to design to provide one kind for muddy coast salt-soda soil The technical solution of greening and ecological restoring method.
A kind of method for muddy coast saline land greening and restoration of the ecosystem, it is characterised in that including following work Skill step:
1) it on the spot improves: according to natural situations such as reproducing area soil, moisture, on the spot being improved, it is raw for standing forest construction and plant It is long to create suitable environmental condition;
2) Tree Species Selection: adaptation to local conditions selection is suitable for the tree species of local growth, and reasonably combined according to tree species Seasonal dynamics change feature Evergreen species and deciduous species carry out tree seed optimization configuration, are playing amelioration with protection forest, are reducing wind speed, check winds and fix drifting sand, conserve While water source, the ecological functions such as conserve water and soil, preferable ecoscape effect is built;
3) it plants trees: the high quality seedling of robust growth being selected to be transplanted, suitable Afforestation Time is spring;
4) tending management: nursery stock is reinforced after afforestation, is supported;Covered ground is carried out using cavings, hay, leaf;In time Watering, draining, weed with a hoe.
A kind of method for muddy coast saline land greening and restoration of the ecosystem, it is characterised in that the step 1) on the spot improve specifically: A) physically improved: weeding and site preparation, weeds after cleaning, which are ploughed under bottom as barrier layer, to be prevented from returning Salt;Rational deployment irrigation canals and ditches, fill out hollow lift ground, and lowering of watertable carries out the desalinization of soil by flooding or leaching, salt discharge, quickly reduces soil salt content, specifically Are as follows: 1. trench digging design: every 100 meters are a standard paragraphs, laterally one gutter of every 5 meters of settings, 40 × 30cm of specification;At interval of 50 meters are opened a longitudinal drainage ditch, 80 × 60cm of specification;2. landform is handled: prepartion of land is carried out according to actual landform, using opening The earthwork of ditch, because gesture appearance is made into turtleback, gives full play to draining effect in each piece of planting site, and soil moved in improve the original improvement utilizes crop land Surface soil carries out salt-soda soil soil moved in improve the original and improves reproducing area;B) chemical modifying: application chemically acid fertilizer calcium superphosphate, potassium dihydrogen phosphate With calcareous in activating soil, reduction soil pH value: C) biological modification: interplanting green manure increases decomposed manure, increases soil Permeability and covered ground measure, are used in mixed way with planting soil, cave bottom are placed on, as separation layer.
A kind of method for muddy coast saline land greening and restoration of the ecosystem, it is characterised in that the step 2) Tree Species Selection in specifically: based on xylophyta, evergreen, deciduous species collocation, tall shrub is combined;It is with indigenous tree Main body, Experiment in Introduction successfully external resistant wood species and leguminous plant.
A kind of method for muddy coast saline land greening and restoration of the ecosystem, it is characterised in that the step 3) it afforests method particularly includes: rationally determine kind of plant hole specification: 50 × 50 × 50cm of arbor, shrub: 40 × 40 × 40cm;Before afforestation Improve the soil: using soil moved in improve the original;2. 5 cave kg/ of cage chaff, organic fertilizer arbor: 5 caves kg/, shrub: 2.5 caves kg/ are applied in cave;It is appropriate close Plant: arbor species 2.5 × 2m of density, shrub species density are 1 × 1m;Appropriate surface planting is kept away along equal with ground on ball when field planting Exempt from too deep by salt damage;Evergreen species nursery stock sparse branching priming leaf in plant, to reduce moisture evaporation;It treads, sprinkles profoundly water after earthing.
A kind of method for muddy coast saline land greening and restoration of the ecosystem, it is characterised in that the step 4) tending management method particularly includes: plant seedlings rear protecting: first entering 1 m depth in soil to oblique cutting windward with bamboo pole, then using cloth Or fine cordage tightens, and trees is prevented to be linked to be an entirety with bamboo pole from shaking, then in the vertical and horizontal of the woods, it is anti-to enhance Wind energy power;Covered ground is carried out to nursery stock after afforestation: carrying out covered ground using rice chaff, plant straw pole or plantation ground cover plant, Soil moisture conservation humidification, improves the survival rate of trees;It loosens the soil in time, adds organic fertilizer or physiological acidic fertilizer;Liquid manure pipe is carried out after plant Reason and nursery stock protection, young growth management.
A kind of method for muddy coast saline land greening and restoration of the ecosystem, it is characterised in that the afforestation Vegetable material are as follows: arbor: horse-tail, Luan Shu, Chinese scholar tree, soapberry, golden silk willow, tree-of-heaven, locust tree, glossy privet, evergreen Chinese wax, villus Chinese wax, middle mountain China fir, dry land willow, China tree, American elm;Shrub: Hibiscus hamabo, oleander, Chinese mahonia, false indigo, fructus lycii, Chinese tamarisk;Grass This: shamrock, alfalfa, Korea lawn grass, sesbania, clover, rye grass.
A kind of method for muddy coast saline land greening and restoration of the ecosystem, it is characterised in that the nursery stock It is required that robust growth, tree-like complete, no disease and pests harm, the nursery stock place of production belongs to same provenance;Nursery stock specification requirement: arbor diameter of a cross-section of a tree trunk 1.3 meters above the ground 2cm More than, height 2m or more, and there are hat widths;Shrub height 1~1.2m, hat width 0.6m or more;Soil ball specification: arbor is by the diameter of a cross-section of a tree trunk 1.3 meters above the ground 8 times, shrub press ground diameter 6 times of determining soil ball sizes.
A kind of above-mentioned method for muddy coast saline land greening and restoration of the ecosystem, design rationally, pass through this method Muddy coast saline land greening and restoration of the ecosystem are carried out, soil can be effectively improved, soil salt content is reduced, is covered by vegetation Lid rate effectively changes the primary herbal structure of community in muddy coast salt-soda soil and species diversity, promotes to study area's original Plant enters a new succession process;Be conducive to biometric safeguard diversity, promote the ecological function such as water and soil conservation, water conservation Can, promote coastal beautiful scenery construction.
Specific embodiment
Further illustrate the present invention with reference to embodiments.
Embodiment 1: a method of for muddy coast saline land greening and restoration of the ecosystem
1) on the spot improved first, specifically use physically improved, chemical modifying and biological modification, wherein A) physically improved: it removes Grass and site preparation, weeds after cleaning, which are ploughed under bottom as barrier layer, prevents the accumulation of salt in the surface soil;Rational deployment irrigation canals and ditches fill out hollow lift ground, reduce ground Lower water level carries out the desalinization of soil by flooding or leaching, salt discharge, quickly reduces soil salt content, concrete operations position: 1. trench digging design: every 100 meters are a mark Quasi- section, one gutter of lateral every 5 meters of settings, 40 × 30cm of specification;A longitudinal drainage ditch is opened at interval of 50 meters, specification 80 × 60cm;2. landform is handled: prepartion of land is carried out according to actual landform, using the earthwork of trench digging in each piece of planting site because of gesture appearance It is made into turtleback, gives full play to draining effect;Soil moved in improve the original improvement carries out salt-soda soil soil moved in improve the original using agro-farming ground surface soil and improves reproducing area; B) chemical modifying: application chemically acid fertilizer calcium superphosphate, potassium dihydrogen phosphate etc. are with calcareous in activating soil, reduction soil PH value;C) biological modification: interplanting green manure (sesbania, barley, shamrock etc.) increases decomposed manure, increases soil permeability And the measures such as covered ground (weeds, green manure cut to plough deeply after blueness and bury), it is used in mixed way with planting soil, cave bottom is placed on, as isolation Layer.
2) matching species with the site principle is followed, suitable for plant material is selected.Tree Species Selection: evergreen, fall based on xylophyta Leaf, tall shrub combine;Based on indigenous tree, the successful external resistant wood species of appropriate Experiment in Introduction.Nursery stock requires growth Healthy and strong, tree-like complete, no disease and pests harm, the nursery stock place of production belong to same provenance.Nursery stock specification requirement: arbor diameter of a cross-section of a tree trunk 1.3 meters above the ground 2cm or more, height 2m or more, and there are hat widths;Shrub height 1~1.2m, hat width 0.6m or more;Soil ball specification: arbor presses 8 times, shrub of the diameter of a cross-section of a tree trunk 1.3 meters above the ground By 6 times of determining soil ball sizes of ground diameter.Silvicultural material mainly has: arbor: horse-tail, Luan Shu, Chinese scholar tree, soapberry, spun gold Weeping willow, tree-of-heaven, locust tree, glossy privet, evergreen Chinese wax, Fraxinus velutina, middle mountain China fir, dry land willow, China tree, American elm;Shrub: Hibiscus hamabo, folder Bamboo peach, Chinese mahonia, false indigo, fructus lycii, Chinese tamarisk;Draft: shamrock, alfalfa, Korea lawn grass, sesbania, clover, rye Grass etc..
3) plant trees: planting technique is mainly: rationally determining kind of plant hole specification: 50 × 50 × 50cm of arbor, shrub: 40 ×40×40cm.Improve the soil before afforestation: using soil moved in improve the original;Cage chaff (2.5 cave kg/) is applied in cave, (arbor: 5 caves kg/ fill organic fertilizer Wood: 2.5 caves kg/).Rational close planted: arbor species 2.5 × 2m of density, shrub species density are 1 × 1m;Appropriate surface planting, field planting The upper edge Shi Genqiu is equal with ground, avoids too deep by salt damage (evergreen species necessary sparse branching priming leaf in plant, reduction moisture steaming Hair).
4) tending management: the after-poppet that plants seedlings support: first entering about 1 m depth in soil to oblique cutting windward with bamboo pole, then It is tightened with cloth or fine cordage, trees is prevented to be linked to be an entirety with bamboo pole from shaking, then in the vertical and horizontal of the woods, To enhance wind loading rating.Covered ground: using rice chaff, plant straw pole etc. or plantation ground cover plant (shamrock, sesbania) etc. into Row covered ground, soil moisture conservation humidification, can be improved the survival rate of trees.It loosens the soil in time, adds organic fertilizer or physiological acidic fertilizer such as Calcium superphosphate, potassium dihydrogen phosphate etc..
Test example 1:
This test is implemented in the Yuyao City town Si Men, is located at Southern Bank of Hangzhou Bay Ningshao Plain the north, on the north of Hangzhou Wan.The town domain gross area 66.3 km2, wherein 62.5 km of land-based area area2.Topography is flat in region, and topography is in hills-Plain-beach-from south to north Ocean step pattern, 3~5m of mean sea level.Soil has the great soil groups such as red soil, rice soil, moisture soil, solonchak, moisture soil and solonchak distribution It is the MAIN SOILS of coastal forest belt construction in bay alluvial plain.The town Si Men belongs to the maritime monsoon climatic region in subtropical zone, annual 16 DEG C of temperature, 39 DEG C of the highest temperature, -9.3 DEG C of the lowest temperature, 240 d of frost-free period or so;1300 mm of mean annual precipitation, throughout the year Cardinal wind is southeaster.In 1 year, since monsoon replaces, often there are the low temperature overcast and rainy day of spring and autumn, plum flood season Rainstorm Flood, summer The diastrous weathers such as arid, high temperature, typhoon, hail, strong wind and the sleet and snow ice in winter occur.Coastal Area of Northern tree cover Deficiency has been unable to meet people to the needs of ecology.The network of waterways is gathered in town, and river in length and breadth, has and faces Zhou Jiang, Ji Mei Qiaojiang, four pools Heng Jiang, five pool Heng Jiang, seven pool Heng Jiang, the road Tao Jialu Jiang Hexiejia river etc..
The construction of ecology of alkali saline land recovery project is implemented from 2008, completes 1.12 km so far2Area is built, just Step succeeds, and works well.There are the liberation pool, Qi Tangjiang, nine pool Heng Jiang, ten pools, five, 11 pool ecological shelter forest at present, leads to Cross the salt discharge of implementation trench digging, soil improvement, kind plant hole measures, survival rate and the storage rate such as improve the soil, foster after Tree Species Selection, kind all reach Higher level has been arrived, test block bio-diversity is improved and has been conserved water and soil, Water Conservation Capacity of Five, soil texture and physicochemical character Improved.Concrete measure is as follows:
1. tree arrangement: according to matching species with the site, it is evergreen combined with fallen leaves, tall shrub, with indigenous tree for main principle, utilize The investigation of saline-alkali tolerant indigenous tree and the adaptability investigation of exotic tree are as a result, select following tree species to plant chief species as first: Aiphyllium be glossy privet, horse-tail, middle mountain China fir, deciduous tree be Fraxinus velutina, locust tree, soapberry, tree-of-heaven, Chinese scholar tree, dry land willow, Golden silk willow, Koelreuteria bipinnata Franchet, China tree, American elm, shrub are oleander, Chinese tamarisk, Hibiscus hamabo, and draft (mainly makees green manure use) For sesbania, alfalfa, Korea lawn grass.Nursery stock requires the band ball nursery stock of robust growth, and the arbor seedling diameter of a cross-section of a tree trunk 1.3 meters above the ground is in 3~4 cm.Full While sufficient ecological functions, landscape effects different throughout the year has been built.
2. seedling quality: nursery stock requires robust growth, tree-like complete, no disease and pests harm, and the nursery stock place of production belongs to same provenance. Nursery stock specification requirement: arbor diameter of a cross-section of a tree trunk 1.3 meters above the ground 2cm or more, height 2m or more, and there are hat widths;Shrub 1~1.2m of height, hat width 0.6m with On;Soil ball specification: arbor is pressed 6 times of determining soil ball sizes of ground diameter by 8 times of the diameter of a cross-section of a tree trunk 1.3 meters above the ground, shrub.
3. improveing soil: 1) physically improved, weeding and site preparation, weeds after cleaning, which are ploughed under bottom as barrier layer, to be prevented The accumulation of salt in the surface soil.Rational deployment irrigation canals and ditches, fill out hollow lift ground, and lowering of watertable carries out the desalinization of soil by flooding or leaching, salt discharge, quickly reduces soil salt content.Specifically Design: 1. trench digging design: every 100 meters are a standard paragraphs, laterally one gutter of every 5 meters of settings, 40 × 30cm of specification;Every A longitudinal drainage ditch, 80 × 60cm of specification are opened every 50 meters.2. landform is handled: carrying out prepartion of land according to actual landform, utilize The earthwork of trench digging, because gesture appearance is made into turtleback, gives full play to draining effect in each piece of planting site.Soil moved in improve the original improvement, utilizes agro-farming Ground surface soil carries out salt-soda soil soil moved in improve the original and improves reproducing area.2) chemical modifying applies chemically acid fertilizer calcium superphosphate, biphosphate Potassium etc. reduces the pH value of soil with calcareous in activating soil.3) biological modification, interplanting green manure (sesbaniaSesbania cannabina Pers., barleyH. vulgare, vetchVicia sepium Linn.Or shamrockMedicago lupulina L.Deng), increase decomposed manure, increase measures such as soil permeability and covered ground (after weeds, green manure cut blueness Plough deeply and bury), it is used in mixed way with planting soil, cave bottom is placed on, as separation layer.
4. afforestation: planting technique is mainly: rationally determining kind of plant hole specification: 50 × 50 × 50cm of arbor, shrub: 40 ×40×40cm.Improve the soil before afforestation: using soil moved in improve the original, the every cave of kind plant hole backfills 50 kg of field soil;It is suitable to assist nursery stock to carry out transition It answers.Cage chaff (2. 5 cave kg/), organic fertilizer (arbor: 5 caves kg/, shrub: 2.5 caves kg/) are applied in cave, enhancing soil is penetrating Property, increase the content of organic matter.Rational close planted: arbor species 2.5 × 2m of density, shrub species density are 1 × 1m;Appropriate surface planting, Edge is equal with ground on ball when field planting, avoids too deep by salt damage (evergreen species necessary sparse branching priming leaf in plant, reduction moisture Evaporation).
5. tending management: (1) then bracket support uses cloth first with bamboo pole in the about 1 m depth into oblique cutting people's soil windward Item or fine cordage tighten, and trees is prevented to be linked to be an entirety with bamboo pole from shaking, then in the vertical and horizontal of the woods, anti-to enhance Wind energy power;(2) maintenance trees are fostered to have the laundering period to environment after plantation, this period reinforces its tending management, it appears outstanding It is important, is the key that greening success or failure, concrete measure is as follows :(a) covered ground utilizes rice chaff, plant straw pole etc. and plantation Ground cover plant (alfalfa, sesbania) etc. carries out covered ground, and the survival rate of trees can be improved in soil moisture conservation humidification;(b) trench digging row Water, Rational Irrigation are also beneficial to the elution of rainwater to solve salt water jacking caused by level of ground water height.According to " big Hydraulic pressure alkali, little Shui draw alkali " salt experience is controlled, to accomplish that heavy rain drains, light rain is poured water, and water will be irrigated disposably, could effectively be pressed down The soil accumulation of salt in the surface soil processed, guarantees that plant is frequently grown;(c) it loosens the soil in time, adds organic fertilizer " autochthonal bud, aerial root ", soil texture is good Good, the content of organic matter is abundant, and venting and water permeable performance is good, and root growth is rapid under conditions of water, fertilizer, air and heat are sufficient.Therefore under Rain or burning should loosen the soil in time after filling, and to keep moisture, can also reduce the accumulation of salt in the surface soil because cutting off hollow billet moisture evaporation due to;(d) 7 After month, high temperature and drought, the soil accumulation of salt in the surface soil is strong, and the effect of suppression salt can be played using the covering such as plant straw pole surface soil, but not lasting, Easily loss.Therefore by the way of planting ground cover plant or weed growth of keeping certain height, accomplish loess it is not outdoor be to mention A kind of very effective means of the survival rate of high trees.
6. afforestation effect: afforestation current year, forest survival rate minimum 65%, up to 100%;Afforestation its saliferous of second year Amount has been lower than with Farmland and wasteland soil;Soil pH value stablizes the land use pattern pair between 8.41~8.73 The influence of soil pH value is little;Under land use pattern the soil organism and total nitrogen content height be followed successively by proper order farmland, Forest land and wasteland, forest belt and wasteland organic matter and total nitrogen content initial stage relatively, but over time, forest belt and wasteland Organic matter and total nitrogen content gradually space out, show as forest belt higher than wasteland, forest belt can effectively improve the soil organism and Total nitrogen content, fertilizing soil;Experiment and demonstration woods is begun to take shape, and plant grew well, soil improvement action is obvious, and structure of community obtains To evolution;Plant survival rate is high, grows fine, and landscape effect is prominent, and saline land greening and restoration of the ecosystem work achieve preferably Ecological benefits.
It inspects for acceptance and files
It inspects for acceptance
The necessary well in advance afforestation planning and design scheme of unit of afforesting, could construct through the approval of forestry authorities, by supervisor portion Door inspects for acceptance to key operation, key link, and specific way is referring to GB/T 23231-2009 and GB/T 23235- 2009 rule executes.
It files
It is established after afforestation and manages archives, content includes reproducing area basic condition, seedling planting situation, result of inspecting for acceptance, disease pest Evil prevention and treatment, damaed cordition etc., execute referring in particular to GB/T 18337.3-2001.

Claims (7)

1. a kind of method for muddy coast saline land greening and restoration of the ecosystem, it is characterised in that comprise the following steps that:
1) it on the spot improves: according to natural situations such as reproducing area soil, moisture, on the spot being improved, it is raw for standing forest construction and plant It is long to create suitable environmental condition;
2) Tree Species Selection: adaptation to local conditions selection is suitable for the tree species of local growth, and reasonably combined according to tree species Seasonal dynamics change feature Evergreen species and deciduous species carry out tree seed optimization configuration, are playing amelioration with protection forest, are reducing wind speed, check winds and fix drifting sand, conserve While water source, the ecological functions such as conserve water and soil, preferable ecoscape effect is built;
3) it plants trees: the high quality seedling of robust growth being selected to be transplanted, suitable Afforestation Time is spring;
4) tending management: nursery stock is reinforced after afforestation, is supported;Covered ground is carried out using cavings, hay, leaf;In time Watering, draining, weed with a hoe.
2. a kind of method for muddy coast saline land greening and restoration of the ecosystem as described in claim 1, it is characterised in that The step 1) on the spot improves specifically: A) physically improved: weeds after cleaning are ploughed under bottom as barrier by weeding and site preparation Layer prevents the accumulation of salt in the surface soil;Rational deployment irrigation canals and ditches, fill out hollow lift ground, and lowering of watertable carries out the desalinization of soil by flooding or leaching, salt discharge, quickly reduces soil saliferous Amount, specifically: 1. trench digging design: every 100 meters are a standard paragraphs, laterally one gutter of every 5 meters of settings, specification 40 × 30cm;A longitudinal drainage ditch, 80 × 60cm of specification are opened at interval of 50 meters;2. landform is handled: carrying out soil according to actual landform It is smooth, draining effect is given full play to, soil moved in improve the original changes because gesture appearance is made into turtleback in each piece of planting site using the earthwork of trench digging It is good, salt-soda soil soil moved in improve the original, which is carried out, using agro-farming ground surface soil improves reproducing area;B) chemical modifying: application chemically acid fertilizer peroxophosphoric acid Calcium, potassium dihydrogen phosphate reduce soil pH value: C with calcareous in activating soil) biological modification: interplanting green manure increases and decomposed has Machine fertilizer increases soil permeability and covered ground measure, is used in mixed way with planting soil, cave bottom is placed on, as separation layer.
3. a kind of method for muddy coast saline land greening and restoration of the ecosystem as described in claim 1, it is characterised in that Tree Species Selection in the step 2) specifically: based on xylophyta, evergreen, deciduous species collocation, tall shrub is combined;With Based on indigenous tree, Experiment in Introduction successfully external resistant wood species and leguminous plant.
4. a kind of method for muddy coast saline land greening and restoration of the ecosystem as described in claim 1, it is characterised in that Step 3) the afforestation method particularly includes: rationally determine kind of plant hole specification: 50 × 50 × 50cm of arbor, shrub: 40 × 40 × 40cm;Improve the soil before afforestation: using soil moved in improve the original;2. 5 cave kg/ of cage chaff, organic fertilizer arbor: 5 caves kg/, shrub: 2.5 are applied in cave The cave kg/;Rational close planted: arbor species 2.5 × 2m of density, shrub species density are 1 × 1m;Appropriate surface planting, when field planting on ball Edge is equal with ground, avoids too deep by salt damage;Evergreen species nursery stock sparse branching priming leaf in plant, to reduce moisture evaporation;Earthing After tread, sprinkle profoundly water.
5. a kind of method for muddy coast saline land greening and restoration of the ecosystem as described in claim 1, it is characterised in that Step 4) the tending management method particularly includes: plant seedlings rear protecting: first entering 1 m depth in soil to oblique cutting windward with bamboo pole, Then it is tightened with cloth or fine cordage, trees is prevented to be linked to be an entirety with bamboo pole from shaking, then in the vertical and horizontal of the woods, To enhance wind loading rating;Covered ground is carried out to nursery stock after afforestation: carrying out ground using rice chaff, plant straw pole or plantation ground cover plant Face covering, soil moisture conservation humidification, improves the survival rate of trees;It loosens the soil in time, adds organic fertilizer or physiological acidic fertilizer;It transplants laggard Row water and fertilizer management and nursery stock protection, young growth management.
6. a kind of method for muddy coast saline land greening and restoration of the ecosystem as claimed in claim 1 or 2 or 3 or 4, Be characterized in that the Silvicultural material are as follows: arbor: horse-tail, Luan Shu, Chinese scholar tree, soapberry, golden silk willow, tree-of-heaven, locust tree, Glossy privet, evergreen Chinese wax, Fraxinus velutina, middle mountain China fir, dry land willow, China tree, American elm;Shrub: Hibiscus hamabo, oleander, Chinese mahonia, purple Fringe Chinese scholartree, fructus lycii, Chinese tamarisk;Draft: shamrock, alfalfa, Korea lawn grass, sesbania, clover, rye grass.
7. a kind of method for muddy coast saline land greening and restoration of the ecosystem as claimed in claim 1 or 5, feature exist Robust growth, tree-like complete, no disease and pests harm are required in the nursery stock, the nursery stock place of production belongs to same provenance;Nursery stock specification requirement: Arbor diameter of a cross-section of a tree trunk 1.3 meters above the ground 2cm or more, height 2m or more, and there are hat widths;Shrub height 1~1.2m, hat width 0.6m or more;Soil ball specification: Arbor is pressed 6 times of determining soil ball sizes of ground diameter by 8 times of the diameter of a cross-section of a tree trunk 1.3 meters above the ground, shrub.
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