CN111480528A - High-efficiency high-yield planting method for selenium-rich small tomatoes - Google Patents

High-efficiency high-yield planting method for selenium-rich small tomatoes Download PDF

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CN111480528A
CN111480528A CN202010336973.8A CN202010336973A CN111480528A CN 111480528 A CN111480528 A CN 111480528A CN 202010336973 A CN202010336973 A CN 202010336973A CN 111480528 A CN111480528 A CN 111480528A
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tomatoes
water
planting
temperature
fertilizer
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杨伟
王磊
王小炜
朱定祥
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Jiangsu Dede Health Industry Co ltd
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Jiangsu Dede Health Industry Co ltd
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for
    • A01G22/05Fruit crops, e.g. strawberries, tomatoes or cucumbers
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C21/00Methods of fertilising, sowing or planting
    • A01C21/005Following a specific plan, e.g. pattern
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G25/00Watering gardens, fields, sports grounds or the like
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01HNEW PLANTS OR NON-TRANSGENIC PROCESSES FOR OBTAINING THEM; PLANT REPRODUCTION BY TISSUE CULTURE TECHNIQUES
    • A01H1/00Processes for modifying genotypes ; Plants characterised by associated natural traits
    • A01H1/02Methods or apparatus for hybridisation; Artificial pollination ; Fertility
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05BPHOSPHATIC FERTILISERS
    • C05B7/00Fertilisers based essentially on alkali or ammonium orthophosphates
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05GMIXTURES OF FERTILISERS COVERED INDIVIDUALLY BY DIFFERENT SUBCLASSES OF CLASS C05; MIXTURES OF ONE OR MORE FERTILISERS WITH MATERIALS NOT HAVING A SPECIFIC FERTILISING ACTIVITY, e.g. PESTICIDES, SOIL-CONDITIONERS, WETTING AGENTS; FERTILISERS CHARACTERISED BY THEIR FORM
    • C05G3/00Mixtures of one or more fertilisers with additives not having a specially fertilising activity

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  • Life Sciences & Earth Sciences (AREA)
  • Environmental Sciences (AREA)
  • Botany (AREA)
  • Soil Sciences (AREA)
  • Chemical & Material Sciences (AREA)
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  • Genetics & Genomics (AREA)
  • General Health & Medical Sciences (AREA)
  • Developmental Biology & Embryology (AREA)
  • Health & Medical Sciences (AREA)
  • Pest Control & Pesticides (AREA)
  • Engineering & Computer Science (AREA)
  • Water Supply & Treatment (AREA)
  • Cultivation Of Plants (AREA)

Abstract

The invention discloses a high-efficiency high-yield planting method of selenium-rich small tomatoes, which comprises seed selection, seedling raising matrix, sowing, high-temperature shed closing, field planting, pollination and harvesting, wherein EM (effective microorganisms) consists of seven beneficial microorganisms including bacillus, acetic acid bacteria, bifidobacterium, lactic acid bacteria, saccharomycetes, photosynthetic bacteria, mycobacterium, actinomycetes, bacillus and rhizobium, and is used for synthesizing various physiological active substances such as amino acid, sugar, vitamin and the like, promoting the growth of crops, enhancing the metabolic function of plants, improving photosynthesis, promoting seed germination, early flowering, multi-fruiting and advancing the maturation period, so that the sugar content of cherry tomatoes can be increased by applying brown sugar fermentation EM fertilizer, thereby improving the taste, improving the yield and disease resistance of the cherry tomatoes, simultaneously improving the selenium content of the cherry tomatoes and improving the economic value of products.

Description

High-efficiency high-yield planting method for selenium-rich small tomatoes
Technical Field
The invention relates to a high-efficiency high-yield cultivation technology for selenium-rich small tomatoes.
Background
Selenium is one of essential nutrient elements for human body, and various diseases of the body are related to selenium deficiency, such as keshan disease, Kaschin-Beck disease, cancer, anemia and the like), but excessive selenium intake has toxic effect on the human body; research shows that selenium in food less than 0.05mg/kg causes selenium deficiency of human body; poisoning phenomena can be generated when the concentration is more than 3-5 mg/kg; the safe range is between 0.1 and 0.36 mg/kg. The food is the main source of selenium for human bodies, the selenium content of the food produced on the selenium-rich soil is high, and the selenium content of the food produced on the low-selenium soil is often low, so that the requirement of the human bodies cannot be met. The cherry tomato of the cherry tomato has strong adaptability, good resistance and good potassium fertilizer preference, contains 8 to 10 percent of sugar when the fruit is mature, is a limited growth type tomato with long harvesting period, and is widely cultivated in the original south America and the south North China. The tomato has rich nutrition and special flavor. Can be eaten raw, boiled, processed tomato paste, juice or canned. The tomato is rich in carotene, vitamin C and vitamin B complex, has rich nutrition and special flavor, and can be eaten raw, cooked, processed into tomato sauce, juice or canned in whole fruit.
Most of tomatoes planted by the traditional planting method in the prior art have serious plant diseases and insect pests due to the non-standard planting method, and the management mode does not cause the sour taste of mature fruits to be heavier, the quality is poor, and the yield is greatly reduced; in addition, the selenium enrichment can improve the added value of the product, and can supplement essential trace elements required by human body while enjoying delicious taste.
Disclosure of Invention
Aiming at the defects of the prior art, the invention solves the problems that: the high-efficiency high-yield planting method of the selenium-rich small tomatoes, which has the advantages of high yield, short maturation period and good taste, is provided.
In order to solve the problems, the technical scheme adopted by the invention is as follows:
a high-efficiency high-yield planting method for selenium-rich small tomatoes comprises the following steps:
s1, selecting seeds: selecting small tomato seeds with complete, healthy and mature surfaces, disinfecting the small tomato seeds by using a potassium permanganate solution, then washing the small tomato seeds by using flowing clear water, soaking the small tomato seeds in warm water, placing the small tomato seeds in a germination accelerating room after the seeds absorb enough water, and sowing the small tomato seeds for later use after the seeds are exposed to the white color;
s2, seedling culture medium: adopting 50-hole tray seedling culture, adding a ternary compound fertilizer, carbendazim wettable powder or thiophanate methyl wettable powder into each cubic meter of matrix, covering the matrix with a plastic film for 5-7 days, and exposing the matrix to the sun after the film is uncovered for use until the pesticide gas is exhausted;
s3, sowing: filling the substrate into a hole tray, putting 1 seed in each hole, then covering with nutrient soil, watering, controlling temperature and sunshine, and starting planting when the height of a seedling plant is 20-25 cm, the stem thickness is 0.8-1 cm, the leaf color is dark green, the leaves are thick and unfolded, the root system is developed, and no diseases or insect pests exist, namely the strong seedling standard is met;
s4, high-temperature greenhouse closing: in the high-temperature season of 7-8 months, ditching in the facility, spreading calcium cyanamide or urea, ridging, irrigating, covering the ground with a mulching film, covering the greenhouse film tightly, closing the greenhouse for 10-15 days, raising the temperature, sterilizing, ploughing, airing, and ridging;
s5, planting: selecting sandy loam for field planting, preparing soil in advance, and applying fertilizer; then, furrow preparation is carried out; double-row planting is carried out; the planting depth is based on the condition that the cotyledon is not buried; watering after field planting; water and fertilizer management, temperature control and pest control measures are carried out during the growth period of the tomatoes; in addition, the prepared brown sugar fermented EM bacterial fertilizer comprises the following components in parts by weight: the ratio of brown sugar, EM bacteria, chitin, monopotassium phosphate and water is 1: 1: 1: 3: 500-800 parts; spraying for three times in the tomato growth period; the first spraying is carried out 15 days before the color of the first cluster fruit is changed, the second spraying is carried out before the color of the third cluster fruit is changed, and the third spraying is carried out before the color of the fifth cluster fruit is changed;
s6, pollination: the yield and the quality of the tomatoes are improved in a bumblebee pollination mode;
s7, harvesting: the picking of the small tomatoes is completed within 2-3 days after the small tomatoes are ripe.
Further, in the step S1, after soaking the seeds in 800-1000 times of potassium permanganate solution for 10-12 min, washing the seeds with flowing clear water, placing the seeds in warm water at 28-30 ℃ for soaking for 6-8 h, after the seeds absorb enough water, cleaning the seeds, drying the excess water, ensuring the humidity with wet gauze, placing the seeds in a germination accelerating room at 25-30 ℃ until the seeds are white, and then sowing the seeds for later use.
Further, in the step S2, the ratio of the matrix components of the coconut coir, the peat and the perlite is 4: 5: 1, or 3: 6: 1, or 2: 7: 1; adding 1.5-2 kg of ternary compound fertilizer, 50% carbendazim wettable powder or 150-200 g of 70% thiophanate-methyl wettable powder into each cubic meter of matrix; the specification of the ternary compound fertilizer is as follows: n, P, K the proportion is: 20: 10: 20.
further, in the step S3, the substrate is placed in a plug tray, a hole puncher is used for punching, nutrient soil with the thickness of 0.5-1 cm is covered, the plug tray is placed indoors, the temperature before seedling emergence is controlled to be above 20 ℃, seedling emergence is carried out after 3-4 days, the temperature is reduced when seedlings are completely emerged and cotyledons are unfolded, ventilation is carried out in the daytime, the temperature is controlled to be 18-20 ℃, and the temperature is 10-12 ℃ at night; when true leaves appear in 3-5 days, in order to promote the growth of the true leaves and increase the temperature, the temperature is 22-25 ℃ in the daytime and 12-13 ℃ at night, and the temperature difference between day and night is kept at 10-12 ℃; keeping the illumination for 8-12 hours every day.
Further, in the step S3, water and fertilizer control is performed during the seedling raising period, the surface soil is easy to dry when the plug trays for seedling raising are cultivated by using the substrate, and the humidity of the plug trays is controlled to be 60-70% to ensure the normal growth of seedlings; when 3-4 leaves of the seedling are planted, diluting a humic acid water-soluble fertilizer by 800-1000 times, spraying the humic acid water-soluble fertilizer on the surface of the leaf, spraying the humic acid water-soluble fertilizer on the front and back surfaces of the leaf until the humic acid water-soluble fertilizer is sprayed on the leaf to drip water; watering is not carried out two days before planting, so that the seedlings show a little water shortage state.
Further, in the step S5, selecting sandy loam soil for permanent planting, which is convenient for irrigation and drainage, fertile in soil and good in ventilation and air permeability; soil preparation is carried out 5-7 days in advance, deep ploughing and fine harrowing are carried out, leveling and fine crushing are carried out, a base fertilizer mainly comprises organic fertilizers, and decomposed organic fertilizers are applied for 5-7 t/mu, 10-15 kg/mu of calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizers and 80-100 kg/mu of cake fertilizers; then, the ridge with the width of 100-120 cm and the height of 30-35 cm is formed, and the furrow width is 50 cm; reasonable planting is an important measure for capturing high yield; double-row planting is carried out, the plant spacing is 45-50 cm, and the row spacing is 50-60 cm.
Further, in step S5, the watering management method includes: the cherry tomatoes grow vigorously, the water and fertilizer demand is large, frequent additional fertilization and watering are needed, and the watering amount and the watering frequency need to be reduced in later-stage harvesting so as to prevent fruit cracking; therefore, watering at proper time and watering with small amount of water frequently; the fertilizer management method comprises the following steps: the cherry tomato has long growth period, and should be fertilized in addition to sufficient base fertilizer, when the 1 st ear of fruit begins to expand and the 2 nd ear of fruit bears fruit, each 667m2Applying 10-15 kg of organic water-soluble fertilizer along with water, and watering for 1 time every 10-15 days; and spraying the water-soluble yeast selenium fertilizer once every 10 days at the early flowering stage of the cherry tomatoes, wherein the fertilizer application concentration is 40-60 ppm, and the spraying times are 2-3.
Further, in step S5, the temperature control is specifically as follows: after field planting, keeping the temperature at 28-30 ℃ in the daytime and 18-20 ℃ at night, and promoting seedling revival; after seedling delay, keeping the temperature at 22-28 ℃ in the daytime and 14-17 ℃ at night, and ventilating and dehumidifying in time; the cherry tomatoes are sensitive to temperature in the flowering period, the temperature in the greenhouse in the flowering period is in the range of 16-34 ℃, and the flowering and development of the cherry tomatoes are influenced when the temperature in the greenhouse in the flowering period exceeds the range; in the fruiting period, the day-night temperature difference needs to be controlled to be about 10-12 ℃.
Further, in step S5, the pest control measures are specifically as follows: firstly, a physical prevention and control method is adopted, namely, an insect-proof net is used at a ventilation opening; secondly, yellow armyworm plates are used for trapping and killing aphid and whitefly pests in a greenhouse, and each 667m of yellow armyworm plates are used2Hanging 30-40 yellow pest sticking plates with the specification of 30cm by 40cm, wherein the plate bottom is 15-20 cm higher than the top of the plant; the natural enemies of the pests are used for predating mites, encarsia formosa and biological agents to control the pests; or the frequency vibration type insect killing lamp, the black light lamp and the high-pressure lamp are used for trapping and killing insects; or chemical control is adopted, the pesticide spraying is carried out in the absence of dew in the morning on fine days, the pesticide safety interval is strictly controlled, and the pesticide is used alternatively.
Further, in the step S6, the beehive is horizontally arranged on the rear wall of the greenhouse, the distance between the beehive and the ground is 1-1.5 m, and the distance between the beehive and the ground is 30-60 cm; covering with a carton board, and covering with a cotton quilt at night to prevent moisture; according to the flowering condition of the cherry tomatoes in the facility, a clean water source mixed with syrup is placed for the honeybees to absorb.
The invention has the advantages of
1. The EM bacteria comprise seven types of beneficial microorganisms including bacillus, acetic acid bacteria, bifidobacteria, lactic acid bacteria, saccharomycetes, photosynthetic bacteria, mycobacterium, actinomycetes, bacillus and rhizobium, and various physiological active substances such as amino acid, sugar, vitamin and the like are synthesized to promote the growth of crops, enhance the metabolic function of plants, improve photosynthesis, promote seed germination, early flowering, multi-fruit yielding and advance the maturation period, so that the sugar content of cherry tomatoes can be improved by applying the brown sugar to ferment the EM bacteria fertilizer, the taste is improved, the yield and the disease resistance of the cherry tomatoes are improved, the selenium content of the cherry tomatoes is improved, and the economic value of products is improved.
2. The invention strictly controls the temperature in the day and at night during sowing, and avoids the formation of high seedlings; according to the method, a high-temperature greenhouse closing measure is carried out before field planting, so that the whole field planting environment is low in bacteria, fertile and appropriate in temperature, and a foundation is laid for increasing the field planting yield; according to the invention, the water and fertilizer management of growth after field planting is strictly controlled, and the brown sugar is prepared to ferment EM bacterial manure for fertilization, so that the yield is greatly increased and the maturation period is shortened; according to the invention, bumblebee pollination is reasonably applied, the fruit setting rate of tomatoes is improved, the yield is improved, and the number of malformed fruits is reduced.
Detailed Description
The present invention will be described in further detail below.
Example 1
A high-efficiency high-yield planting method for selenium-rich small tomatoes comprises the following steps:
s1, selecting seeds: selecting small tomato seeds with complete, healthy and mature surfaces, disinfecting the small tomato seeds by using a potassium permanganate solution, then washing the small tomato seeds by using flowing clear water, soaking the small tomato seeds in warm water, placing the small tomato seeds in a germination accelerating room after the seeds absorb enough water, and sowing the small tomato seeds for later use after the seeds are exposed to the white color; soaking the seeds in 900 times of potassium permanganate solution for 11min, washing the seeds with flowing clear water, placing the seeds in warm water at 28 ℃ for soaking for 6h, cleaning the seeds after the seeds absorb enough water, spin-drying the excess water, using wet gauze to ensure the humidity of the seeds, placing the seeds in a germination accelerating room at 25 ℃ until the seeds are exposed to the white, and then sowing the seeds for later use.
S2, seedling culture medium: adopting 50-hole tray for seedling culture, adding ternary compound fertilizer, carbendazim wettable powder or thiophanate methyl wettable powder into each cubic meter of the substrate, covering with plastic film for 6d, and exposing in the sun after removing the film for use; the mixture ratio of the matrix components of coconut chaff, peat and perlite is 4: 5: 1; adding 1.7kg of ternary compound fertilizer and 150-200 g of 50% carbendazim wettable powder into each cubic meter of matrix; the specification of the ternary compound fertilizer is as follows: n, P, K the proportion is: 20: 10: 20.
s3, sowing: loading the matrix into a hole tray, placing 1 seed in each hole, then covering with nutrient soil, watering, controlling temperature and sunshine, and planting when the seedling height is 23cm, the stem thickness is 0.9cm, the leaf color is dark green, the leaf is thick and spread, the root system is developed, and no plant diseases and insect pests exist, namely the strong seedling standard is met; loading the matrix into a plug tray, perforating with a puncher, covering with 0.8cm thick nutrient soil, placing indoors, controlling the temperature above 20 deg.C before seed emergence, emerging for 4 days, reducing the temperature when seedlings emerge well and cotyledon is unfolded, ventilating in daytime, controlling the temperature at 18 deg.C, and controlling the temperature at 10 deg.C at night; after 4 days, in order to promote the growth of true leaves and increase the temperature, the temperature is 24 ℃ in the daytime and 12 ℃ at night, and the temperature difference between day and night is kept at 12 ℃; the illumination was maintained for 10 hours per day. Water and fertilizer control is carried out in the seedling raising period, the surface soil of a plug tray for raising seedlings is easy to dry when the plug tray for raising seedlings is cultivated by using a substrate, and the humidity of the plug tray is controlled to be 65% in order to ensure the normal growth of the seedlings; when 3 leaves of the seedling are planted, diluting the humic acid water-soluble fertilizer by 900 times, spraying the humic acid water-soluble fertilizer on the surface of the leaf, spraying the humic acid water-soluble fertilizer on the front and back surfaces of the leaf until the humic acid water-soluble fertilizer is sprayed to the leaf to drip water; watering is not carried out two days before planting, so that the seedlings show a little water shortage state.
S4, high-temperature greenhouse closing: in the high-temperature season of 7-8 months, ditching in the facility, spreading calcium cyanamide or urea, ridging, irrigating, covering the ground with a mulching film, covering the mulching film tightly, closing the greenhouse for 14 days, raising the temperature, sterilizing, ploughing, airing, and ridging.
S5, planting: selecting sandy loam for field planting, preparing soil in advance, and applying fertilizer; then, furrow preparation is carried out; double-row planting is carried out; the planting depth is based on the condition that the cotyledon is not buried; watering after field planting; water and fertilizer management, temperature control and pest control measures are carried out during the growth period of the tomatoes; in addition, the prepared brown sugar fermented EM bacterial fertilizer comprises the following components in parts by weight: the ratio of brown sugar, EM bacteria, chitin, monopotassium phosphate and water is 1: 1: 1: 3: 500-800 parts; spraying for three times in the tomato growth period; the first spraying is carried out 15 days before the color of the first cluster fruit is changed, the second spraying is carried out before the color of the third cluster fruit is changed, and the third spraying is carried out before the color of the fifth cluster fruit is changed; selecting sandy loam which is convenient to drain and irrigate, fertile in soil and good in ventilation and air permeability for field planting; preparing soil 6 days in advance, deeply turning and finely harrowing, leveling and finely crushing, applying 6 t/mu of decomposed organic fertilizer, 14 kg/mu of calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizer and 90 kg/mu of cake fertilizer on the basis of organic fertilizer; then, the furrow is finished into a furrow with the width of 110cm and the height of 32cm and the width of 50 cm; reasonable planting is an important measure for capturing high yield; double-row planting is carried out, the plant spacing is 48cm, and the row spacing is 55 cm. Further, in step S5, the watering management method includes: the cherry tomatoes grow vigorously, the water and fertilizer demand is large, frequent additional fertilization and watering are needed, and the watering amount and the watering frequency need to be reduced in later-stage harvesting so as to prevent fruit cracking; therefore, watering at proper time and watering with small amount of water frequently; the fertilizer management method comprises the following steps: the cherry tomato has long growth period, and should be fertilized in addition to sufficient base fertilizer, when the 1 st ear of fruit begins to expand and the 2 nd ear of fruit bears fruit, each 667m2Applying 13kg of organic water soluble fertilizer with water, and watering for 1 time every 12 days; and spraying the water-soluble yeast selenium fertilizer once every 10 days at the early flowering stage of the cherry tomatoes, wherein the fertilizer application concentration is 50ppm, and the spraying times are 3 times. Further, in step S5, the temperature control is specifically as follows: after planting, keeping the temperature at 28 ℃ in the daytime and 19 ℃ at night to promote the seedling revival; after seedling delay, keeping the temperature at 26 ℃ in the daytime and 15 ℃ at night, and ventilating and dehumidifying in time; the cherry tomato flowering phase is sensitive to temperature, the temperature in the greenhouse in the flowering phase is 29 ℃, and if the temperature exceeds the range, the flowering and the development of the cherry tomato are influenced; in the fruiting period, the day-night temperature difference needs to be controlled to about 11 ℃. Further, theIn step S5, the pest control measures are specifically as follows: firstly, a physical prevention and control method is adopted, namely, an insect-proof net is used at a ventilation opening; secondly, yellow armyworm plates are used for trapping and killing aphid and whitefly pests in a greenhouse, and each 667m of yellow armyworm plates are used2Hanging 35 yellow pest sticking plates with the specification of 30cm by 40cm, wherein the plate bottom is 18cm higher than the top of the plant; the natural enemies of the pests are used for predating mites, encarsia formosa and biological agents to control the pests; or the frequency vibration type insect killing lamp, the black light lamp and the high-pressure lamp are used for trapping and killing insects; or chemical control is adopted, the pesticide spraying is carried out in the absence of dew in the morning on fine days, the pesticide safety interval is strictly controlled, and the pesticide is used alternatively.
S6, pollination: the yield and the quality of the tomatoes are improved in a bumblebee pollination mode; the beehive is horizontally arranged on the rear wall of the greenhouse, the distance between the beehive and the ground is 1.3m, and the distance between the beehive and the ground is 50 cm; covering with a carton board, and covering with a cotton quilt at night to prevent moisture; according to the flowering condition of the cherry tomatoes in the facility, a clean water source mixed with syrup is placed for the honeybees to absorb.
S7, harvesting: the picking was completed within 3 days after the small tomatoes matured.
Example 2
The influence of different pollination modes on fruit setting rate, malformed fruits, seed number, single fruit weight and soluble solid content is tested.
2.1 protocol
The test group (bumblebee pollination group), the control group (hormone pollination group) and the 3 groups of vibration pollination are set in the test. The selected species are the same, the planting time is consistent, the air port of the plastic sunlight greenhouse is covered by a 40-mesh insect-proof net, the bumblebee flying escape and the external insects entering are prevented, and only the bumblebee pollinates. A random block design was used. Collecting fruits of a second cluster fruit in the full bearing period, randomly selecting 3 points in each group of test areas, 20 plants in each point and 60 plants in total, collecting plants as test data, using the collected plants as observation and test data, and averaging; and collecting and recording the fruit setting rate, malformed fruits, seed number, single fruit weight, soluble solid content and the like of the crops.
2.2 the results of the experiment are as follows
Treatment of Percentage of fertile fruit (%) Rate of malformed fruits (%) Fruit seed number (grain/fruit) Weight of single fruit (g) Soluble solids (%) Output per square meter of 10 square meters in residential area Per 667 square meters of yield
Pollination of bumble bees 92.37 7 78.42 29.37 9.05 23.98 1599.466
Hormone pollination 82.33 34.67 10.02 24.42 8.08 18.2 1213.94
Vibration pollination 88.47 18.24 60.38 28.06 8.62 20.47 1365.349
As can be seen from the table, bumblebee pollination can improve the fruit setting rate of the cherry tomatoes in the facility, increase the single fruit weight and the yield, reduce the malformed fruit rate and improve the soluble solid matter.
Example 3
The influence of different proportions of brown sugar fermented EM bacterial manure on fruit length, fruit width, single fruit weight, fruit shape index and soluble solid content is tested.
3.1 protocol
Experimental facility treatment 1, brown sugar: EM bacteria: chitin: potassium dihydrogen phosphate: water = 1: 1: 1: 3: 500, a step of; treatment 2, brown sugar: EM bacteria: treatment 3, chitin: potassium dihydrogen phosphate: water = 1: 1: 1: 3: 600, preparing a mixture; treatment 3, brown sugar: EM bacteria: chitin: potassium dihydrogen phosphate: water = 1: 1: 1: 3: 700 of the base material; treatment 4, brown sugar: EM bacteria: chitin: potassium dihydrogen phosphate: water = 1: 1: 1: 3: 800, four processes in total. The selected varieties are the same, the planting time is consistent, and a random block design is adopted. And (3) collecting fruits of the second cluster fruits in the full bearing period, randomly selecting 20 plants in each treatment group in the test area, and taking 60 plants as test data collection plants as observation and test data, and averaging.
3.2 the results of the experiment are as follows
Treatment of Fruit length Fruit width Fruit shape index Weight per gram of single fruit Soluble substance
Process 1 35.28 29.29 1.20 29.96 8.87
Treatment 2 33.83 29.12 1.16 27.14 8.23
Treatment 3 31.8 28.94 1.10 28.06 8.06
Treatment 4 31.48 29.16 1.08 28.64 8.65
From the customers above, the most suitable brown sugar fermentation EM bacterial manure is brown sugar: EM bacteria: chitin: potassium dihydrogen phosphate: water = 1: 1: 1: 3: 500, the weight of single tomato and the content of soluble solid can be improved, and the cherry tomato has rich nutrition and higher quality.
The above description is only for the purpose of illustrating the preferred embodiments of the present invention and is not to be construed as limiting the invention, and any modifications, equivalents, improvements and the like that fall within the spirit and principle of the present invention are intended to be included therein.

Claims (10)

1. A selenium-rich small tomato high-efficiency high-yield planting method is characterized by comprising the following steps:
s1, selecting seeds: selecting small tomato seeds with complete, healthy and mature surfaces, disinfecting the small tomato seeds by using a potassium permanganate solution, then washing the small tomato seeds by using flowing clear water, soaking the small tomato seeds in warm water, placing the small tomato seeds in a germination accelerating room after the seeds absorb enough water, and sowing the small tomato seeds for later use after the seeds are exposed to the white color;
s2, seedling culture medium: adopting 50-hole tray seedling culture, adding a ternary compound fertilizer, carbendazim wettable powder or thiophanate methyl wettable powder into each cubic meter of matrix, covering the matrix with a plastic film for 5-7 days, and exposing the matrix to the sun after the film is uncovered for use until the pesticide gas is exhausted;
s3, sowing: filling the substrate into a hole tray, putting 1 seed in each hole, then covering with nutrient soil, watering, controlling temperature and sunshine, and starting planting when the height of a seedling plant is 20-25 cm, the stem thickness is 0.8-1 cm, the leaf color is dark green, the leaves are thick and unfolded, the root system is developed, and no diseases or insect pests exist, namely the strong seedling standard is met;
s4, high-temperature greenhouse closing: in the high-temperature season of 7-8 months, ditching in the facility, spreading calcium cyanamide or urea, ridging, irrigating, covering the ground with a mulching film, covering the greenhouse film tightly, closing the greenhouse for 10-15 days, raising the temperature, sterilizing, ploughing, airing, and ridging;
s5, planting: selecting sandy loam for field planting, preparing soil in advance, and applying fertilizer; then, furrow preparation is carried out; double-row planting is carried out; the planting depth is based on the condition that the cotyledon is not buried; watering after field planting; water and fertilizer management, temperature control and pest control measures are carried out during the growth period of the tomatoes; in addition, the prepared brown sugar fermented EM bacterial fertilizer comprises the following components in parts by weight: the ratio of brown sugar, EM bacteria, chitin, monopotassium phosphate and water is 1: 1: 1: 3: 500-800 parts; spraying for three times in the tomato growth period; the first spraying is carried out 15 days before the color of the first cluster fruit is changed, the second spraying is carried out before the color of the third cluster fruit is changed, and the third spraying is carried out before the color of the fifth cluster fruit is changed;
s6, pollination: the yield and the quality of the tomatoes are improved in a bumblebee pollination mode;
s7, harvesting: the picking of the small tomatoes is completed within 2-3 days after the small tomatoes are ripe.
2. The method for planting the selenium-rich small tomatoes with high efficiency and high yield as claimed in claim 1, wherein in step S1, the selenium-rich small tomatoes are soaked in 800-1000 times potassium permanganate solution for 10-12 min, washed with flowing clear water, placed in warm water at 28-30 ℃ for soaking for 6-8 h, washed after the seeds absorb enough water, and dried to remove the excess water, wet gauze is used to ensure the humidity, and the seeds are placed in a germination accelerating room at 25-30 ℃ until the seeds are white and then sown for later use.
3. The high-efficiency high-yield planting method for the selenium-rich tomatoes as claimed in claim 1, wherein in the step S2, the ratio of the matrix components of coir, peat and perlite is 4: 5: 1, or 3: 6: 1, or 2: 7: 1; adding 1.5-2 kg of ternary compound fertilizer, 50% carbendazim wettable powder or 150-200 g of 70% thiophanate-methyl wettable powder into each cubic meter of matrix; the specification of the ternary compound fertilizer is as follows: n, P, K the proportion is: 20: 10: 20.
4. the method for planting the selenium-rich small tomatoes with high efficiency and high yield as claimed in claim 1, wherein in the step S3, the substrate is placed in a plug tray, a hole is punched by a puncher, the plug tray is covered with nutrient soil with a thickness of 0.5-1 cm, the plug tray is placed indoors, the temperature of the seeds before emergence is controlled to be above 20 ℃, the seedlings emerge after 3-4 days, the temperature is reduced when the seedlings emerge well and the cotyledons are unfolded, the ventilation is carried out in the daytime, the temperature is controlled to be 18-20 ℃, and the temperature at night is 10-12 ℃; when true leaves appear in 3-5 days, in order to promote the growth of the true leaves and increase the temperature, the temperature is 22-25 ℃ in the daytime and 12-13 ℃ at night, and the temperature difference between day and night is kept at 10-12 ℃; keeping the illumination for 8-12 hours every day.
5. The high-efficiency high-yield planting method for the selenium-rich small tomatoes as claimed in claim 1, wherein in the step S3, water and fertilizer control is performed in the seedling stage, the surface soil is easy to dry when the plug trays for seedling cultivation are cultivated by using the substrate, and the humidity of the plug trays is controlled to be 60-70% in order to ensure the normal growth of the seedlings; when 3-4 leaves of the seedling are planted, diluting a humic acid water-soluble fertilizer by 800-1000 times, spraying the humic acid water-soluble fertilizer on the surface of the leaf, spraying the humic acid water-soluble fertilizer on the front and back surfaces of the leaf until the humic acid water-soluble fertilizer is sprayed on the leaf to drip water; watering is not carried out two days before planting, so that the seedlings show a little water shortage state.
6. The method for planting selenium-rich small tomatoes with high efficiency and high yield as claimed in claim 1, wherein in step S5, sandy loam soil with convenient irrigation and drainage, fertile soil and good ventilation and air permeability is selected for permanent planting; soil preparation is carried out 5-7 days in advance, deep ploughing and fine harrowing are carried out, leveling and fine crushing are carried out, a base fertilizer mainly comprises organic fertilizers, and decomposed organic fertilizers are applied for 5-7 t/mu, 10-15 kg/mu of calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizers and 80-100 kg/mu of cake fertilizers; then, the ridge with the width of 100-120 cm and the height of 30-35 cm is formed, and the furrow width is 50 cm; reasonable planting is an important measure for capturing high yield; double-row planting is carried out, the plant spacing is 45-50 cm, and the row spacing is 50-60 cm.
7. The high-efficiency high-yield planting method for the selenium-rich small tomatoes as claimed in claim 1, wherein in the step S5, the watering management method comprises the following steps: the cherry tomatoes grow vigorously, the water and fertilizer demand is large, frequent additional fertilization and watering are needed, and the watering amount and the watering frequency need to be reduced in later-stage harvesting so as to prevent fruit cracking; so should be watered at proper timeWatering in small water service; the fertilizer management method comprises the following steps: the cherry tomato has long growth period, and should be fertilized in addition to sufficient base fertilizer, when the 1 st ear of fruit begins to expand and the 2 nd ear of fruit bears fruit, each 667m2Applying 10-15 kg of organic water-soluble fertilizer along with water, and watering for 1 time every 10-15 days; and spraying the water-soluble yeast selenium fertilizer once every 10 days at the early flowering stage of the cherry tomatoes, wherein the fertilizer application concentration is 40-60 ppm, and the spraying times are 2-3.
8. The high-efficiency high-yield planting method for the selenium-rich small tomatoes as claimed in claim 1, wherein in the step S5, the temperature control is as follows: after field planting, keeping the temperature at 28-30 ℃ in the daytime and 18-20 ℃ at night, and promoting seedling revival; after seedling delay, keeping the temperature at 22-28 ℃ in the daytime and 14-17 ℃ at night, and ventilating and dehumidifying in time; the cherry tomatoes are sensitive to temperature in the flowering period, the temperature in the greenhouse in the flowering period is in the range of 16-34 ℃, and the flowering and development of the cherry tomatoes are influenced when the temperature in the greenhouse in the flowering period exceeds the range; in the fruiting period, the day-night temperature difference needs to be controlled to be about 10-12 ℃.
9. The high-efficiency high-yield planting method of the selenium-rich small tomatoes as claimed in claim 1, wherein the pest control measures in the step S5 are as follows: firstly, a physical prevention and control method is adopted, namely, an insect-proof net is used at a ventilation opening; secondly, yellow armyworm plates are used for trapping and killing aphid and whitefly pests in a greenhouse, and each 667m of yellow armyworm plates are used2Hanging 30-40 yellow pest sticking plates with the specification of 30cm by 40cm, wherein the plate bottom is 15-20 cm higher than the top of the plant; the natural enemies of the pests are used for predating mites, encarsia formosa and biological agents to control the pests; or the frequency vibration type insect killing lamp, the black light lamp and the high-pressure lamp are used for trapping and killing insects; or chemical control is adopted, the pesticide spraying is carried out in the absence of dew in the morning on fine days, the pesticide safety interval is strictly controlled, and the pesticide is used alternatively.
10. The method for planting the selenium-rich tomatoes with high efficiency and high yield as claimed in claim 1, wherein in step S6, the beehive is horizontally placed on the rear wall of the greenhouse, the distance between the beehive and the ground is 1-1.5 m, and the distance between the beehive and the ground is 30-60 cm; covering with a carton board, and covering with a cotton quilt at night to prevent moisture; according to the flowering condition of the cherry tomatoes in the facility, a clean water source mixed with syrup is placed for the honeybees to absorb.
CN202010336973.8A 2020-04-26 2020-04-26 High-efficiency high-yield planting method for selenium-rich small tomatoes Pending CN111480528A (en)

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