CN111699932A - Green ecological planting method for cherry tomatoes - Google Patents

Green ecological planting method for cherry tomatoes Download PDF

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Publication number
CN111699932A
CN111699932A CN202010647320.1A CN202010647320A CN111699932A CN 111699932 A CN111699932 A CN 111699932A CN 202010647320 A CN202010647320 A CN 202010647320A CN 111699932 A CN111699932 A CN 111699932A
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China
Prior art keywords
fertilizer
plant
planting
soil
cherry tomatoes
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CN202010647320.1A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
张德楠
徐广平
滕秋梅
段春燕
陈霞霞
何成新
周颐荣
林立
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Guangxi High Tech Agricultural Industry Investment Co ltd
Guangxi Huasong Biotechnology Co ltd
Guangxi Institute of Botany of CAS
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Guangxi High Tech Agricultural Industry Investment Co ltd
Guangxi Huasong Biotechnology Co ltd
Guangxi Institute of Botany of CAS
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Priority to CN202010647320.1A priority Critical patent/CN111699932A/en
Publication of CN111699932A publication Critical patent/CN111699932A/en
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for
    • A01G22/05Fruit crops, e.g. strawberries, tomatoes or cucumbers
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C21/00Methods of fertilising, sowing or planting
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01NPRESERVATION OF BODIES OF HUMANS OR ANIMALS OR PLANTS OR PARTS THEREOF; BIOCIDES, e.g. AS DISINFECTANTS, AS PESTICIDES OR AS HERBICIDES; PEST REPELLANTS OR ATTRACTANTS; PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS
    • A01N43/00Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds
    • A01N43/02Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds having rings with one or more oxygen or sulfur atoms as the only ring hetero atoms
    • A01N43/04Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds having rings with one or more oxygen or sulfur atoms as the only ring hetero atoms with one hetero atom
    • A01N43/06Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds having rings with one or more oxygen or sulfur atoms as the only ring hetero atoms with one hetero atom five-membered rings
    • A01N43/12Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds having rings with one or more oxygen or sulfur atoms as the only ring hetero atoms with one hetero atom five-membered rings condensed with a carbocyclic ring
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01NPRESERVATION OF BODIES OF HUMANS OR ANIMALS OR PLANTS OR PARTS THEREOF; BIOCIDES, e.g. AS DISINFECTANTS, AS PESTICIDES OR AS HERBICIDES; PEST REPELLANTS OR ATTRACTANTS; PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS
    • A01N43/00Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds
    • A01N43/90Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds having two or more relevant hetero rings, condensed among themselves or with a common carbocyclic ring system
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01NPRESERVATION OF BODIES OF HUMANS OR ANIMALS OR PLANTS OR PARTS THEREOF; BIOCIDES, e.g. AS DISINFECTANTS, AS PESTICIDES OR AS HERBICIDES; PEST REPELLANTS OR ATTRACTANTS; PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS
    • A01N45/00Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators, containing compounds having three or more carbocyclic rings condensed among themselves, at least one ring not being a six-membered ring
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05FORGANIC FERTILISERS NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C05B, C05C, e.g. FERTILISERS FROM WASTE OR REFUSE
    • C05F5/00Fertilisers from distillery wastes, molasses, vinasses, sugar plant or similar wastes or residues, e.g. from waste originating from industrial processing of raw material of agricultural origin or derived products thereof
    • C05F5/002Solid waste from mechanical processing of material, e.g. seed coats, olive pits, almond shells, fruit residue, rice hulls
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05GMIXTURES OF FERTILISERS COVERED INDIVIDUALLY BY DIFFERENT SUBCLASSES OF CLASS C05; MIXTURES OF ONE OR MORE FERTILISERS WITH MATERIALS NOT HAVING A SPECIFIC FERTILISING ACTIVITY, e.g. PESTICIDES, SOIL-CONDITIONERS, WETTING AGENTS; FERTILISERS CHARACTERISED BY THEIR FORM
    • C05G3/00Mixtures of one or more fertilisers with additives not having a specially fertilising activity
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05GMIXTURES OF FERTILISERS COVERED INDIVIDUALLY BY DIFFERENT SUBCLASSES OF CLASS C05; MIXTURES OF ONE OR MORE FERTILISERS WITH MATERIALS NOT HAVING A SPECIFIC FERTILISING ACTIVITY, e.g. PESTICIDES, SOIL-CONDITIONERS, WETTING AGENTS; FERTILISERS CHARACTERISED BY THEIR FORM
    • C05G3/00Mixtures of one or more fertilisers with additives not having a specially fertilising activity
    • C05G3/60Biocides or preservatives, e.g. disinfectants, pesticides or herbicides; Pest repellants or attractants
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05GMIXTURES OF FERTILISERS COVERED INDIVIDUALLY BY DIFFERENT SUBCLASSES OF CLASS C05; MIXTURES OF ONE OR MORE FERTILISERS WITH MATERIALS NOT HAVING A SPECIFIC FERTILISING ACTIVITY, e.g. PESTICIDES, SOIL-CONDITIONERS, WETTING AGENTS; FERTILISERS CHARACTERISED BY THEIR FORM
    • C05G3/00Mixtures of one or more fertilisers with additives not having a specially fertilising activity
    • C05G3/80Soil conditioners
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P60/00Technologies relating to agriculture, livestock or agroalimentary industries
    • Y02P60/20Reduction of greenhouse gas [GHG] emissions in agriculture, e.g. CO2
    • Y02P60/21Dinitrogen oxide [N2O], e.g. using aquaponics, hydroponics or efficiency measures

Abstract

The invention discloses a green ecological planting method of cherry tomatoes, and belongs to the technical field of crop planting. The method comprises the following steps: 1) land preparation: uniformly spreading a specially prepared pre-ploughing fertilizer on the surface soil of the planting field, then deeply ploughing the soil, and covering a film after watering thoroughly; 2) ridging: applying compound microbial fertilizer in the planting holes on the ridges; 3) planting; 4) pruning; 5) management: spraying a liquid spray and applying a root irrigation nutrient solution once every certain time during the growth period of a plant, wherein the liquid spray comprises a foliar fertilizer, a biological shield I and a biological shield II, and the root irrigation nutrient solution is a golden water soil black and white liquid; each plant retains 7-8 robust flower ears, and each ear retains 5-6 good fruit; and spraying a plant growth regulator after the plant blooms and before the plant fruits. The method provided by the invention can ensure that the yield of the cherry tomatoes is not reduced basically, meanwhile, the quality of the cherry tomatoes is improved obviously, and the fertilizer cost is low.

Description

Green ecological planting method for cherry tomatoes
Technical Field
The invention relates to crop planting, in particular to a green ecological planting method of cherry tomatoes.
Background
The cherry tomato is a dual-purpose food of fruits and vegetables, has small fruit shape, is similar to cherry, has rich pulp, fresh and sweet taste, unique flavor and rich nutrition, also has the effects of promoting the production of body fluid to quench thirst, clearing away heat and toxic materials, invigorating stomach and promoting digestion and the like, and becomes a novel fruit in countries and regions such as Europe and America, Japan and the like in recent years.
The cherry tomatoes are annual herbaceous plants, are suitable for being planted in soil with strong illumination and deep soil layers, and are preferably cultivated in soil with rich organic matters, deep ploughing layers, good structure, looseness and ventilation. According to the traditional cherry tomato greenhouse cultivation technology, due to the fact that various pathogenic bacteria are continuously accumulated in soil in the planting process in successive years, continuous cropping obstacles occur, the yield is seriously affected, the quality is also reduced, and if pesticides are adopted for killing insects, the problem of pesticide residue exists. In addition, the existing cherry tomato planting technology not only increases the production cost due to long-term single and excessive application of the chemical fertilizer, but also causes soil acidification and salinization, reduction of organic matter content, soil fertility and trace element attenuation, soil erosion and hardening, and seriously affects the growth, yield and quality of crops. The excessive fertilization or the too dense fertilization time influences the yield and the quality of the cherry tomatoes.
The invention patent with publication number CN108235932A discloses a cultivation method capable of obtaining green organic cherry tomatoes, which adopts decomposed organic matrix to provide sufficient nutrients for the cherry tomatoes, and adopts red-blue mixed light irradiation to promote the growth of the cherry tomatoes and increase the sweetness of the cherry tomatoes; the problem of pesticide residue is solved by regularly spraying the traditional Chinese medicine decoction to prevent and control plant diseases and insect pests, so that the green organic cherry tomatoes are obtained. However, this method requires irradiation with red-blue mixed light every day, and requires a time of 8 hours or more, which is expensive. The invention patent of publication No. CN108739128A discloses a cherry tomato planting method, which solves the problems of poor quality and low yield of cherry tomatoes caused by fruit type deformity existing in current planting by specifically limiting each step from seed selection to pruning, and analyzes the influence of sowing of various varieties on cherry tomato malformation rate, cherry tomato soluble sugar, soluble protein and total yield at different periods, but does not limit the manner of applying fertilizer before planting and controlling pests during plant growth.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to provide a green ecological planting method for cherry tomatoes, which has the advantages that the yield is basically not reduced, the product quality is obviously improved and the fertilizer cost is low compared with the conventional planting method.
In order to solve the technical problems, the invention adopts the following technical scheme:
a green ecological planting method of cherry tomatoes comprises the following steps:
1) land preparation: uniformly spreading a pre-ploughing fertilizer on the surface soil of the planting field, then deeply ploughing the soil, and covering a film after thoroughly watering; the types and application standards of the pre-ploughing fertilizer are as follows: 35-45 kg/mu of gold soil enzyme, 180-250 kg/mu of rice bran powder and 150-180 kg/mu of composite microbial fertilizer;
2) ridging: lifting the film and making beds, digging two rows of planting holes on each bed, and applying 80-100 g of compound microbial fertilizer into each planting hole;
3) planting: transplanting cherry tomato seedlings into planting holes, covering roots with soil, and watering after transplanting is finished;
4) pruning: erecting a support shaped like a Chinese character tian when the support needs to be built; when the plant height of the plant is lower than or equal to 40cm, only the trunk is reserved, and all the lateral branches are removed; when the plant height of the plant exceeds 40cm, the lateral branches under the first inflorescence and the second inflorescence are remained except the main stem, and the rest lateral branches are completely removed;
5) management: spraying a liquid spray and applying a root irrigation nutrient solution once every certain time during the growth period of a plant, wherein the liquid spray comprises a foliar fertilizer, a biological shield I and a biological shield II, and the root irrigation nutrient solution is a golden water soil black and white liquid; each plant retains 7-8 robust flower ears, and each ear retains 5-6 good fruit; and spraying a plant growth regulator after the plant blooms and before the plant fruits.
In the step 1) of the method, the selection of the planting land is the same as that of the prior art, and particularly, the ventilating, sunny and deep soil layer land with good drainage is selected as the cherry tomato planting land. The pre-tillage fertilizer is prepared by uniformly mixing various fertilizers and then uniformly spreading the mixed fertilizers on the surface soil of a planting field, and the types and application standards of the pre-tillage fertilizer are preferably as follows: 40 kg/mu of golden soil ferment, 200 kg/mu of rice bran powder and 160 kg/mu of compound microbial fertilizer. And deeply ploughing the soil after fertilizer application before ploughing is finished, wherein the ploughing depth is preferably more than 30cm, and after ploughing is finished, covering the film for preferably 10-20 days, and more preferably 15 days.
In the step 2) of the method, the ridge making operation is the same as that in the prior art, specifically, ridges with the height of 40-50 cm and the width of 100-120 cm are made, black films are covered on the ridges, and the ridge distance is preferably 30-40 cm; a double-row cultivation mode is adopted on the ridges, namely two rows of planting holes are dug in each ridge, the row spacing in each ridge is 40-50 cm, and the plant spacing is 40-45 cm. Before transplanting seedlings, 80-100 g of compound microbial fertilizer is applied to each planting hole.
In the step 3) of the method, the cherry tomato seedlings can be any variety of grafted seedlings, tissue culture seedlings or robust seedlings obtained by natural germination and growth of seeds. The height of the cherry tomato seedlings is usually 15-25 cm.
In the step 4) of the method, a frame is usually built when the plant grows to a height of 30-40 cm, and a vertical frame shaped like a Chinese character 'tian' is preferred in the application, and the method specifically comprises the following steps: inserting one bamboo rod with the length of 2-2.5 m into each plant, folding and binding 4 adjacent bamboo rods on each furrow into a frame, connecting the positions, which are 30cm, 90cm and 150cm away from the ground, of the bamboo rods on each frame by thin lines respectively, and tightly binding. When the plant height of the plant is lower than or equal to 40cm, only the trunk is reserved, and all the lateral branches are removed; when the plant height exceeds 40cm, the lateral branches under the first inflorescence and the second inflorescence are remained except the main stem, and the rest lateral branches are completely removed.
In the step 5) of the method, the liquid spray is sprayed and the root-irrigation nutrient solution is applied once every 10-15 days. The foliar fertilizer, the biological shield I and the biological shield II in the liquid spray can be mixed together for spraying, and according to common knowledge, the foliar fertilizer, the biological shield I and the biological shield II are diluted according to the instructions of the product before spraying, specifically, the foliar fertilizer is diluted by 300-500 times for use, the biological shield I is diluted by 200-500 times for use, and the biological shield II is diluted by 200-500 times for use. When the foliar fertilizer, the biological shield I and the biological shield II are mixed and sprayed, the mixing proportion of the foliar fertilizer, the biological shield I and the biological shield II is preferably 1: 0.5: 0.5 (volume ratio). The root irrigation nutrient solution is a golden water soil black and white liquid (composed of a black liquid and a white liquid), and is diluted according to the product use instruction before root irrigation, specifically, the black liquid and the white liquid are mixed in equal volume, water is added according to the amount of the black liquid to dilute by 200-300 times, and the mixture is stirred uniformly and then irrigated to the root part.
In the step 5) of the method, the plant growth regulator is sprayed for promoting flower bud differentiation and growth, so as to improve fruit setting rate and protect flowers and fruits, the selection is the same as that in the prior art, and the plant growth regulator is preferably selected from the benayakinic acid (the total effective component content is 3.6%, the benayakimine content is 1.8%, and the content of the gibberellic acid A4+ A7 is 1.8%). The spraying frequency is 3-5 times, and each time is 7-10 days.
In the step 5) of the method, old leaves below the harvested clusters are removed in order to improve the quality of the cherry tomatoes, enhance the illumination, promote the ventilation and prevent diseases.
In the method, the related gold-soil enzyme, the compound microbial fertilizer, the biological shield I, the biological shield II and the gold-water-soil black and white liquid are all commercially available products, and are preferably related products produced by ETS (Tianjin) Biotechnology development Limited.
As an improvement of the method, the organic fertilizer and the nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer are preferably applied for 1 time and 3-6 times during the growth period of the plants, so that the continuous growth of the plants and the fruit yield are guaranteed. The organic fertilizer is the same as the prior art, such as human excrement, stable manure, compost, green manure, cake manure or biogas manure and the like. The application standard of the organic fertilizer is preferably controlled to be 800-1000 kg/mu, and the fertilization time is usually 15-20 days after planting. The nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer is dissolved in water and then irrigated to roots in the form of aqueous solution, the application standard of the nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer is 12-20 kg/mu, and the fertilization timing is that the roots are irrigated once every 8-12 days or even longer from the beginning of field planting to the ripening of the first batch of fruits; when the nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer is prepared to the concentration of 0.02g/ml, the application amount of each plant is 50ml when root irrigation is carried out each time, so as to ensure the nutritional requirements of normal growth, flowering and fruit setting of the plants.
Compared with the prior art, the invention reasonably matches the fertilizer before plowing, applies a specific amount of compound microbial fertilizer before planting and combines the planting technical operation limited by each stage, on one hand, the combination of the fertilizer is utilized to ensure that secondary metabolites (such as hormone substances and the like) generated by the life activities of beneficial microbes per se increase the supply of plant nutrient elements, enhance the activity of the root system of the plant and the absorption area of the root system, improve the content of organic substances and quick-acting nutrients in soil, stimulate the growth of leaves, promote the absorption and utilization of the nutrient elements by the plant, and improve the nutrient status in the plant so as to greatly improve the indexes of soluble reducing sugar, carotene, sweetness, VC, VE and the like in fruits, and most importantly, the applicant finds that the content of nitrate in the fruits can be obviously reduced by adopting the fertilizer matching and the planting technical matching limited by the invention, the quality of the product is obviously improved. On the other hand, the reasonable selection and matching of the fertilizer also improves the physical and chemical properties and permeability conditions of the soil, reduces the acidification and salinization of the soil and lightens the harm of diseases and pests to plants. Moreover, the reasonable matching of the fertilizer in the method effectively reduces the fertilizer cost under the condition of ensuring that the yield of crops is not reduced basically.
Detailed Description
The present invention will be better understood from the following detailed description of specific examples, which should not be construed as limiting the scope of the present invention.
The soil enzyme, the compound microbial fertilizer, the biogenic shield I, the biogenic shield II and the Jinshui soil black and white liquid which are all produced by ETS (Tianjin) Biotechnology development Limited.
Example 1: the method of the invention
1) Land preparation: selecting a field block which is ventilated, exposed to the sun, deep in soil layer and good in drainage as a cherry tomato planting field; uniformly spreading a pre-ploughing fertilizer on the surface soil of the planting field, then deeply ploughing the soil, wherein the ploughing depth is 30-35 cm, thoroughly watering after ploughing, and laminating for 15 days; the kind and application standard of the pre-ploughing fertilizer are preferably: 40 kg/mu of golden soil ferment, 200 kg/mu of rice bran powder and 160 kg/mu of compound microbial fertilizer;
2) ridging: after the film is lifted, furrows with the height of 40cm and the width of 100cm are opened, black films are covered on the furrows, and the distance between the furrows is 40 cm; adopting a double-row cultivation mode on the ridges, namely digging two rows of planting holes on each ridge, wherein the row spacing in each ridge is 40cm, and the plant spacing is 40 cm; before transplanting seedlings, applying 90g of compound microbial fertilizer in each planting hole;
3) planting: taking 'pink' grafted seedlings (with the plant height of 15-25 cm) of cherry tomato varieties produced by Guangxi Hongkong vegetable seedling raising company Limited as cherry tomato seedlings, transplanting the cherry tomato seedlings into planting holes, covering the roots with soil, and watering after the transplanting is finished;
4) pruning: when the plant grows to the height of 30-40 cm, a support shaped like a Chinese character 'tian' is built, and the specific operation is as follows: inserting one bamboo pole with the length of 2-2.5 m into each plant, folding and binding 4 adjacent bamboo poles on each bed into a frame, connecting the positions, which are 30cm, 90cm and 150cm away from the ground, of each bamboo pole on each frame by using thin lines, and tightly binding; in the pruning operation, when the plant height of the plant is less than or equal to 40cm, only the trunk is reserved, and all the lateral branches are removed; when the plant height of the plant exceeds 40cm, the side branches (4 branches in total for each plant) under the first inflorescence and the second inflorescence are remained except the trunk, and the rest side branches are completely removed;
5) management: during the growth period of the plants, spraying the liquid spray once every 15 days and applying the root irrigation nutrient solution once, wherein,
the liquid spray consists of foliar fertilizers (imported courage-Zhuang-brand nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer, nitrogen: phosphorus: potassium being 14: 15: 10, produced by Xingnong pharmaceutical industry (China) Co., Ltd.), a biological shield I and a biological shield II, wherein the dilution multiple of the foliar fertilizers is 400 times, the dilution multiple of the biological shield I is 200 times, and the dilution multiple of the biological shield II is 200 times; when the foliar fertilizer, the biological shield I and the biological shield II are mixed and sprayed, the mixing ratio is 1: 0.5: 0.5 (volume ratio); the root irrigation nutrient solution is a golden water soil black and white solution, the black solution and the white solution are mixed in equal volume before root irrigation, water is added to dilute the black solution by 200 times based on the amount of the black solution, and then the root irrigation part is irrigated, wherein the root irrigation amount of each plant is 50-80 ml per plant; each plant retains 8 strongly growing spica, and each ear retains 5 fruits with good fruit bearing; spraying 3 times of benzalkonium gibberellic acid (the content of the total effective components is 3.6%, the content of benzylaminopurine is 1.8%, and the content of gibberellic acid A4+ A7 is 1.8%) after the plants bloom before fruiting, wherein each time interval is 7 days;
applying an organic fertilizer for 1 time and a nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer for 5 times during the growth period of the plants, wherein the application standard of the organic fertilizer is cattle stable manure, the application standard of the organic fertilizer is 1000 kg/mu, the application time is 20 days after field planting, the application method is to dig a ditch between two rows of plants on each ridge, fill the organic fertilizer into the ditch, and then cover the ditch with soil; 15 kg/mu of the application standard of the nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer (Shimapai nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer, 21: 8: 11, Belgium European chemical Anweipu company), wherein the fertilization time is 10 days after field planting, when a plant blooms and when the plant bears fruits, the nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer is dissolved in water (the using amount of the water is 0.02g/ml) at the time of fertilization, the fertilization time is that the root irrigation is carried out every 10 days from the field planting to the first batch of fruit ripening, and the application amount of each plant is 50-80 ml at the time of root irrigation, so as to ensure the nutritional requirements of normal growth, blossoming and fruit setting of the plant;
during the growth period of the plant, the old leaves below the harvested cluster are removed.
Comparative example 1: conventional planting method
1) Land preparation: selecting a ventilated, sunny, deep-soil and well-drained land as a cherry tomato planting land (adjacent to the planting land of example 1); uniformly spreading a pre-ploughing fertilizer on the surface soil of the planting field, then deeply ploughing the soil, wherein the ploughing depth is 30-35 cm, thoroughly watering after ploughing, and laminating for 15 days; the kind and application standard of the pre-ploughing fertilizer are preferably: 1000 kg/mu of decomposed cattle manure, 200 kg/mu of rice bran powder and 160 kg/mu of compound fertilizer (Shimapai nitrogen phosphorus potassium compound fertilizer, 21: 8: 11 of nitrogen: phosphorus: potassium, European chemical antweipu company Belgium);
2) ridging: after the film is lifted, furrows with the height of 40cm and the width of 100cm are opened, black films are covered on the furrows, and the distance between the furrows is 40 cm; adopting a double-row cultivation mode on the ridges, namely digging two rows of planting holes on each ridge, wherein the row spacing in each ridge is 40cm, and the plant spacing is 40 cm; before transplanting seedlings, 50g of nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer (Shimama brand nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer, 21: 8: 11, Belgium European chemical antweipu) is applied to each planting hole;
3) planting: taking a 'pink' grafted seedling (with the plant height of 20cm) of a cherry tomato variety produced by Guangxi Hongkong vegetable seedling raising company Limited as a cherry tomato seedling, transplanting the cherry tomato seedling into a planting hole (the root of the plant is not in direct contact with a nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer), covering the root with soil, and watering after the transplanting is finished;
4) pruning: same as step 4 of example 1);
5) management: during the growth period of the plants, spraying the liquid spray once every 15 days and applying the root irrigation nutrient solution once, wherein,
the liquid spray consists of a foliar fertilizer (imported Yongzhang brand nitrogen phosphorus potassium compound fertilizer, nitrogen phosphorus potassium 14: 15: 10, produced by Xingnong pharmaceutical industry (China) Limited company), bacillus subtilis (the content of effective components is 100 hundred million CFU/g, the Shandong Sifengtian pesticide Limited company is used for sterilization) and tobag amino-oligosaccharide (the content of effective components is 3%, the Shandong Sifengtian pesticide Limited company is used for antivirus) (the bacillus subtilis and the tobag amino-oligosaccharide belong to chemical disease prevention and sterilization agents), the dilution multiple of the foliar fertilizer is 400 times, and the dilution multiple of the bacillus subtilis and the tobag amino-oligosaccharide is 200 times; the three components are mixed and sprayed, and the mixing proportion of the foliar fertilizer, the bacillus subtilis and the tobiken amino-oligosaccharin is 1: 0.5: 0.5 (volume ratio); the root irrigation nutrient solution is an aqueous solution (with the concentration of 0.02g/ml) of a nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer (Shimapai nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium are 21: 8: 11, and European chemical antweipu company, Belgium), and the root irrigation amount of each plant is 50-80 ml/plant; each plant keeps 8 branches of robust flower ears, and each ear is selected to keep 5 fruits with good fruit bearing; spraying benzalkonium gibberellic acid (the content of total effective components is 3.6%, the content of benzylaminopurine is 1.8%, and the content of gibberellic acid A4+ A7 is 1.8%) 3 times before fruiting after plants bloom, wherein each time interval is 7 days;
applying an organic fertilizer for 1 time and a nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer for 5 times during the growth period of the plants, wherein the application standard of the organic fertilizer is cattle stable manure, the application standard of the organic fertilizer is 1000 kg/mu, the application time is 20 days after field planting, the application method is to dig a ditch between two rows of plants on each ridge, fill the organic fertilizer into the ditch, and then cover the ditch with soil; the application standard of the nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer (Shimapai nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer, nitrogen: phosphorus: potassium: 21: 8: 11, Belgium European chemical Enterweipu) is 15 kg/mu, the fertilizer is applied by dissolving the compound fertilizer in water (the water dosage is 0.02g/ml of the nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer in the obtained solution) for root irrigation, the fertilizer application time is that the root irrigation is performed once every 10 days from the beginning of field planting to the maturation of the first batch of fruits, and the application amount of each plant is 50-80 ml during each root irrigation, so as to ensure the nutritional requirements of normal growth, flowering and fruit setting of the plants;
during the growth period of the plant, the old leaves below the harvested cluster are removed.
The components of ripe cherry tomatoes planted as described in example 1 and comparative example 1 were measured, respectively, and the results are shown in table 1 below; the inputs and outputs of the processes described in example 1 and comparative example 1 were also counted, respectively, and the results are shown in table 2.
TABLE 1
In Table 1, the vitamin C content was measured by 2, 6-DCPIP titration (Lijianwu, Xiaoneng, Yurui, et al. Biochemical test principles and methods [ M ]. Beijing: Beijing university Press, 1994, 302-; the detection of the content of the vitamin E is carried out according to GB/T5009.8-2003 determination of vitamin A and vitamin E in food; the content of titratable acid is determined by adopting an acid-base titration method (Von Shuangqing, Zhao Yumei, fruit and vegetable fresh-keeping technology and a conventional testing method [ M ]. Beijing: chemical industry publisher, 2001, 141-; the content of reducing sugar is detected according to GB/T5009.8-2003 'determination of sucrose in food'; the detection of the content of the crude ash is carried out according to G B5009.4-2010 determination of ash content in national food safety standard; the detection of the content of the crude protein is carried out according to GB 5009.5-2010 determination of protein in national food standard of food safety; sweetness was tested using a Japanese Atago PAL-1 sweetness tester. The experimental instruments included a Vario EL III elemental analyzer (germany), high performance liquid chromatograph (shimadzu 20A high performance liquid chromatography). The content of nutrient elements in the cherry tomatoes is expressed by the mass fraction of the elements in the fresh substances. )
As can be seen from the table 1, the quality of the cherry tomato fruits can be effectively improved by the method, and the content of nutritional components VC, VE, reducing sugar, coarse ash, coarse protein, carotene and the like in the fruits is greatly higher than that of the cherry tomatoes obtained by the conventional planting method; the sweetness is higher, and the mouthfeel is better; moreover, the content of nitrate in the cherry tomatoes obtained by the method is obviously lower than that of the cherry tomatoes obtained by the conventional planting method, so that the green organic cherry tomatoes can be obtained by the method, and the cherry tomatoes are healthier to eat.
Table 2:
as can be seen from Table 2, the total yield and total yield of the method of the present invention are slightly inferior to those of conventional planting methods, but the fertilizer cost in the method of the present invention is almost half of that of the conventional planting methods, and the net yield is almost equivalent to that of the conventional planting methods, so that the method of the present invention can save fertilizer components and labor cost greatly and reduce investment compared with the conventional planting methods.
Example 2
Example 1 was repeated except that:
in the step 1), the types and application standards of the fertilizer before ploughing are as follows: 35 kg/mu of golden soil ferment, 250 kg/mu of rice bran powder and 180 kg/mu of compound microbial fertilizer;
in the step 2), 80g of compound microbial fertilizer is applied to each planting hole before seedlings are transplanted;
in the step 5), the liquid spray is sprayed once every 20 days and the root irrigation nutrient solution is applied once.
Example 3
Example 1 was repeated except that:
in the step 1), the types and application standards of the fertilizer before ploughing are as follows: 45 kg/mu of golden soil ferment, 180 kg/mu of rice bran powder and 150 kg/mu of compound microbial fertilizer; the film covering time is 20 days;
in the step 2), the height of the ridge is 50cm, the width of the ridge is 120cm, and the distance between the ridges is 40 cm; adopting a double-row cultivation mode on the ridges, namely digging two rows of planting holes on each ridge, wherein the row spacing in each ridge is 50cm, and the plant spacing is 45 cm; (ii) a Before transplanting seedlings, 100g of compound microbial fertilizer is applied to each planting hole;
step 5) is carried out according to the following operations:
during the growth period of plants, spraying a liquid spray once every 18 days and applying a root irrigation nutrient solution once, wherein the liquid spray consists of foliar fertilizers (imported nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium compound fertilizers by courage and strong, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium are 14: 15: 10, produced by Xingnong pharmaceutical industry (China) Co., Ltd.), biological shield I and biological shield II, the dilution multiple of foliar fertilizers is 400 times, the dilution multiple of biological shield I is 200 times, and the dilution multiple of biological shield II is 200 times; when the foliar fertilizer, the biological shield I and the biological shield II are mixed and sprayed, the mixing ratio is 1: 0.5: 0.5 (volume ratio); the root irrigation nutrient solution is a golden water soil black and white solution, the black solution and the white solution are mixed in equal volume before root irrigation, water is added to dilute the black solution by 200 times based on the amount of the black solution, and then the root irrigation part is irrigated, wherein the root irrigation amount of each plant is 50-80 ml per plant; each plant retains 7 strongly growing spica, and each ear retains 6 fruits with good fruit bearing; 4 times of spraying benzalkonium gibberellic acid (the content of the total effective components is 3.6 percent, the content of the benzalkonium purine is 1.8 percent, and the content of the gibberellic acid A4 and A7 is 1.8 percent) before the plants bear fruits after blooming, wherein the interval of 7 days is formed every time;
applying organic fertilizer for 1 time and nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer for 6 times during the growth period of the plants, wherein the application standard of the organic fertilizer is cattle stable manure, the application standard of the organic fertilizer is 900 kg/mu, the application time is 18 days after field planting, the application mode is that ditches are dug between two lines of plants on each ridge, the organic fertilizer is filled into the ditches, and then soil is covered; the application standard of the nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer (Shimapai nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer, nitrogen: phosphorus: potassium: 21: 8: 11, Belgium European chemical antwerp company) is 20 kg/mu, the fertilizer is dissolved in water (the water dosage is 0.02g/ml of the nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer in the obtained solution) to be irrigated to the roots, the fertilizer application time is that the roots are irrigated once every 12 days from the beginning of field planting to the maturation of the first batch of fruits, and the application amount of each plant is 50-80 ml during each root irrigation so as to ensure the nutritional requirements of normal growth, flowering and fruit setting of the plants;
during the growth period of the plant, the old leaves below the harvested cluster are removed.

Claims (8)

1. A green ecological planting method of cherry tomatoes comprises the following steps:
1) land preparation: uniformly spreading a pre-ploughing fertilizer on the surface soil of the planting field, then deeply ploughing the soil, and covering a film after thoroughly watering; the types and application standards of the pre-ploughing fertilizer are as follows: 35-45 kg/mu of gold soil enzyme, 180-250 kg/mu of rice bran powder and 150-180 kg/mu of composite microbial fertilizer;
2) ridging: lifting the film and making beds, digging two rows of planting holes on each bed, and applying 80-100 g of compound microbial fertilizer in each planting hole;
3) planting: transplanting cherry tomato seedlings into planting holes, covering roots with soil, and watering after transplanting is finished;
4) pruning: erecting a support shaped like a Chinese character tian when the support needs to be built; when the plant height of the plant is lower than or equal to 40cm, only the trunk is reserved, and all the lateral branches are removed; when the plant height of the plant exceeds 40cm, the lateral branches under the first inflorescence and the second inflorescence are remained except the main stem, and the rest lateral branches are completely removed;
5) management: spraying a liquid spray and applying a root irrigation nutrient solution once every certain time during the growth period of a plant, wherein the liquid spray comprises a foliar fertilizer, a biological shield I and a biological shield II, and the root irrigation nutrient solution is a golden water soil black and white liquid; each plant retains 7-8 robust flower ears, and each ear retains 5-6 good fruit; and spraying a plant growth regulator after the plant blooms and before the plant fruits.
2. The green ecological planting method of cherry tomatoes as claimed in claim 1, wherein in the step 1), the film covering time is 10-20 days.
3. The green ecological planting method of cherry tomatoes as claimed in claim 1, wherein in the step 1), the types and application standards of the pre-cultivation fertilizer are as follows: 40 kg/mu of golden soil ferment, 200 kg/mu of rice bran powder and 160 kg/mu of compound microbial fertilizer.
4. The green ecological planting method of cherry tomatoes as claimed in claim 1, wherein in the step 5), the liquid spray is sprayed and the root-irrigation nutrient solution is applied once every 10-15 days.
5. The method for ecologically and green planting of cherry tomatoes as claimed in claim 1, wherein in step 5), said plant growth regulator is benzalkonium chloride.
6. A green ecological planting method for cherry tomatoes according to any one of claims 1 to 5, wherein organic fertilizer is applied for 1 time and nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer is applied for 3 to 6 times during the growth period of the plants.
7. The green ecological planting method of cherry tomatoes as claimed in claim 6, wherein the standard of application of the organic fertilizer is 800-1000 kg/mu, and the application time is 15-20 days after field planting.
8. The green ecological planting method of cherry tomatoes as claimed in claim 6, wherein the nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer is applied in a standard of 12-20 kg/mu, and the application time is that the roots of the first batch of fruits are irrigated once every 8-12 days from the beginning of field planting.
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