CN109302933B - Rapid cultivation and shaping method for premature high-yield tree form of kiwi fruit - Google Patents

Rapid cultivation and shaping method for premature high-yield tree form of kiwi fruit Download PDF

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CN109302933B
CN109302933B CN201811195035.XA CN201811195035A CN109302933B CN 109302933 B CN109302933 B CN 109302933B CN 201811195035 A CN201811195035 A CN 201811195035A CN 109302933 B CN109302933 B CN 109302933B
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vine
vines
main
kiwi fruit
lateral
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CN109302933A (en
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涂美艳
霍剑
江国良
陈栋
李靖
孙淑霞
宋海岩
刘春阳
杨文渊
陶练
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Mianyang Guolaoyuan Agricultural Development Co ltd
Horticulture Research Institute of Sichuan Academy of Agricultural Sciences
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Mianyang Guolaoyuan Agricultural Development Co ltd
Horticulture Research Institute of Sichuan Academy of Agricultural Sciences
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/005Cultivation methods
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/04Supports for hops, vines, or trees
    • A01G17/06Trellis-work
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G2/00Vegetative propagation
    • A01G2/30Grafting

Abstract

The invention relates to a rapid cultivation and shaping method for the premature high-yield tree form of kiwi fruits, belonging to the field of kiwi fruit cultivation; the length, the uniformity and the bud plumpness of the cultured fruit mother vines are greatly improved, the number of effective buds per unit area of the trellis surface is increased after pruning in winter, and the yield increasing effect is obvious; the cultured fruit mother vines are suitable in growth angle, secondary branches are not easy to take out, a large amount of summer pruning and bud picking work is reduced, double-layer leaf screens are used for shielding, fruits can be cultivated without bagging, and the labor cost for management is remarkably reduced; the tree crown has better ventilation and light transmittance, the orchard diseases are reduced, the dosage is reduced, the leaf-fruit ratio is higher, and the commodity performance of the fruits is obviously improved; the pruning is easier in winter, and the technical requirements on pruning workers are reduced; the row spacing of the orchard is increased, and mechanized management is more favorably realized.

Description

Rapid cultivation and shaping method for premature high-yield tree form of kiwi fruit
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the field of kiwi fruit cultivation, and particularly relates to a rapid cultivation and shaping method for premature high-yield tree forms of kiwi fruits.
Background
The branches and tendrils of the kiwi fruits do not have tendrils, the uprightness in the early growth stage is strong, and the kiwi fruits are easy to wind and climb other objects in the anticlockwise direction to grow or wind and grow with each other after the growth vigor is weakened. The branches and tendrils grow in a large amount of 4m each year, branches can be extracted for more than 2-3 times each year, the seedling raising. Therefore, in the annual management process of kiwi fruits, labor and time are wasted in branch and vine management, crown closure is easily caused if work is not in place, plant diseases and insect pests are aggravated, and the length and quality of mother vines are affected in the next year.
At present, the shaping mode in the production of kiwi fruits mainly comprises a stem, two tendrils and sixteen lateral tendrils (namely, a 1216 tree shape), wherein the stem is formed by upward growth of a grafting bud of a kiwi fruit grafting seedling, the height is generally 1.5m, and the stem is an important support of kiwi fruit trees; the main vines are two and are perennial permanent backbones formed by the hair extraction on the trunks; the lateral vines are fruiting parent vines, are branch vines growing on the main vines and have the capability of producing fruiting vines in the second year, need to be subjected to renewal culture every year, and the length, thickness and fullness of the branch vines directly determine the yield of the second year. Such a tree shape is reasonably well maintained once the culture is formed, but not. People who have been engaged in the planting or research of kiwi fruits know that the kiwi fruits have extremely strong updating capability and extremely strong growing power! Therefore, a large amount of manpower and material resources are always input to carry out summer pruning every summer so as to improve good ventilation and light transmission conditions in the field. However, the kiwi fruit is a vine plant, and when the branches and tendrils of the kiwi fruit grow to a certain length, the branches and tendrils cannot bear the weight of the kiwi fruit, and the kiwi fruit can be bent and lodged gradually. Meanwhile, the growing point is transferred to a new highest point (namely a bending point), so that new buds (which are always useless steep long branches) continuously sprout at the bending part, and the old branches grow longer and thinner, so that the difficulty of winter pruning is increased, and even no branches can be used. Therefore, in production, most growers frequently prune and bud picking continuously in summer, the workload is numerous and disordered, and the effect is not ideal. The extensive management of the large garden is more complicated and complicated in branches, extremely poor in light transmittance and ventilation in the garden, and due to fungal diseases such as floral rot, botrytis, leaf spots, anthracnose and the like. The branches are more than one year, more dense than one year and disordered in shape, and the long-expected 1216 tree shape is finally and basically developed into an umbrella-shaped framework structure with poor fruit bearing capacity and higher pruning difficulty.
Disclosure of Invention
Aiming at the current situations that labor and time are wasted and the yield is not easy to increase in the current tree form cultivation, on the basis of the tree form of 'one-stem two-vine eight-lateral-vine', favorable branch and vine growth conditions are artificially created through a reasonable-angle guiding cultivation mode according to the winding growth characteristics of the branch and vine of the kiwi fruit, so that excellent bearing parent vines with proper length of more than 3m and small secondary branch extraction amount are cultivated, and important guarantee is provided for the continuous high yield and high quality of the kiwi fruit.
The technical scheme of the invention is as follows:
the rapid cultivation and shaping method for the premature high-yield tree form of the kiwi fruits comprises the following steps:
(1) building a frame by soil improvement, and planting kiwi fruit seedling plants;
the modified soil is prepared by uniformly mixing an organic fertilizer and shallow surface soil with the depth of 0-30cm in the kiwi fruit plantation;
the frame type is a horizontal shed frame;
the seedling plant is an annual seedling;
(2) pulling the seedling and cultivating the grafting part;
after the kiwi fruits are planted and germinated in a fixed mode, selecting and reserving 1 upright branch and vine, carrying out upright traction, pinching the upright branch and vine when the upright branch and vine grow to 58-62cm in height, erasing all the sprouts in the range of 18-22cm away from the ground, cultivating and growing a secondary branch, pinching when the secondary branch and vine grow to 38-42cm in length, cultivating and growing a tertiary branch, dragging the tertiary branch to a shelf, cultivating a large number of branches and leaves, cultivating roots to promote the trunk to be thick and strong, and grafting the trunk and vine at a position 15-20cm away from the ground before the bleeding period in the spring of the next year;
(3) drawing two main vines and cultivating a skeleton;
in the second year of field planting of the kiwi fruits, pinching grafted sprouts of the kiwi fruits, selecting and reserving 2 sprouts to culture main vines, respectively drawing the two main vines towards the directions of two adjacent draw bars at two sides through main vine drawing ropes, guiding the two main vines to climb along the main vine drawing ropes for growth, wherein one side of each drawing rope is bound at the top end of a main trunk, the other side of each drawing rope is bound at the top end of each draw bar, and the angle formed by each main vine drawing rope and the ground is 55-60 degrees;
when the two vines are pruned in winter in the year, the two vines are taken down from the main vine pulling ropes and fixed on the surface of the shed frame in opposite directions to form a dry two-vine tree shape, then the length parts of the two main vines exceeding 1/2 plant spacing are respectively bent in opposite directions, the main vines are divided into a permanent reserved part and a temporary bent part, the permanent reserved part is used as a main vine framework, the temporary bent part is used as a fruit-bearing mother vine in the next year, and redundant slender parts of the main vines are cut off;
(4) drawing lateral vines and cultivating fruit mother vines;
in the third year of the field planting of the kiwi fruits, before the main vines sprout, side vine traction rods are erected among the four plants along the bending direction of the main vines, one ends of 32 side vine traction ropes are tied at the top ends of the side vine traction rods, and the other ends of the side vine traction ropes are evenly tied on the frame surfaces along the original parts of 4 main vines of the two plants according to 16 single sides; after the lateral vine buds germinate, keeping the lateral vine buds near each lateral vine pulling rope, and winding the lateral vine buds on the adjacent lateral vine pulling ropes anticlockwise when the lateral vine grows to 35-45cm long so as to enable the lateral vine buds to grow along the lateral vine pulling ropes;
and after the side vines grow to the tops of the side vine traction rods along the side vine traction ropes, the side vines are taken down from the side vine traction ropes one by one, cut short to 1/2 row spacing and placed on the surface of a rack.
As a further optimization scheme of the method, in the step (1), the field planting is soil gathering, ridging and field planting, the ridge width of the ridging is half of the row spacing of kiwi fruit plants, the ridge height is 40-50cm, and the using amount of the organic fertilizer is 4-6 tons/mu.
As a further optimization scheme of the method, in the step (1), the row spacing of the kiwi fruit plants is 3.5-4.5m, and the plant spacing is 2-3 m.
As a further optimization scheme of the method, in the step (1), the rack surface of the kiwi fruit shed is formed by steel wires in parallel, the height of the rack surface from the ground is 1.7-1.8m, the upright columns of the shed are cement columns, the distance between the cement columns is 5-6m × 3.5.5-4.5 m, the thickness is 8-10cm × 8-10cm, and the ground diameter of the kiwi fruit seedlings is more than or equal to 0.8 cm.
As a further optimization scheme of the invention, in the step (2), when the vertical branches and tendrils grow to 38-42cm high, the seedling pulling ropes are used for vertical pulling.
As a further optimization scheme of the invention, in the step (3), when the grafted kiwi fruit grows to a height of 38-42cm higher than the shelf surface, the grafted kiwi fruit is pinched at a position 28-32cm below the shelf surface.
As a further optimization scheme of the invention, in the step (3), when the main vines are 38-42cm long, a main vine draw bar is erected between two plants, the main vine draw bar is used for cuttage according to the same plant row spacing as the kiwi fruit seedling plants and is positioned between two adjacent kiwi fruit seedling plants, the junction of a draw bar and a main vine steel wire is fixed, and the height of the main vine draw bar is 4-4.5 m.
As a further optimization scheme of the invention, in the step (4), the lateral vine draw bar is erected at the center of the four plants, the bottom of the lateral vine draw bar is placed on the cross beam steel wire, and the length of the lateral vine draw bar is the same as the row spacing of the kiwi plants.
As a further optimized scheme of the invention, in the step (4), the cut lateral vines are placed on the surface of the rack in a row at an angle of 90 degrees with the permanent reserved parts of the main vines.
As a further optimization scheme of the invention, the main vine traction rod and the side vine traction rod are respectively erected in different transverse and vertical directions of the kiwi fruit plant.
Compared with the conventional cultivation method (the first year of seedling planting is put to be grown, and 2 more trunks are selected for grafting next year), the method has the advantages that: an upright trunk is pulled and cultured in the early stage, so that a large amount of secondary branches at the base part are effectively prevented from being extracted and sent out, and the top end advantage of the trunk is more obvious; after the stem is cored, the sprouts 20cm away from the ground are removed in time, and the growth of secondary branches on the middle upper part is effectively promoted; after the branches are extracted and sent for three times, the upper frame is timely pulled, so that the top advantages of the tree body can be continuously maintained, a large number of branches and leaves are promoted to be formed, roots are raised, and trunks are promoted. As shown in table 1: by adopting the culture method, after the first year growth is finished, only 1 main trunk of the seedling is provided, the thickness of the main trunk is increased by 54.92% compared with that of the conventional culture method, although the number of secondary branches is not obviously different from that of the conventional culture method, the thickness of the secondary branches is increased by 53.09% compared with that of the conventional culture method, the number of tertiary branches is increased by 55.81% compared with that of the conventional culture method, and the grafting efficiency and survival rate in the next year are respectively improved by 66.67% and 21.84%.
TABLE 1 comparison of the effect of the present invention in year 1 with conventional cultivation methods
Figure BDA0001827367400000031
Figure BDA0001827367400000041
Note: the data in the table are derived from the average value of field observation data for many years; lower case letters after the same column indicate no significant difference at the P < 0.05 level.
Compared with the conventional method (the main vines are horizontally bound on the rack surface at a length of 1m and are pinched at a length of 1.5 m) in the second year of field planting of the kiwi fruits, the method has the advantages that: according to the invention, 2 main vines are pulled by a single plant, the number of the lateral vines extracted from the main vines in the current year is very small, and the main vines are more abundant in nutrition, so that the skeleton of the tree body is more stable, and a good material foundation is laid for cultivating 16 excellent-result mother vines in one time in the second year. See table 2 for details:
TABLE 2 comparison of the effect of the present invention in year 2 with conventional cultivation methods
Figure BDA0001827367400000042
Note: the data in the table are derived from the average value of field observation data for many years; lower case letters after the same column indicate no significant difference at the P < 0.05 level.
In the third year of kiwi fruit cultivation, compared with the conventional cultivation method (lateral vines are not pulled, and the vines are grown to 1.2m-1.5m for pinching), the method has the advantages that: the spring shoots are pulled to be put on the shelf after being pulled out, the top end has obvious advantages, the branches and tendrils are not easy to be broken by wind damage, the growth period of the branches and tendrils is long, the buds are full, the shelf surface utilization rate is higher after the branches and tendrils are pruned in winter, and the number of effective buds is obviously improved. See table 3 for details:
TABLE 3 comparison of the effect of the present invention in year 3 with the conventional cultivation method
Figure BDA0001827367400000043
Note: the data in the table are derived from the average value of field observation data for many years; lower case letters after the same column indicate no significant difference at the P < 0.05 level.
The technical principle of the method of the invention is as follows:
1. the invention well ensures the growth vigor of 2 main vines at the early stage and lays an important foundation for the growth vigor of the main vines to become permanent tree backbones; the growth of the competition branches in the inner cavity is well controlled in the later period, and important guarantee is provided for continuously increasing the crude extracts of 2 permanent main vines.
2. The invention can utilize the good spring shoots to the maximum extent and culture the good spring shoots into 16 excellent fruit mother vines, thereby avoiding the problems of poor flower bud quality and insufficient quantity of the conventional cultivation method which usually uses the summer shoots as the fruit mother vines when pruning in winter in the year.
The invention has the beneficial effects that:
1. the length, the uniformity and the bud plumpness of the mother tendrils of the pulled fruits are greatly improved, the number of effective buds per unit area of the trimmed frame surface is increased in winter, and the yield increasing effect is obvious.
2. The pulled fruit mother vines are suitable in growth angle, secondary branches are not easy to take out, a large amount of summer pruning and bud picking work is reduced, double-layer leaf curtains are used for shielding, fruits can be cultivated without bagging, and the labor cost for management is remarkably reduced.
3. The tree crown has better ventilation and light transmittance, the orchard diseases are reduced, the dosage is reduced, the leaf-fruit ratio is higher, and the commodity performance of the fruits is obviously improved.
4. The pruning is easier in winter, and the technical requirements on pruning workers are reduced.
5. The row spacing of the orchard is increased, and mechanized management is more favorably realized.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic drawing of first year of field planting of kiwi fruit seedlings
FIG. 2 is a drawing schematic diagram of the second year of field planting of kiwi fruit seedlings
FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram of main vines of kiwi fruit seedlings bent by 90 degrees during winter pruning in the second year in field planting
FIG. 4 is a schematic diagram of main vines of kiwi fruit seedlings subjected to 90-degree bending in the second year of winter pruning in field planting of kiwi fruit seedlings by a conventional method
FIG. 5 shows the drawing of the kiwi fruit seedlings planted in the third year and after the third year
FIG. 6 is a schematic view of the branches and tendrils of kiwi fruit planted and trimmed in winter after the third year
FIG. 7 is a schematic diagram of branches and tendrils of kiwi fruit seedlings planted for the third year and later in winter
FIG. 8 the third year cultivation effect diagram of field planting of kiwi fruit of the present invention
FIG. 9 the fourth year cultivation effect diagram of the field planting of kiwi fruit of the present invention
FIG. 10 is a graph showing the effect of the present invention on the red-yang variety of kiwi fruit
FIG. 11 is a diagram showing the effect of the Kiwi fruit of Jinyan variety of the present invention on the results obtained by the present invention
FIG. 12 is a graph of the effect of the Kiwi fruit variety of the present invention on the results of the present invention
1. A frame face steel wire; 2. trunk of seedling; 3. secondary branches of the seedlings; 4. three branches of the seedling are grown; 5. pulling ropes for the seedlings; 6. dragging and tying rope knot; 7. main vine steel wires; 8. grafting the main stem; 9. drawing the main vines; 91. drawing the primary part of the main vines; 92. drawing the bent part of the main vine; 93. the primary part of the main vine is not pulled; 94. the bent part of the main vine is not pulled; 10. a main vine hauling rope; 11. a main vine draw bar; 12. a lateral vine draw bar; 13. a beam steel wire; 141. drawing lateral vines; 142. pulling and cutting short rear side vines; 143. the rear lateral vines are cut without traction.
Detailed Description
Example 1:
take red yang variety kiwi fruit as an example (red yang is a weak kiwi fruit variety)
The rapid cultivation and shaping method for the premature high-yield tree form of the kiwi fruits comprises the following steps:
(1) building a frame by soil improvement, and planting kiwi fruit seedling plants;
constructing a shed frame surface with the cement pile spacing of 6m × 3.5.5 m, wherein the height of the frame surface from the ground is 1.7m, and the row spacing of plant plants is 2m × 3.5.5 m;
the soil improvement method specifically comprises the following steps: uniformly mixing the organic fertilizer with shallow surface soil with the depth of 0-30cm in the kiwi fruit plantation by 5 tons/mu; the seedling used for planting is a seedling with the annual ground diameter more than or equal to 0.8 cm.
(2) Pulling the seedling and cultivating the grafting part;
after the kiwi fruit is planted and germinated, 1 upright branch vine is selected and reserved, when the kiwi fruit grows to 38-42cm high, the seedling is vertically pulled by using a seedling pulling rope, when the kiwi fruit grows to 58-62cm high, the core is picked, all the sprouts in the range of 18-22cm away from the ground are removed, secondary branches are cultivated and grown, when the secondary branches grow to 38-42cm long, the core is picked, tertiary branches are cultivated and grown, the tertiary branches are pulled to be put on a shelf, a large number of branches and leaves are cultivated, the roots are cultivated to promote the trunk to be thick and solid, and grafting is carried out on the trunk 15-20cm away from the ground before the bleeding period in the next spring.
(3) Drawing two main vines and cultivating a skeleton;
in the second year of field planting of the kiwi fruits, when grafting buds of the kiwi fruits grow to be higher than 38-42cm of the frame surface, pinching the kiwi fruits at a position 28-32cm below the frame surface, selecting and reserving 2 sprouts to culture main vines, and when the main vines grow to be longer than 38-42cm, erecting a main vine draw bar between two plants, respectively drawing the two main vines towards adjacent draw bars at two sides through a main vine draw rope, guiding the two main vines to grow along the main vine draw rope in a climbing manner, wherein one side of the draw rope is bound at the top end of a trunk, the other side of the draw rope is bound at the top end of the draw bar, and an angle formed by the main vine draw rope and the ground is 55 degrees;
the traction rods are subjected to cuttage according to the same plant-row spacing as the kiwi fruit seedling plants, are positioned between two adjacent kiwi fruit seedling plants, and are fixed at the joint of the traction rod and the main vine steel wire, wherein the height of each traction rod is 3.5 m;
when the two vines are pruned in winter in the year, the two vines are taken down from the main vine pulling ropes and fixed on the surface of the shed frame in opposite directions to form a dry two-vine tree shape, then the length parts of the two main vines exceeding 1/2 plant spacing are respectively bent in opposite directions, the main vines are divided into a permanent reserved part and a temporary bent part, the permanent reserved part is used as a main vine framework, the temporary bent part is used as a fruit-bearing mother vine in the next year, and redundant slender parts of the main vines are cut off;
then bending (4) the length parts of the two main vines beyond the plant spacing of 1/2 towards opposite directions to draw lateral vines respectively, and cultivating the resulting mother vines;
in the third year of the field planting of the kiwi fruits, before the main vines sprout, a side vine traction rod is erected in the middle of four plants along the bending direction of the main vines, the length of the rod is 3.5m, one end of 32 side vine traction ropes is tied to the top end of the side vine traction rod, and the other end of each side vine traction rope is evenly tied to the frame surface along the original parts of 4 main vines of the two plants according to 16 single sides; after the lateral vine buds germinate, the lateral vine buds near each lateral vine pulling rope are reserved, and the lateral vine buds are wound on the adjacent lateral vine pulling ropes anticlockwise when the lateral vine grows to 35-45cm long, so that the lateral vine buds grow along the lateral vine pulling ropes.
After the lateral vines grow to the tops of the lateral vine pulling rods along the lateral vine pulling ropes, the lateral vines are taken down from the lateral vine pulling ropes one by one, the lateral vines are cut short to 1/2 row spacing, and the cut lateral vines are placed on the surface of a rack in a straight line mode at an angle of 90 degrees with the permanent parts of the main vines.
Example 2:
take Jinyan variety kiwi fruit as an example (Jinyan is a vigorous growth of kiwi fruit)
The rapid cultivation and shaping method for the premature high-yield tree form of the kiwi fruits comprises the following steps:
(1) building a frame by soil improvement, and planting kiwi fruit seedling plants;
constructing a canopy frame surface with the cement pile spacing of 6m × 4m, wherein the height of the frame surface from the ground is 1.7m, and the row spacing of plant planting plants is 3m × 4 m;
the soil improvement method specifically comprises the following steps: uniformly mixing the organic fertilizer with shallow surface soil with the depth of 0-30cm in the kiwi fruit plantation by the amount of 4 tons/mu; the seedling used for planting is a seedling with the annual ground diameter more than or equal to 0.8 cm.
(2) Pulling the seedling and cultivating the grafting part;
after the kiwi fruit is planted and germinated, 1 upright branch vine is selected and reserved, when the kiwi fruit grows to 38-42cm high, the seedling is vertically pulled by using a seedling pulling rope, when the kiwi fruit grows to 58-62cm high, the core is picked, all the sprouts in the range of 18-22cm away from the ground are removed, secondary branches are cultivated and grown, when the secondary branches grow to 38-42cm long, the core is picked, tertiary branches are cultivated and grown, the tertiary branches are pulled to be put on a shelf, a large number of branches and leaves are cultivated, the roots are cultivated to promote the trunk to be thick and solid, and grafting is carried out on the trunk 15-20cm away from the ground before the bleeding period in the next spring.
(3) Drawing two main vines and cultivating a skeleton;
in the second year of field planting of the kiwi fruits, when grafting buds of the kiwi fruits grow to be higher than 38-42cm of the frame surface, pinching the kiwi fruits at a position 28-32cm below the frame surface, selecting and reserving 2 sprouts to culture main vines, and when the main vines grow to be longer than 38-42cm, erecting a main vine draw bar between two plants, respectively drawing the two main vines towards adjacent draw bars at two sides through a main vine draw rope, guiding the two main vines to grow along the main vine draw rope in a climbing manner, wherein one side of the draw rope is bound at the top end of a trunk, the other side of the draw rope is bound at the top end of the draw bar, and an angle formed by the main vine draw rope and the ground is 60 degrees;
the traction rods are used for cuttage according to the same plant row spacing as the kiwi fruit seedling plants, are positioned between two adjacent kiwi fruit seedling plants, and are fixed at the joint of the traction rod and the main vine steel wire, and the height of each traction rod is 4 m;
when the two vines are pruned in winter in the year, the two vines are taken down from the main vine pulling ropes and fixed on the surface of the shed frame in opposite directions to form a dry two-vine tree shape, then the length parts of the two main vines exceeding 1/2 plant spacing are respectively bent in opposite directions, the main vines are divided into a permanent reserved part and a temporary bent part, the permanent reserved part is used as a main vine framework, the temporary bent part is used as a fruit-bearing mother vine in the next year, and redundant slender parts of the main vines are cut off;
then bending (4) the length parts of the two main vines beyond the plant spacing of 1/2 towards opposite directions to draw lateral vines respectively, and cultivating the resulting mother vines;
in the third year of the field planting of the kiwi fruits, before the main vines sprout, a side vine traction rod is erected in the middle of four plants along the bending direction of the main vines, the length of the rod is 4.5m, one end of 32 side vine traction ropes is tied to the top end of the side vine traction rod, and the other end of each side vine traction rope is evenly tied to the frame surface along the original parts of 4 main vines of the two plants according to 16 single sides; after the lateral vine buds germinate, the lateral vine buds near each lateral vine pulling rope are reserved, and the lateral vine buds are wound on the adjacent lateral vine pulling ropes anticlockwise when the lateral vine grows to 35-45cm long, so that the lateral vine buds grow along the lateral vine pulling ropes.
After the lateral vines grow to the tops of the lateral vine pulling rods along the lateral vine pulling ropes, the lateral vines are taken down from the lateral vine pulling ropes one by one, the lateral vines are cut short to 1/2 row spacing, and the cut lateral vines are placed on the surface of a rack in a straight line mode at an angle of 90 degrees with the permanent parts of the main vines.
Example 3:
take Kiwi of Jinguo variety as an example (Jinyan is a very vigorous growth of Kiwi variety)
The rapid cultivation and shaping method for the premature high-yield tree form of the kiwi fruits comprises the following steps:
(1) building a frame by soil improvement, and planting kiwi fruit seedling plants;
constructing a shed frame surface with the cement pile spacing of 6m × 4.5.5 m, wherein the height of the frame surface from the ground is 1.7m, and the row spacing of plant plants is 3m × 4.5.5 m;
the soil improvement method specifically comprises the following steps: uniformly mixing the organic fertilizer with shallow surface soil with the depth of 30-35cm in the kiwi fruit plantation by 4 tons/mu; the seedling used for planting is a seedling with the annual ground diameter more than or equal to 0.8 cm.
(2) Pulling the seedling and cultivating the grafting part;
after the kiwi fruit is planted and germinated, 1 upright branch vine is selected and reserved, when the kiwi fruit grows to 38-42cm high, the seedling is vertically pulled by using a seedling pulling rope, when the kiwi fruit grows to 58-62cm high, the core is picked, all the sprouts in the range of 18-22cm away from the ground are removed, secondary branches are cultivated and grown, when the secondary branches grow to 38-42cm long, the core is picked, tertiary branches are cultivated and grown, the tertiary branches are pulled to be put on a shelf, a large number of branches and leaves are cultivated, the roots are cultivated to promote the trunk to be thick and solid, and grafting is carried out on the trunk 15-20cm away from the ground before the bleeding period in the next spring.
(3) Drawing two main vines and cultivating a skeleton;
in the second year of field planting of the kiwi fruits, when grafting buds of the kiwi fruits grow to be higher than 38-42cm of the frame surface, pinching the kiwi fruits at a position 28-32cm below the frame surface, selecting and reserving 2 sprouts to culture main vines, and when the main vines grow to be longer than 38-42cm, erecting a main vine draw bar between two plants, respectively drawing the two main vines towards adjacent draw bars at two sides through a main vine draw rope, guiding the two main vines to grow along the main vine draw rope in a climbing manner, wherein one side of the draw rope is bound at the top end of a trunk, the other side of the draw rope is bound at the top end of the draw bar, and an angle formed by the main vine draw rope and the ground is 60 degrees;
the traction rods are subjected to cuttage according to the same plant-row spacing as the kiwi fruit seedling plants, are positioned between two adjacent kiwi fruit seedling plants, and are fixed at the joint of the traction rod and the main vine steel wire, wherein the height of each traction rod is 4.5 m;
when the two vines are pruned in winter in the year, the two vines are taken down from the main vine pulling ropes and fixed on the surface of the shed frame in opposite directions to form a dry two-vine tree shape, then the length parts of the two main vines exceeding 1/2 plant spacing are respectively bent in opposite directions, the main vines are divided into a permanent reserved part and a temporary bent part, the permanent reserved part is used as a main vine framework, the temporary bent part is used as a fruit-bearing mother vine in the next year, and redundant slender parts of the main vines are cut off;
then bending (4) the length parts of the two main vines beyond the plant spacing of 1/2 towards opposite directions to draw lateral vines respectively, and cultivating the resulting mother vines;
in the third year of the field planting of the kiwi fruits, before the main vines sprout, a side vine traction rod is erected in the middle of four plants along the bending direction of the main vines, the length of the rod is 4.5m, one end of 32 side vine traction ropes is tied to the top end of the side vine traction rod, and the other end of each side vine traction rope is evenly tied to the frame surface along the original parts of 4 main vines of the two plants according to 16 single sides; after the lateral vine buds germinate, the lateral vine buds near each lateral vine pulling rope are reserved, and the lateral vine buds are wound on the adjacent lateral vine pulling ropes anticlockwise when the lateral vine grows to 35-45cm long, so that the lateral vine buds grow along the lateral vine pulling ropes.
After the lateral vines grow to the tops of the lateral vine pulling rods along the lateral vine pulling ropes, the lateral vines are taken down from the lateral vine pulling ropes one by one, the lateral vines are cut short to 1/2 row spacing, and the cut lateral vines are placed on the surface of a rack in a straight line mode at an angle of 90 degrees with the permanent parts of the main vines.
Experimental examples 1, 2 and 3
The control tests were carried out with the traditional cultivation of Actinidia chinensis of Hongyang, Jinguo and Jinyan varieties as control groups, comparing the difference between the growth vigor of the plants and the yield of Actinidia chinensis by using the present invention and the traditional cultivation, see Table 4.
TABLE 4 influence of different tree-form cultivation methods on the growth of Kiwi fruit trees
Figure BDA0001827367400000091
As can be seen from Table 4, under the culture conditions of the invention, the length of the fruit mother vines reserved by pruning 3 varieties in winter is 45cm-83cm longer than that of the conventional culture, the average thickness of the branches of the fruit mother vines is 0.05cm-0.25cm higher than that of the fruit mother vines, the average thickness of the branches of the fruit mother vines 5cm above the trunk branches is 0.15cm-0.41cm higher than that of the branches of the main vines, the average thickness of the branches of the main vines is 0.29cm-0.31cm higher than that of the branches of the main vines, the average thickness of the branches of the main vines 50cm after being placed on the shelf is 0.10cm-0.22cm higher than that of the main vines, the average single fruit weight is increased2-103.19kg/667m2
TABLE 5 influence of different tree-form cultivation methods on economic benefits of kiwi fruit per unit area
Figure BDA0001827367400000101
As can be seen from Table 5, although the present invention increases the cost of bamboo poles, ropes, etc., the cost of pesticides and labor is reduced, and the economic benefit is increased by the increase of yield, compared with the control, the present invention can increase the pure economic benefit per unit area of 2994.63 yuan/667 m2-4606.83 yuan/667 m2
TABLE 6 influence of different tree-form cultivation methods on Kiwi fruit disease occurrence
Figure BDA0001827367400000102
Note: affected by the difference of the damage degree of the disease, the average leaf fall rate of the plant of the invention is 21.33% at about 11 months and 20 days every year, but the normal method is more than 85.23%. Early leaf fall, and late autumn shoots are easy to germinate, so that the plant yield in the next year is greatly reduced.
The foregoing shows and describes the general principles, essential features, and advantages of the invention. It will be understood by those skilled in the art that the present invention is not limited to the embodiments described above, which are described in the specification and illustrated only to illustrate the principle of the present invention, but that various changes and modifications may be made therein without departing from the spirit and scope of the present invention, which fall within the scope of the invention as claimed. The scope of the invention is defined by the appended claims and equivalents thereof.

Claims (10)

1. The rapid cultivation and shaping method for the premature high-yield tree form of the kiwi fruit is characterized by comprising the following steps:
(1) building a frame by soil improvement, and planting kiwi fruit seedling plants;
the modified soil is prepared by uniformly mixing an organic fertilizer and shallow surface soil with the depth of 0-30cm in the kiwi fruit plantation;
the frame type is a horizontal shed frame;
the seedling plant is an annual seedling;
(2) pulling the seedling and cultivating the grafting part;
after the kiwi fruits are planted and germinated in a fixed mode, selecting and reserving 1 upright branch and vine, carrying out upright traction, pinching the upright branch and vine when the upright branch and vine grow to 58-62cm in height, erasing all the sprouts in the range of 18-22cm away from the ground, cultivating and growing a secondary branch, pinching when the secondary branch and vine grow to 38-42cm in length, cultivating and growing a tertiary branch, dragging the tertiary branch to a shelf, cultivating a large number of branches and leaves, cultivating roots to promote the trunk to be thick and strong, and grafting the trunk and vine at a position 15-20cm away from the ground before the bleeding period in the spring of the next year;
(3) drawing two main vines and cultivating a skeleton;
in the second year of field planting of the kiwi fruits, pinching grafted sprouts of the kiwi fruits, selecting and reserving 2 sprouts to culture main vines, respectively drawing the two main vines towards the directions of two adjacent draw bars through main vine drawing ropes, guiding the two main vines to climb along the main vine drawing ropes for growth, wherein one side of each drawing rope is bound at the top end of a trunk, the other side of each drawing rope is bound at the top end of each draw bar, and the angle formed by each main vine drawing rope and the ground is 55-60 degrees;
when the two vines are pruned in winter in the year, the two vines are taken down from the main vine pulling ropes and fixed on the surface of the shed frame in opposite directions to form a dry two-vine tree shape, then the length parts of the two main vines exceeding 1/2 plant spacing are respectively bent in opposite directions, the main vines are divided into a permanent reserved part and a temporary bent part, the permanent reserved part is used as a main vine framework, the temporary bent part is used as a fruit-bearing mother vine in the next year, and redundant slender parts of the main vines are cut off;
(4) drawing lateral vines and cultivating fruit mother vines;
in the third year of field planting of the kiwi fruits, before the main vines sprout, side vine traction rods are erected among the four plants along the bending direction of the main vines, one ends of 32 side vine traction ropes are tied at the top ends of the side vine traction rods, and the other ends of the side vine traction ropes are evenly tied on the frame surface along the original parts of 4 main vines of the two plants according to 16 single sides; after the lateral vine buds germinate, keeping the lateral vine buds near each lateral vine pulling rope, and winding the lateral vine buds on the adjacent lateral vine pulling ropes anticlockwise when the lateral vine grows to 35-45cm long so as to enable the lateral vine buds to grow along the lateral vine pulling ropes;
and after the side vines grow to the tops of the side vine traction rods along the side vine traction ropes, the side vines are taken down from the side vine traction ropes one by one, cut short to 1/2 row spacing and placed on the surface of a rack.
2. The rapid cultivation and shaping method for the premature high-yield tree form of the kiwi fruits according to claim 1, wherein in the step (1), the planting is soil gathering, ridging and planting, the ridge width of the ridging is half of the row spacing of kiwi fruit plants, the ridge height is 40-50cm, and the amount of the organic fertilizer is 4-6 tons/mu.
3. The rapid cultivation and shaping method for the premature high-yield tree form of kiwi fruits according to claim 1, wherein in the step (1), the row spacing and the plant spacing of the kiwi fruits are 3.5-4.5m and 2-3m respectively.
4. The rapid cultivation and shaping method for the premature high-yield tree form of the kiwi fruit as claimed in claim 1, wherein in the step (1), the trellis surface of the kiwi fruit is composed of steel wires in parallel rows, the height of the trellis surface from the ground is 1.7-1.8m, the trellis upright posts are cement posts, the distance between the cement posts is 5-6m × 3.5.5-4.5 m, the thickness is 8-10cm × 8-10cm, and the ground diameter of the kiwi fruit seedlings is more than or equal to 0.8 cm.
5. The rapid cultivation and shaping method for premature high-yield tree form of kiwi fruit according to claim 1, wherein in the step (2), when the vertical branches and tendrils grow to 38-42cm high, vertical traction is performed by using seedling pulling ropes.
6. The rapid cultivation and shaping method for premature delivery tree form of kiwi fruit according to claim 1, wherein in the step (3), when the grafted kiwi fruit grows to a height of 38-42cm above the shelf surface, the grafted kiwi fruit is pinched at a position 28-32cm below the shelf surface.
7. The rapid cultivation and shaping method for the premature high-yield tree form of kiwi fruit according to claim 1, wherein in the step (3), when the main vine grows to 38-42cm, a main vine draw bar is erected between two plants, the main vine draw bar performs cuttage according to the same plant row spacing as the kiwi fruit seedling plant and is positioned between two adjacent kiwi fruit seedling plants, the joint of the draw bar and the main vine steel wire is fixed, and the height of the main vine draw bar is 4-4.5 m.
8. The rapid cultivation and shaping method for premature kiwi fruit high yield tree form according to claim 1, wherein in step (4), the lateral vine pulling rod stands at the center of the four plants and the bottom of the lateral vine pulling rod is placed on the steel wire of the cross beam, and the length of the lateral vine pulling rod is the same as the row spacing of the kiwi fruit plants.
9. The rapid cultivation and shaping method for premature-birth high-yield tree form of kiwi fruit according to claim 1, wherein in step (4), the cut lateral vines are placed on the shelf surface in a row at an angle of 90 ° to the permanent-remaining portions of the main vines.
10. The rapid cultivation and shaping method for premature kiwi fruit trees according to claim 1, wherein the main vine pulling rod and the lateral vine pulling rods are respectively erected in different directions of the kiwi fruit plants.
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