CN107409798B - A kind of high Y-shaped shaping methods of easy peach and its application - Google Patents

A kind of high Y-shaped shaping methods of easy peach and its application Download PDF

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CN107409798B
CN107409798B CN201710359023.5A CN201710359023A CN107409798B CN 107409798 B CN107409798 B CN 107409798B CN 201710359023 A CN201710359023 A CN 201710359023A CN 107409798 B CN107409798 B CN 107409798B
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branch
major
major branch
peach
tree
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CN107409798A (en
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彭福田
肖元松
张亚飞
彭妍
于雯
高晓兰
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Shandong Agricultural University
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Shandong Agricultural University
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G7/00Botany in general
    • A01G7/06Treatment of growing trees or plants, e.g. for preventing decay of wood, for tingeing flowers or wood, for prolonging the life of plants

Abstract

The present invention provides a kind of easy peach " high Y-shaped " shaping methods, this method is simple and convenient and easy to study, it saves labor, operation is simple, tree-like forming is very fast, convenient for management, specifically includes the following steps: (1) does the peach seedlings after new field planting surely, heading height is not less than 85cm;(2) strongest 2 young sprouts of trunk top growing way are chosen as major branch, and are strapped in intersection insertion ground respectively, are stretched on bamboo pole in the ranks, two major branch spreading angles of control are 18-22 degree;(3) when being colonized the 1st year summer pruning, vertical branch and major branch extending head competitive branch nearby are removed;It when being colonized winter pruning in the 1st year, is removed removing to select and remain on trunk for remaining whole of major branch, and all stays short short wooden stake to carry out cutting back processing the annual shoot on 2 major branches;(4) it is colonized the 2nd year and when the time trims later, removes the branch on major branch, do not stay side shoot on major branch, remaining branch carries out slow putting processing, holding uniaxial extension.

Description

A kind of high Y-shaped shaping methods of easy peach and its application
Technical field
The present invention relates to fruit tree cultivation technical field, specially a kind of easy peach " high Y-shaped " shaping methods and its Using.
Background technique
In peach production, wide row dense planting becomes the preferred mode of peach intensive cultivating.Wide row planting culture mode mostly uses whole Strain only has " Y-shaped " or " two major branch shapes " of 2 major branches tree-like.Both are tree-like to be suitable for dense planting peach garden, can be used for scale Production helps orchard worker to achieve preferable economic well-being of workers and staff.
But reported peach " Y-shaped " or " two major branch shapes ", when shaping, generally in trunk away from ground 40-60cm Place is fixed dry, this method causes trunk too low, and tree body bottom ventilation light transmission condition is poor, and pest and disease damage is serious;And fruitful branch on major branch Distance is too small from the ground, is unfavorable for field operation and do mechanization operation.Currently, related peach two is main in production or document report The tree-like two major branches spreading angle of branch is generally 30-50 degree, i.e. angle is 60-100 degree between two major branches, and two main branch angles are excessive, tree Gesture is excessively opened a business, though tree vigo(u)r relatively mitigates, trunk is easy to happen day burning, while major branch back side translucency is poor, the efficiency of light energy utilization It is low;And after entering fruiting period, spreading angle is excessive, and limb is easily sagging, and load capacity is small;It is main at this time such as rainfall strong wind weather Branch base portion is very easy to fracture.In addition, multi-pass crosses the torsion tip, pinching, cutting back, drawing during traditional peach Y-shaped pruning The measures such as branch inspire sublateral shoot, cultivation results branch group;And mostly there are side shoot on major branch, configuration result branch group on side shoot.But by It is complex in branch class composition, and reforming process very complicated, it is not easy to grasp for common orchard worker.Simultaneously because Y-shaped Mostly dense planting peach garden stays side shoot to influence tree body ventilation and penetrating light situation.
In short, at present, lower in relation in peach " Y-shaped " shaping technique, there is trunk, tree vigo(u)r is opened a business, tree Body leg space ventilation light transmission is poor, is unfavorable for field operation and do mechanization operation;Reforming process is complex simultaneously, is unfavorable for grasping, The problems such as operability is poor, and promotion and application are difficult in actual production.Therefore, it is badly in need of researching and developing one kind easily to operate, fits Peach shaping new technology for the intensive laborsaving cultivation production of peach.
Summary of the invention
For the above-mentioned prior art, in order to solve in current peach shaping technique, " Y-shaped " or " two major branch shapes " trunk compared with It is low, it is not easy to do mechanization operation the problems such as two major branch spreading angles are excessive, pruning technique is not complicated easy to operate simultaneously, this Shen It please provide a kind of easy peach " high Y-shaped " shaping methods, this method is not only simple easy to learn, saves labor, operation is simple, tree Formation shape is very fast, and tree management is reasonable, convenient for management, is conducive to the realization of peach garden mechanized operation and peach harvesting high-quality high-yield.
To achieve the above object, the present invention adopts the following technical solutions:
A kind of easy peach " high Y-shaped " shaping methods, comprising the following steps:
(1) the peach seedlings after new field planting are done surely, heading height is not less than 85cm;
(2) strongest 2 young sprouts of trunk top growing way are chosen as major branch, and are strapped in intersection insertion ground respectively, are stretched To on bamboo pole in the ranks, two major branch spreading angles of control are 18-22 degree;
(3) when being colonized the 1st year summer pruning, vertical branch and major branch extending head competitive branch nearby are removed;In field planting the 1st year When winter pruning, removed removing to select and remain on trunk for remaining whole of major branch, and the annual shoot on 2 major branches is all stayed Short short wooden stake carries out cutting back processing;
(4) be colonized the 2nd year and later the time trim when, remove branch excessively thick on major branch, do not stay side shoot on major branch, remaining Branch, which delay, puts processing, keeps uniaxial extension;
Further, in the step (1), heading height 85cm;The present invention improves peach heading height, reserves and adds Big bottom space is conducive to subsequent mechanicalization processing and production;
Further, concrete operation step in the step (2) are as follows: when young sprout it is long to 15cm or more when, choose master in time In dry top 20cm, strongest 2 young sprouts of growing way are strapped in intersection insertion ground as major branch respectively, stretch to bamboo in the ranks On pole, and controlling two major branch spreading angles is 20 degree;At this time due to the incomplete lignifying of young sprout, it is easy to regulate and control major branch growth side To, two scaffold limbs, which are selected and remain, not to be limited by its original direction of growth, and can be simple and effective control major branch between angle, operation letter Just, time and labour saving;
It further, further include in addition to the young sprout for being elected to be major branch in the step (2), remaining young sprout is retained;
Inventor has found in experimental study, two major branch spreading angles is contracted to 20 degree, in conjunction with the Gao Ding in step (1) Dry technology, so that peach tree vigo(u)r is more upright, while the growth of leaf curtain is changed into vertical leaf curtain by traditional horizontal leaf curtain;Tree body knot Structure is reasonable;When shaping simultaneously, in addition to the young sprout for being elected to be major branch, remaining young sprout is retained them temporarily, not only saves pruning rate, but also Using the auxiliary feeding tree body of existing young sprout, the strong tree of root is supported, tree crown is expanded rapidly;And it is subsequent during summer pruning, removal is upright Competitive branch near branch and major branch extending head, to increase the apical dominance of major branch, so that the high Y-shaped of peach is more likely formed;Then Short short wooden stake is all stayed to carry out cutting back processing the primary tiller on 2 major branches when winter pruning, next year sprouts young sprout in cutting back base portion and makees For fruitful branch, operation in this way is conducive to that the axis expanded between major branch and fruitful branch is poor, effectively keeps the growth vigor of major branch, improves tree Body load capacity is prepared for high yield good harvest;
Further, described to remove branch excessively thick on major branch as the branch more than 1/3 rugosity of major branch in the step (4) The tip;Remove more sturdy branch can effectively avoid branch excessively spread dissipate, reduce goods and materials nutrition deterioration;Subsequent reason is reduced simultaneously Branch process, reduces manpower and material resources cost;
Further, above-mentioned shaping methods further include in peach growth course, and height of tree crown controls the 2/3- in line-spacing Between 3/4, peach hat width length is controlled between the 2/5-1/2 of line-spacing;
Further, the height of tree crown control is the 3/4 of line-spacing, and peach hat width length is controlled the 1/2 of line-spacing;Hair Bright people has found under study for action, does not consider influencing each other to control tree body height for tree body between adjacent rows in existing shaping methods substantially Degree and hat width under conditions of can be realized rational close planting, influence minimum, thus most using above-mentioned control measure between each tree body Bigization utilizes luminous energy, improves the yield and quality.
Further, easy peach " high Y-shaped " shaping methods, comprising the following steps:
(1) the peach seedlings after new field planting are done surely, heading height 85cm;
(2) when young sprout it is long to 15cm or more when, choose in the 20cm of trunk top in time, the strongest 2 young sprout conducts of growing way Major branch, and it is strapped in intersection insertion ground respectively, it stretches on bamboo pole in the ranks, and controlling two major branch spreading angles is 20 degree; Simultaneously in addition to 2 young sprouts for being elected to be major branch, other young sprouts are retained them temporarily;
(3) when being colonized the 1st year summer pruning, vertical branch and major branch extending head competitive branch nearby are removed;In field planting the 1st year When winter pruning, removed removing to select and remain on trunk for remaining whole of major branch, and the annual shoot on 2 major branches is all stayed Short short wooden stake carries out cutting back processing;
(4) be colonized the 2nd year and later the time trim when, remove branch excessively thick on major branch, do not stay side shoot on major branch, remaining Branch, which delay, puts processing, keeps uniaxial extension;
(5) in peach growth course, the height of tree crown control is the 3/4 of line-spacing, and the control of peach hat width length is expert at Away from 1/2.
The invention also discloses above-mentioned shaping methods to promote the application in peach production upgrading synergy.
The invention also discloses the peach that above-mentioned shaping methods obtain.
The utility model has the advantages that
1. the present invention can be rapidly completed, peach " high Y-shaped " is tree-like to be moulded, and field machinery is facilitated to be turned into industry;It is pressed from both sides between two major branches Angle is small, and hat width is smaller, and tree body is upright, and top and the bottom branches and leaves ventilation and penetrating light is good, and limb is healthy and strong, into fruiting period after Load amount of tree Greatly, be conducive to the production and upgrading synergy of high-end high-quality fruit.
2. a kind of easy peach " high Y-shaped " shaping methods provided by the invention, simple and effective, it is easily mastered, both fitted It closes used in plantation peasant household and large plantation family's production, has and be suitable for used in Specialty Co-operative Organization and large enterprise's production.
Specific embodiment
It is noted that following detailed description is all illustrative, it is intended to provide further instruction to the application.Unless another It indicates, all technical and scientific terms used herein has usual with the application person of an ordinary skill in the technical field The identical meanings of understanding.
It should be noted that term used herein above is merely to describe specific embodiment, and be not intended to restricted root According to the illustrative embodiments of the application.As used herein, unless the context clearly indicates otherwise, otherwise singular Also it is intended to include plural form, additionally, it should be understood that, when in the present specification using term "comprising" and/or " packet Include " when, indicate existing characteristics, step, operation, device, component and/or their combination.
As background technique is introduced, in the prior art in relation in peach " Y-shaped " shaping technique, exist trunk compared with Low, tree vigo(u)r is opened a business, and tree body leg space ventilation light transmission is poor, is unfavorable for field operation and do mechanization operation;Reforming process is more multiple simultaneously It is miscellaneous, it is unfavorable for grasping, operability is poor;
In view of this, providing a kind of easy peach " high Y-shaped " shaping side in a kind of exemplary embodiment of the invention Method, comprising the following steps:
(1) the peach seedlings after new field planting are done surely, heading height is not less than 85cm;
(2) strongest 2 young sprouts of trunk top growing way are chosen as major branch, and are strapped in intersection insertion ground respectively, are stretched To on bamboo pole in the ranks, two major branch spreading angles of control are 18-22 degree;
(3) when being colonized the 1st year summer pruning, vertical branch and major branch extending head competitive branch nearby are removed;In field planting the 1st year When winter pruning, removed removing to select and remain on trunk for remaining whole of major branch, and the annual shoot on 2 major branches is all stayed Short short wooden stake carries out cutting back processing;
(4) be colonized the 2nd year and later the time trim when, remove branch excessively thick on major branch, do not stay side shoot on major branch, remaining Branch, which delay, puts processing, keeps uniaxial extension;
In another exemplary embodiment of the invention, in the step (1), heading height 85cm;The present invention is by peach Heading height improves, and reserves the bottom space increased, is conducive to subsequent mechanicalization processing and production;
In another exemplary embodiment of the invention, concrete operation step in the step (2) are as follows: long to 15cm to young sprout It when above, chooses in the 20cm of trunk top in time, strongest 2 young sprouts of growing way are strapped in intersection insertion as major branch respectively Ground is stretched on bamboo pole in the ranks, and controlling two major branch spreading angles is 20 degree;At this time due to the incomplete lignifying of young sprout, It is easy to regulate and control the major branch direction of growth, two scaffold limbs, which are selected and remain, not to be limited by its original direction of growth, and control that can be simple and effective Angle between major branch, easy to operate, time and labour saving;
Further include in another exemplary embodiment of the invention, in the step (2) in addition to the young sprout for being elected to be major branch, remaining Young sprout is retained;
In another exemplary embodiment of the invention, in the step (4), described to remove branch excessively thick on major branch be super Cross the branch of 1/3 rugosity of major branch;It is scattered that the more sturdy branch of combing can effectively avoid branch from excessively spreading, and reduces goods and materials nutrition damage Consumption;Subsequent reason branch process is reduced simultaneously, reduces manpower and material resources cost;
In another exemplary embodiment of the invention, above-mentioned shaping methods further include the crown height in peach growth course Between the 2/3-3/4 of line-spacing, peach hat width length is controlled between the 2/5-1/2 of line-spacing for degree control;
In another exemplary embodiment of the invention, the height of tree crown control is the 3/4 of line-spacing, peach hat width length control System is the 1/2 of line-spacing;Inventor has found under study for action, does not consider the mutual of tree body between adjacent rows in existing shaping methods substantially It influences, using above-mentioned control measure, under conditions of can be realized rational close planting, minimum is influenced between each tree body, to maximize Using luminous energy, improve the yield and quality.
In another exemplary embodiment of the invention, easy peach " high Y-shaped " shaping methods, including following step It is rapid:
(1) the peach seedlings after new field planting are done surely, heading height 85cm;
(2) when young sprout it is long to 15cm or more when, choose in the 20cm of trunk top in time, the strongest 2 young sprout conducts of growing way Major branch, and it is strapped in intersection insertion ground respectively, it stretches on bamboo pole in the ranks, and controlling two major branch spreading angles is 20 degree; Simultaneously in addition to 2 young sprouts for being elected to be major branch, other young sprouts are retained them temporarily;
(3) when being colonized the 1st year summer pruning, vertical branch and major branch extending head competitive branch nearby are removed;In field planting the 1st year When winter pruning, removed removing to select and remain on trunk for remaining whole of major branch, and the annual shoot on 2 major branches is all stayed Short short wooden stake carries out cutting back processing;
(4) be colonized the 2nd year and when the time trims later, remove be more than on major branch 1/3 rugosity of major branch branch, on major branch not Side shoot is stayed, remaining branch, which delay, puts processing, keeps uniaxial extension;
(5) in peach growth course, the height of tree crown control is the 3/4 of line-spacing, and the control of peach hat width length is expert at Away from 1/2.
In another exemplary embodiment of the invention, also discloses above-mentioned shaping methods and promoting peach production upgrading synergy In application.
In another exemplary embodiment of the invention, the peach that above-mentioned shaping methods obtain is also disclosed.
Present invention is described combined with specific embodiments below, is not limited only to this example.
Embodiment
It is whole in Taishan District of Taian City province, Shandong Province, town, village red temple village peach garden progress peach " high Y-shaped " in 2011-2016 Shape show-how.It by taking " auspicious 21/ wild peach of coiling " as an example, chooses seedlings strong sprout and is colonized in spring in 2011, seeding row spacing is 2m × 5m.It builds When garden, to new field planting peach seedlings, away from progress Gao Dinggan at the 85cm of ground.When young sprout it is long to 15cm when, choose trunk in time In the 20cm of top, strongest 2 young sprouts of growing way are strapped in intersection insertion ground as major branch respectively, stretch to bamboo pole in the ranks On, and controlling two major branch spreading angles is 20 degree, in addition to 2 young sprouts for being elected to be major branch, other young sprouts are retained them temporarily.Field planting the When 1 year summer pruning, vertical branch and major branch extending head competitive branch nearby are removed, it, will be on trunk except based on selecting and remain when winter pruning Remaining branch of branch all removes, and all stays short short wooden stake to carry out cutting back processing the annual shoot on 2 major branches;It is colonized the 2nd year And when trimming later, the branch and overstocked, excessively prosperous branch that branch stem on major branch is more than 1/3 rugosity of major branch are removed in time, on major branch Side shoot is not stayed, remaining branch, which delay, puts processing, keeps uniaxial extension, pays attention to the fruitful branch that timely updates.Height of tree crown control At 3.75 meters, hat width is controlled at 2.5 meters system.
Comparative example
Using conventional Y-shaped peach shaping technique, wherein peach heading height 40cm, two major branch spreading angles are 40 degree, Remaining routinely production planting type carries out.
By using peach " high Y-shaped " shaping methods of the invention, the field planting of peach seedlings is chosen, and away from ground 85cm Place carries out Gao Dinggan, and trunk is higher, is conducive to peach garden mechanization and field operation.Young sprout it is long to 15cm when, choose trunk top It holds in 20cm, for strongest 2 young sprouts of growing way as major branch, two major branch spreading angles are 20 degree.At this point, young sprout is not completely wooden Change, is easy to regulate and control the major branch direction of growth, two scaffold limbs, which are selected and remain, not to be limited by its original direction of growth, and control that can be simple and effective Angle between major branch processed, easy to operate, time and labour saving.In addition to the young sprout for being elected to be major branch, remaining young sprout is retained them temporarily, is not only saved Pruning rate, but also using the auxiliary feeding tree body of existing young sprout, the strong tree of root is supported, tree crown is expanded rapidly.Field planting current year, tree body height can Up to 2m or more, trunk stem thickness is up to 3.2cm or more;When winter pruning, dredged removing to select and remain on trunk for remaining whole of major branch It removes, high Y-shaped basically forms;Short short wooden stake is all stayed to carry out cutting back processing the annual shoot on 2 major branches, next year is in cutting back base portion Sprout young sprout branch as a result, operation in this way is conducive to that the axis expanded between major branch and fruitful branch is poor, the effectively growth of holding major branch Advantage improves Load amount of tree.At 3.5 meters or so, hat width controls 2.3 meters or so in line-spacing for height of tree crown control.It is colonized the 2nd Year, peach " high Y-shaped " tree-like mould be basically completed, into fruiting period after timely update fruitful branch.The tree-like tree management closes Reason, tree body is upright, and tree body ventilation and penetrating light is good, and limb is healthy and strong, into fruiting period after Load amount of tree it is big, the ventilation of top and the bottom branches and leaves Light transmission is good, and fruit quality is good, and Average fruit soluble solid content can reach 13.4% or more.It is colonized the 3rd year, yield is Up to 1.3 tons/mu;It is colonized the 4th year, yield is up to 2.1 tons/mu;Currently, yield can maintain 3.5 tons/mu or more.And use pair Proportional technique scheme, folding branch rate increase 29.6% compared with embodiment;Percent rate of high quality fruit reduces by 13.5% compared with embodiment;It is tree-like after field planting 3 years Basic forming, is colonized the 3rd year, and yield is 0.9 ton/mu;It is colonized the 4th year, yield is 1.8 tons/mu;Currently, yield can maintain 2.9 tons/mu or so, with embodiment most diverse.
As it can be seen that pruning is simple, is easily mastered using the method for the present invention tree-like forming block;Tree management is reasonable, up and down Portion's branches and leaves ventilation and penetrating light is good, is conducive to harvesting high-quality high-yield and stable yields, it can be achieved that mechanization Labor-saving farm work, and then reach upgrading The purpose of synergy.
The foregoing is merely preferred embodiment of the present application, are not intended to limit this application, for the skill of this field For art personnel, various changes and changes are possible in this application.Within the spirit and principles of this application, made any to repair Change, equivalent replacement, improvement etc., should be included within the scope of protection of this application.

Claims (5)

1. a kind of easy peento tree " high Y-shaped " shaping methods, which comprises the following steps:
(1) the peento tree seedlings after new field planting are done surely, heading height is not less than 85cm;
(2) strongest 2 young sprouts of trunk top growing way are chosen and are used as major branch, when young sprout it is long to 15cm or more when, choose lead in time In dry top 20cm, strongest 2 young sprouts of growing way are strapped in intersection insertion ground as major branch respectively, stretch to bamboo in the ranks On pole, and controlling two major branch spreading angles is 18-22 degree, and in addition to the young sprout for being elected to be major branch, remaining young sprout is retained;
(3) when being colonized the 1st year summer pruning, vertical branch and major branch extending head competitive branch nearby are removed;It is being colonized the 1st year winter When trimming, removed removing to select and remain on trunk for remaining whole of major branch, and short short wooden stake is all stayed into the annual shoot on 2 major branches Carry out cutting back processing;
(4) be colonized the 2nd year and later the time trim when, remove branch excessively thick on major branch, do not stay side shoot on major branch, remaining branch Delay and put processing, keeps uniaxial extension, it is described to remove branch excessively thick on major branch as the branch more than 1/3 rugosity of major branch The tip;
(5) in peach growth course, height of tree crown is controlled between the 2/3-3/4 of line-spacing, and the control of peach hat width length is expert at Away from 2/5-1/2 between.
2. a kind of easy peento tree " high Y-shaped " shaping methods as described in claim 1, which is characterized in that step (1) In, heading height 85cm.
3. a kind of easy peento tree " high Y-shaped " shaping methods as described in claim 1, which is characterized in that step (2) In, the two major branches spreading angle is 20 degree.
4. a kind of easy peento tree " high Y-shaped " shaping methods as described in claim 1, which is characterized in that step (5) In, the height of tree crown control is the 3/4 of line-spacing, and peach hat width length is controlled the 1/2 of line-spacing.
5. any one of the claim 1-4 shaping methods are promoting the application in the production upgrading synergy of peento tree.
CN201710359023.5A 2017-05-19 2017-05-19 A kind of high Y-shaped shaping methods of easy peach and its application Active CN107409798B (en)

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CN108094029B (en) * 2018-01-12 2019-09-17 中国农业科学院果树研究所 A kind of method of the tree-like cultivation peach of the double trunks of high level cadre's Y shape
CN108174739A (en) * 2018-02-11 2018-06-19 刘进 Four major branch rapid shaping method of peach
CN111492881A (en) * 2020-05-06 2020-08-07 中国农业科学院果树研究所 Peach tree shaping and trimming method

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CN101156540B (en) * 2007-11-27 2010-06-30 中国农业大学 Peach tree shape and tree body controlling method for high-density planting
CN103931407B (en) * 2014-05-06 2016-09-28 阎小艳 High-cold regions heliogreenhouse Fructus Persicae cultural method
CN104351005A (en) * 2014-11-27 2015-02-18 山东农业大学 Simple method of tying, supporting and shaping Y-shaped main branch of peach tree

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