CN103931407B - High-cold regions heliogreenhouse Fructus Persicae cultural method - Google Patents

High-cold regions heliogreenhouse Fructus Persicae cultural method Download PDF

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CN103931407B
CN103931407B CN201410186153.XA CN201410186153A CN103931407B CN 103931407 B CN103931407 B CN 103931407B CN 201410186153 A CN201410186153 A CN 201410186153A CN 103931407 B CN103931407 B CN 103931407B
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time
branch
temperature
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CN103931407A (en
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阎小艳
胡占军
孙斌
张涛
苏东涛
郝科星
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Institute Of Agricultural And Environment Resources And Economic Shanxi Academy Of Agricultural Sciences
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Abstract

The invention discloses High-cold regions heliogreenhouse Fructus Persicae cultural method, it is applicable to the greenhouse production peach tree set up north latitude 39 40 degree, including selecting excellent peach tree new varieties, high density field planting, cultivations of specular removal tree-shaped, liquid manure standardized management, carrying out temperature and humidity management and pruning by peach tree period of duration and time cycle, carry out pollinating and pest and disease damage Synthetical prevention manages in good time.Using the cultural method of the present invention, Fructus Persicae per mu yield can reach more than 3000 kilograms, improves more than 20% than prior art;The soluble solid of Peach fruits can reach more than 12%, improves percentage point more than 2 than prior art;The ratio of high-quality Fructus Persicae brings up to more than 85%, improves 15 percentage points than prior art;High-quality Fructus Persicae listing 10 12 days ahead of time, it is thus achieved that bigger economic benefit.

Description

High-cold regions heliogreenhouse Fructus Persicae cultural method
Technical field
The present invention relates to the cultural method of a planting fruit-trees, particularly to the cultural method of peach tree in the heliogreenhouse of High-cold regions.
Background technology
Peach tree is one of Main Cultivation fruit tree of China, the most all has cultivation.According to statistics whole nation cultivated area in 2007 more than 9,000,000 mu, produce Fructus Persicae 400,000 tons, rank first in the world.Fructus Persicae not only outward appearance is gorgeous, and how delicious juice is, and nutritious.Sugary 7.5 grams of every 100 grams of sarcocarp, organic acid 0.2-1.9 gram, 0.4-1.8 gram of protein, 0.1-1.5 gram of fat, vitamin C 31 milligrams, vitamin B 20.2 milligrams.Fructus Persicae, in addition to eating raw, also can make the multiple fabricated products such as sweet can, peach butter, peach juice, dried peach, is one of fruit of deeply being liked by numerous people.Fructus Persicae has the advantages such as precocity fruiting, early high yield, early income in cultivation.Fructus Persicae Drought hardiness is strong, on level land, mountain region, sand ground all can cultivate, and manageability.In recent years, China's Northern cold district peach tree facility cultivation, particularly heliogreenhouse forcing culture area expands year by year.The cultivation of heliogreenhouse peach tree is in specific heliogreenhouse, by to the conciliation of the environmental conditions such as temperature, humidity, illumination, gas, moisture and control, environmental condition needed for making microclimate conditions in greenhouse and peach tree growth promoter adapts, to meet growth and the result of peach tree.Utilizing greenhouse production peach tree to be possible not only to resist the severe cold in winter, release peach tree is forced dormancy, makes peach tree yield positive results ahead of time and list, increase the economic benefit of orchard worker, and the cultivation of greenhouse peach tree can also expand the cultural area of peach tree, extends the market supply phase, prosperity fruit market.But, owing to heliogreenhouse peach tree plantation density, method for planting, planting system, tree structure, shaping and trimming method have certain difference with outdoor cropping;The Temperature and Humidity Control of the heliogreenhouse under different latitude is the most different;The different cultivars of peach tree is the most different to the requirement of humiture at different period of duration.For making peach branch rationally distributed, there is good ventilation and penetrating light condition, growth regulation and the balance of result, reach to prevent from setting body senilism, the prolongation result time limit, the purpose improved the yield and quality, therefore, promote the peach tree new varieties of high-quality and matched high light efficiency cultivation technology for high, for seize the market vacancy, make Fructus Persicae industry, to increase farmers' income, promote rural economy be practical and extremely urgent measure.
Summary of the invention
It is an object of the invention to provide a kind of High-cold regions heliogreenhouse Fructus Persicae cultural method being suitable for north latitude 38-40 degree, use the peach tree of the inventive method cultivation, can increase production more than 20% than prior art yield per unit area, per mu yield reaches more than 3000 kilograms.
The present invention is achieved through the following technical solutions the purpose of the present invention.
The High-cold regions heliogreenhouse Fructus Persicae cultural method of the present invention, it is applicable to the High-cold regions Cultivation in Greenhouse peach tree of the foundation of north latitude 39-40 degree, including selecting excellent peach tree new varieties, high density field planting, the cultivation of specular removal tree-shaped, liquid manure standardized management, carrying out temperature and humidity management and pruning by peach tree period of duration and time cycle, carry out pollinating and the management of pest and disease damage Synthetical prevention in good time.
Described excellent peach tree new varieties are oily No. 4 and spring snow in selecting.
Described middle oily No. 4 is to be bred as by Zhengzhou Fruit-tree Inst., Chinese Agriculture Science Academy.The tree vigo(u)r golden mean of the Confucian school, tree performance half opens a business, and sends out principal stresses and to become principal stresses medium, all kinds of Fruit branches equal energy result, based in, fruit spur result.Flower is bell type, and pollen is many, gets bumper crops in pole.Strong adaptability, early real, high yield, fruit are big, and color and luster is bright and clean beautiful, and taste is sweet good to eat, and quality is excellent, storage tolerance, florescence low-temperature resistance, resistance to late frost, are the excellent sweet Nectarine Cultivars Revealeds of large fruit of a Comprehensive Traits.
Described spring snow is by the precocious Fructus Persicae new varieties of U.S.'s selection-breeding, this kind is that in Radix Fici Hirtae class early-maturing variety, head is maximum, belong to hard solute Fructus Persicae, color complete red bright-coloured, taste crisp sweet, storage tolerance, high yield, be precocious high-quality Fructus Persicae new varieties, and under room temperature, Fructus Persicae stored the phase up to 10 days.Physiology chilling requirement about 410 hours, so it is wide to adapt to plantation scope, except Guangdong, some areas, Fujian can not be planted by open country, other areas of China all adapt to.Fruit is circular, the most top.Large fruit, mean fruit weight 200 grams, maximum fruit weighs 366 grams.Stitching thread is shallow, and fine hair is short and dilute, and two halves are more symmetrical.The comprehensive crimson of peel, cella shelter from heat or light fruit the most also whole red.Peel is not easily stripped.Pulp white, meat is the most crisp, and fiber is few, and local flavor is sweet, fragrance is dense, clingstone.Soluble solid content 16%, in quality, not shedding.The resistance to accumulating of fruit, stores 10 days phases, can store more than 62 days under the conditions of 0 DEG C under room temperature.
Described high density field planting is spacing in the rows 85cm-90cm, and line-spacing is 180-190cm, and north-south is spacing in the rows, and East and West direction is line-spacing.
It is that the trunk of tree is trained specular removal " Y " font tree-shaped that described specular removal tree-shaped is cultivated, and two big trunks to extend to line-spacing direction, and Y-shaped spreading angle is 70.Surely the shoot sent on major branch after doing when planting grows to the long pinching of 22-25cm, the branch grown again after pinching grows to 22-25cm and continues pinching, the tree that growing way is good to carry out three pinching, so every strain tree can reach 30-40 fruitful branch then, every branch averagely ties 1-2 fruit, reserving two major branches extended to both sides, line-spacing direction on trunk, opening angle is the most unreasonable uses method for drawing branches to be adjusted;Then spacing in the rows ground south stay an auxiliary support branch bar, cut again after result, when set body grow fine branch amount reach more than 30 branches time, auxiliary support branch bar will be cut when second time pinching.
Described liquid manure standardized management is: the little tree planted then, and the branch newly grown after determining to do grows to topdress during 20-35cm, executes 8-10 kilogram of carbamide for every mu;Starting from mid-June, every fertilising in 15 days once, totally 3 times, each mu executes N, P2O5、K2O content is the compound fertilizer 15 kilograms of 15 15 15, to irrigate in time after fertilising;Early August sprays biphosphate potassium foliage fertilizer 45 kilograms by 300 times of liquid every mu;Mid-August, peach tree entered into bud differentiation and vegetative storage phase, uses 4-5 cube of fertilizer, pours water in time after fertilising for every mu, covering with ground sheeting to be carried out after pouring water five days;Late November starts to warm up, after intensification 8-10 days, topdresses before blooming, and little tree every mu executes N, P then2O5、K2O content is compound fertilizer 45 kilograms or 75 kilograms of the soaked cake fertilizer of 15 15 15;Enter that young fruit period executes nitrogen, phosphorus, the ratio of potash fertilizer are N P mid-March next year205K2The compound fertilizer of 0=1 0.5 0.5 20 kilograms;Late March enters fruit expanding period, every mu execute nitrogen, phosphorus, the ratio of potash fertilizer are N P205K20=1 0.5 1.5 compound fertilizer 25 kilograms;Early April fruit enters and expands, colour the period of maturation, and executing N, P, K, Ca content by 500 times of liquid mus is 16 3 24 15 rush and apply fertilizer 20 kilograms.
Described carry out temperature and humidity management as peach tree period of duration and time cycle and be: the heliogreenhouse peach tree button canopy time is that late October is at the beginning of 11 months, first detain tight teleblem, do not detain tight foot film, with caudacoria overlying lid straw screen or mat, open rear wall vent, initial several days, be beneficial to logical cold wind, forward foot in a step curtain is closed tight, with cold insulation temperature before sunrise in morning;When nocturnal temperature is too low or meet snow sky do not open daytime straw screen or mat time, the measure of heating will be used;When isothermal chamber temperature reaches 0 DEG C, cover tightly forward foot in a step curtain and straw screen or mat, close air vent;When in greenhouse 0-7.2 DEG C of temperature reach 600 little time effective chilling requirement time, complete to force dormancy, can heat up;Late November starts to warm up, and the temperature in daytime late November in the budding period keeps 17-20 DEG C, and night, temperature maintained 5-8 DEG C;In the December canopy of budding period, temperature is stable at 20-26 DEG C daytime, and night, temperature maintained 7-10 DEG C, and relative humidity controls at 60%-80%;Early January next year enters the florescence, and temperature control in daytime at florescence is at 18-22 DEG C, and night, temperature maintained 10-12 DEG C, and relative humidity controls at 50%-60%, until the florescence terminates;Early March is young fruit period, enters fruit expanding period mid-March, until early April expanding stage terminates, in canopy, temperature control in daytime is between 24-26 DEG C, and night, temperature maintained 10-15 DEG C, and relative humidity controls below 60%;Mid or late April enters into fruit maturation collection period, and in canopy, temperature control in daytime is between 25-28 DEG C, and night, temperature maintained 10-15 DEG C, and relative humidity controls below 60%.When the very night, temperature was stablized by 10 DEG C, remove straw screen or mat, when night, temperature was stablized by 15 DEG C, remove Anti-fogging Film.
Described is pruned by peach tree period of duration and time cycle, including pruning when heating up and pruning in puerperal, prune during intensification and refer to that peach tree reaches certain rest period, the once pruning carried out when starting to heat, enter result and contain the tree of phase, 100 120 fruitful branches, fruitful branch spread length distance will be stayed to be 9-10 centimetre, after pruning, branch length is 10-15 centimetre, it is noted that cut at Flos Lonicerae bud and cut during pruning;Pruning the pruning after referring to fruit harvesting carried out tree body puerperal, result branch carry out the cutting back that bounces back, a length of 4-5 centimetre after retraction, will be thinning out overstocked branch and the branch of excessive growth, pruning rate requires that branch is 10-12 centimetre with the spacing of branch.
Described pollinates in good time, and including honeybee pollination or artificial pollination, when using honeybee pollination, a beehive of 300 honeybees is put in the greenhouse of 0.07 hectare, put the honeybee time every strain tree open one to two colored time;When using artificial pollination, use water-wet finger, touch flower pesticide and stigma with finger gently, do not go directly to strike the post head with hands, prevent stigma to fracture, every other day carry out an artificial pollination, vibrate with foot trunk of playing gently while pollination, promote the space motion of pollen.
Described carries out pest and disease damage Synthetical prevention management in good time, heats up the initial stage including annual late November, cleans field, spray lime sulfur after pruning, and sterilize and hold concurrently pest control;Mid-December, bud revealed the green phase, sprayed 10% imidacloprid wettable powder 2000~3000 times of liquid+2% abamectin emulsifiable concentrates, 1000 times of liquid of 4000 times of liquid+70% thiophanate methyl wettable powders, anti-eliminated aphis, mite pest and disease;Late Febuary next year young fruit period, notes preventing and treating the leaf diseases such as gray mold, brown rot, shothole disease in time;Other periods, preventing and treating of suiting the medicine to the illness in time according to concrete pest and disease damage situation: shothole disease occurrent time, in mid or late Febuary, sprays preventing and treating with 500 times of liquid of 65% Zineb wettable powder;Gray mold onset peak, in mid-February, sprays preventing and treating with 1000 times of liquid of 70% thiophanate methyl wettable powder;There is the budding period in tree in aphid, sprays preventing and treating with 2000 times of liquid of 5% imidacloprid cream;Red spider occurs at early March, sprays preventing and treating with 2000 times of liquid of 20% azocyclotin dispersant;Apple leaf miner occurs at early March, sprays preventing and treating with 25% d ichlorbenzuron, 1000 times of liquid of No. 3 suspending agents.
The present invention uses specular removal " Y " font tree-shaped, and such tree-shaped can sufficiently utilize effective light of whole day, does not has any trunk and branch to affect the illumination of tree of periphery.After trunk reserves two major branches extended to both sides, line-spacing direction, stay an auxiliary support branch bar in south, spacing in the rows ground, be used as to strengthen the overstriking of little tree mobile jib, and can also improve and work as annual production.
To the little tree planted then, when the branch newly grown after determining to do grows to 20-35cm, every mu imposes 8-10 kilogram of carbamide, it is ensured that needed for tree early stage expands the growth that tree crown is master, accelerate the growth of little tree to expand capillary root development.Mid-August, peach tree entered into bud differentiation and vegetative storage phase, uses 4-5 cube of fertilizer, pours water in time after fertilising for every mu, and covering with ground sheeting to be carried out after pouring water five days, primarily to prevent weeds in field, prevents the generation of the excessive disease of canopy humidity.Mid-March next year young fruit period to execute nitrogen phosphorus be main fertilizer, fruit tree expanding stage executes once fertilizer based on nitrogen phosphorus for the first time, and the content of potassium need not too much, primarily to the growth of reinforcement fruit tree.Fruit enters into second time expanding stage to chase after once fertilizer based on high potassium, accelerates coloring ripe.
The present invention is tested with regard to potassium effect in fruit development.The Peach fruits size of middle oily No. 4, is decided by the increase of cell number, volume and intercellular substance, but based on the first two factor.Observing through field test and finding, nectarine fruits growth promoter is typical double " S " types, in growth course, successively occurs mushrooming out the phase for twice, centre once slow trophophase.Mushroom out phase fruit for the first time and indulge footpath than transverse diameter, side Diameter growth soon, be the important stage of cell number increase.Second time rapidly expanding stage fruit transverse diameter, side Diameter growth are slightly faster than vertical footpath, and this phase volume of fruits and weight increase rapidly, and the increase of fruit weight accounts for 50% one the 70% of total fruit weight.Test shows, the impact of nectarine fruits size is mainly realized by potassium by increase second time expanding stage fruit longitudinal and transverse footpath rate of rise rapidly.This grows with Prunus persicanucipersica Schneider own growth and Nutrition absorption characteristic has close ties, because it is interim at nectarine fruits growth promoter, expanding stage is the plant stage the most vigorous to potassium nutrition demand rapidly, the absorption of a large amount of potassium elements, the activity of multiple enzyme in photosynthesis can be improved, accelerate photophosphorylation process, make ATP synthesis quantity increase, thus improve CO2Assimilation ratio, for cell development ensure adequate nutrients.
On the one hand nectarine fruits quality responses shows as the change of appearance luster, is on the other hand then the conversion of internal nutrient substance, and particularly the accumulation of sugar, decides taste of fruit and mouthfeel.In this test, Potassium significantly improves nectarine fruits soluble sugar and ascorbic content, and reduces fruit acidity, makes sugar-acid ratio be significantly higher than comparison.Why potassium can improve fruit sugar content, improves fruit quality, controls the prosperous length of young sprout with it, accelerates the synthesis of carbohydrate, transports, accumulate and be assigned substantial connection.Because potassium is to accelerate assimilation product and the important driving force of nutrient substance operating in plant.Potassium is concentrated mainly on the most active position of plant, can promote conversion and the transport of sugar, makes photosynthate transport to rapidly tuber, tuber or seed.On the one hand potassium can promote photosynthesis, makes carbohydrate increasing number;The most then promote that in fruit, starch converts to sugar, make photosynthate mainly with sucrose and amino acid form from phloem to physiological reaction storehouse (fruit, root system, tuber, seed and seed) transport, thus the beneficially raising of sugar content in fruit, and loading, the exploitation speed of the content of potassium and phloem and drawing off be directly proportional.Energy metabolism in potassium also involved in plant body, this is a kind of indirect action.The process of photosynthesis and Repiration formation energy-rich compound (ATP) needs the participation of potassium ion.Potassium ion can maintain the charge balance of chloroplast as hydrionic exchange ion, luminous energy is made to be transformed into chemical energy ATP and NADPH, and all anabolism of fruit tree, the formation such as the carbohydrate relevant to fruit quality, protein and lipid material all be unable to do without these energy-rich compounds.But this does not imply that potassium application rate is The more the better.Result of study shows, as potassium (K20) when consumption is more than 33.6 kg/ mu, Prunus persicanucipersica Schneider yield and fruit quality have declined, and this may cause the element absorption minimizings such as Ca, Mg relevant with oversupplying potassium.Therefore, under this test land occupation condition, with execute nitrogen, phosphorus, potash fertilizer ratio for N P205K20=1 0.5 1.5, dose is N 22.4 kg/ mu, P20511.2kg/ mu, K2The effect of 033.6 kg/ mu is best.Under above-mentioned fertilizer application condition, the soluble solid of Peach fruits can reach more than 12%, improves percentage point more than 2 than prior art;Fructus Persicae per mu yield can reach more than 3000 kilograms, improves more than 20% than prior art.
Peach tree has the habit of natural dormancy, only meets a certain amount of low temperature, could normal rudiment bloom after breaking dormancy.Low temperature amount needed for this dormancy must being fulfilled for is called chilling requirement.Low temperature amount is time accumulated value, represents with hour.Peach tree completes the optimum of natural dormancy and most effective temperature is about 7.2 DEG C, and the temperature of more than 7.2 DEG C or less than 0 DEG C is the most invalid to the accumulation of requirement of low temperature.Peach tree, under natural growing environment, naturally enters resting state, can normally yield positive results after the dormancy in a winter after fallen leaves.This project research protecting field peach tree cultivation use humiture control technology force dormancy, particularly as follows: the heliogreenhouse peach tree button canopy time be late October at the beginning of 11 months, first detain tight teleblem, do not detain tight foot film, with caudacoria overlying lid straw screen or mat.Open rear wall vent, initial several days, be beneficial to logical cold wind, close forward foot in a step curtain before sunrise in morning tight, with cold insulation temperature.When isothermal chamber temperature reaches 0 DEG C, cover tightly forward foot in a step curtain and straw screen or mat.Close air vent, when nocturnal temperature is too low or meet snow sky do not open daytime straw screen or mat time, take to heat measure.When in greenhouse 0-7.2 DEG C of temperature reach 600 little time more than time, can heat up.
Reasonably carry out peach tree pruning and can control tree vigo(u)r, improve the ventilation and penetrating light condition of tree crown, regulation tree equilibrium relation above and under tree, promote flower_bud formation, increase setting fruit position, it is to avoid biennial bearing phenomenon, extend the result time limit of tree body, reach the purpose of stable and high yields, high-quality.Peach tree tree crown increases with the age of tree and expands, and branch and leaf are too much, certainly will cause outer close interior sky, tree vigo(u)r senilism, biennial bearing seriously and the consequence such as fruit yield, quality reduction.In time, reasonably prune and can have following effects: 1. regulate the reasonable layout of branch and leaf: i.e. on the basis of shaping, adjust branch and leaf density, distribution arrangement and the leaf-area coefficient of tree crown each several part, make effective photosynthetic area of tree crown reach to greatest extent.2. growth regulation and result: make to nourish and grow normally and only prosperous excessive growth;Become colored, solid in right amount and do not weaken tree vigo(u)r;Meanwhile, can prevent fruit tree aging in advance, upgrade in time rejuvenation.3. regulation branch class proportion of composing: brachyplast trophophase is short, consumes less and accumulates early, but leaf is few, photosynthesis is low;Nutrition branch trophophase is long, and consumption is many, but later stage accumulation is the most.Different seeds, the age of tree require there is corresponding, suitable branch class ratio, just can make to set the operating of endotrophic material in Annual growth cycle, distribute and consume, accumulating, carry out by normal growth, reproduction rhythm harmony.By pruning, this purpose can be reached.4. prune also can growth potential between each major branch between equilibrium population plant and on a plant, thus reach yield equilibrium, it is simple to management.Additionally, prune the means being also to make overground part with root system harmonic growth.
Beneficial effects of the present invention: (1) uses the cultural method of the present invention, and Fructus Persicae per mu yield can reach more than 3000 kilograms, improves more than 20% than prior art;The soluble solid of Peach fruits can reach more than 12%, improves percentage point more than 2 than prior art;The ratio of high-quality Fructus Persicae brings up to more than 85%, improves 15 percentage points than prior art.(2) use the cultural method of the present invention, high-quality Fructus Persicae listing 10-12 days ahead of time can be made, seize the market rare phase, obtain bigger economic benefit.
Detailed description of the invention
Embodiment 1
Within 2011, High-cold regions of the present invention heliogreenhouse Fructus Persicae cultural method is used to carry out show-how in Shuozhou City Shuocheng District, Shanxi Province Sheng Yuan vegetable Specialty Co-operative Organization.Demonstration pilot project north latitude 39 ° 18 ', height above sea level 1090 meters, 20 mu of day-light greenhouses of area of demonstrating.
Oil 4 in peach variety employing;Being spacing in the rows 85cm according to greenhouse length and width structural adjustment planting density, north-south is spacing in the rows, and line-spacing is 190 cm, and East and West direction is line-spacing.Every mu of booth field planting 320 strain.
In October, 2011, No. 4 peach trees of oil in booth is planted, the shoot sent on major branch after surely doing of planting grows to the long pinching of 22-25cm, the branch grown again after pinching grows to 22-25cm and continues pinching, the tree that growing way is good to carry out three pinching, so every strain tree can reach 30-40 fruitful branch, every average 1-2 fruit of branch.Reserving two major branches extended to both sides, line-spacing direction on trunk, tree-shaped being cultivated is " Y " font, and Y-shaped spreading angle is 70, uses method for drawing branches adjusting stretching angle.Spacing in the rows ground south stay an auxiliary support branch bar, cut again after result, when set body grow fine branch amount reach more than 30 branches time, auxiliary support branch bar will be cut when second time pinching.
The little tree that liquid manure standardized management is planted then, the branch newly grown after determining to do grows to topdress during 20-35cm, executes 10 kilograms of carbamide for every mu;Starting from mid-June, every fertilising in 15 days once, totally 3 times, each mu executes N, P2O5、K2O content is the compound fertilizer 15 kilograms of 15:15:15, to irrigate in time after fertilising;Early August sprays biphosphate potassium foliage fertilizer 45 kilograms by 300 times of liquid every mu;Mid-August, peach tree entered into bud differentiation and vegetative storage phase, uses 5 cubes of fertilizers, pours water in time after fertilising for every mu, covering with ground sheeting to be carried out after pouring water five days;Late November starts to warm up, and heats up latter 10 days, topdresses before blooming, and little tree every mu executes N, P then2O5、K2O content is the compound fertilizer 45 kilograms of 15 15 15;Enter that young fruit period executes nitrogen, phosphorus, the ratio of potash fertilizer are N P mid-March next year205K2The compound fertilizer of 0=1 0.5 0.5 20 kilograms;Late March enters fruit expanding period, every mu execute nitrogen, phosphorus, the ratio of potash fertilizer are N P205K20=1 0.5 1.5 compound fertilizer 25 kilograms;Early April fruit enters and expands, colour the period of maturation, and executing N, P, K, Ca content by 500 times of liquid mus is 16 3 24 15 rush and apply fertilizer 20 kilograms.
The temperature and humidity management heliogreenhouse peach tree button canopy time is late October, first detain tight teleblem, do not detain tight foot film, with caudacoria overlying lid straw screen or mat, open rear wall vent, initial several days, it is beneficial to logical cold wind, closes forward foot in a step curtain before sunrise in morning tight, with cold insulation temperature, when nocturnal temperature is too low or meet snow sky do not open daytime straw screen or mat time, the measure of heating will be used;When isothermal chamber temperature reaches 0 DEG C, cover tightly forward foot in a step curtain and straw screen or mat, close air vent, when in greenhouse 0-7.2 DEG C of temperature reach 600 little time effective chilling requirement time, complete to force dormancy, can heat up.Late November starts to warm up, and the temperature in daytime late November in the budding period keeps 17-20 DEG C, and night, temperature maintained 5-8 DEG C;In the December canopy of budding period, temperature is stable at 20-26 DEG C daytime, and night, temperature maintained 7-10 DEG C, and relative humidity controls at 60%-80%.Early January enters the florescence, and temperature control in daytime at florescence is at 18-22 DEG C, and night, temperature maintained 10-12 DEG C, and relative humidity controls at 50%-60%, until the florescence terminates.Early March is young fruit period, enters fruit expanding period mid-March, until early April expanding stage terminates, in canopy, temperature control in daytime is between 24-26 DEG C, and night, temperature maintained 10-15 DEG C, and relative humidity controls below 60%.Mid or late April enters into fruit maturation collection period.In canopy, temperature control in daytime is between 25-28 DEG C, and night, temperature maintained 10-15 DEG C, and relative humidity controls below 60%.When the very night, temperature was stablized by 10 DEG C, remove straw screen or mat, when night, temperature was stablized by 15 DEG C, remove Anti-fogging Film.
Prune it is important that heat up time and twice pruning in puerperal.The once pruning carried out when annual late November starts to heat, the tree of next year entrance result Sheng phase, stay 100 120 fruitful branches, fruitful branch spread length distance to be 9-10 centimetre, after pruning, branch length is 10-18 centimetre.Cut at Flos Lonicerae bud during pruning and cut.Pruning the pruning referring to that tree body is carried out after fruit harvesting by the annual the first tenday period of a month in May puerperal, result branch carries out the cutting back that bounces back, a length of 4-5 centimetre after retraction, will be thinning out overstocked branch and the branch of excessive growth, pruning rate requires that branch is 10-12 centimetre with the spacing of branch.
The pollination of peach tree uses honeybee pollination, and a beehive of 300 honeybees is put in the greenhouse of 0.07 hectare, put the honeybee time every strain tree open one to two colored time.
The principle of pest and disease damage Synthetical prevention technology is based on cultural control, advocates Biological control, scientifical use chemical prevention, and emphasis carries out the insect pest preventing and controlling work of following 3 critical periods.(1) annual late November heats up the initial stage, cleans field, spray lime sulfur after pruning, and sterilize and hold concurrently pest control;(2) bud mid-December reveals the green phase, sprays 10% imidacloprid wettable powder 2000~3000 times of liquid+2% abamectin emulsifiable concentrates, 1000 times of liquid of 4000 times of liquid+70% thiophanate methyl wettable powders, anti-eliminates aphis, mite pest and disease;(3) late Febuary next year young fruit period, notes preventing and treating the leaf diseases such as gray mold, brown rot, shothole disease in time;Other periods, preventing and treating of suiting the medicine to the illness in time according to concrete pest and disease damage situation: (1) shothole disease: greenhouse occurrent time, in mid or late Febuary, sprays preventing and treating with 500 times of liquid of 65% Zineb wettable powder;(2) gray mold: greenhouse onset peak, in mid-February, sprays preventing and treating with 1000 times of liquid of 70% thiophanate methyl wettable powder;(3) aphid: the budding period in tree occurs, sprays preventing and treating with 2000 times of liquid of 5% imidacloprid cream;(4) red spider: greenhouse occurs at early March, sprays preventing and treating with 2000 times of liquid of 20% azocyclotin dispersant;(5) apple leaf miner: greenhouse occurs at early March, sprays preventing and treating with 25% d ichlorbenzuron, 1000 times of liquid of No. 3 suspending agents.
Gathering in the crops every per mu yield in mid-April, 2012 and reach 3220 kilograms, the soluble solid of Peach fruits reaches 12.2%, and the ratio of high-quality Fructus Persicae is 87%, relatively with place of production greenhouse cultivation Fructus Persicae listing 12 days ahead of time.
Embodiment 2
Within 2012, High-cold regions of the present invention heliogreenhouse Fructus Persicae cultural method is used to carry out show-how in demonstration area, branch, red flag pasture two, Shuozhou City development zone, Shanxi Province.Demonstration pilot project north latitude 39 ° 18 ', height above sea level 1090 meters, 100 mu of day-light greenhouses of area of demonstrating.
Peach variety uses spring snow;Being spacing in the rows 90cm according to greenhouse length and width structural adjustment planting density, north-south is spacing in the rows, and line-spacing is 180 cm, and East and West direction is line-spacing.Every mu of booth field planting 320 strain.
In October, 2012, No. 4 peach trees of oil in booth is planted, the shoot sent on major branch after surely doing of planting grows to the long pinching of 22-25cm, the branch grown again after pinching grows to 22-25cm and continues pinching, the tree that growing way is good to carry out three pinching, so every strain tree can reach 30-40 fruitful branch, every average 1-2 fruit of branch.Reserving two major branches extended to both sides, line-spacing direction on trunk, tree-shaped being cultivated is " Y " font, and Y-shaped spreading angle is 70, uses method for drawing branches adjusting stretching angle.Spacing in the rows ground south stay an auxiliary support branch bar, cut again after result, when set body grow fine branch amount reach more than 30 branches time, auxiliary support branch bar will be cut when second time pinching.
The little tree that liquid manure standardized management is planted then, the branch newly grown after determining to do grows to topdress during 20-35cm, executes 8 kilograms of carbamide for every mu;Starting from mid-June, every fertilising in 15 days once, totally 3 times, each mu executes N, P2O5、K2O content is the compound fertilizer 15 kilograms of 15:15:15, to irrigate in time after fertilising;Early August sprays foliage fertilizer potassium dihydrogen phosphate 45 kilograms by 300 times of liquid every mu;Mid-August, peach tree entered into bud differentiation and vegetative storage phase, uses 4 cubes of fertilizers, pours water in time after fertilising for every mu, covering with ground sheeting to be carried out after pouring water five days;Late November starts to warm up, and heats up latter 8 days, topdresses before blooming, and little tree every mu executes N, P then2O5、K2O content is the compound fertilizer 45 kilograms of 15 15 15;Enter that young fruit period executes nitrogen, phosphorus, the ratio of potash fertilizer are N P mid-March next year205K2The compound fertilizer of 0=1 0.5 0.5 20 kilograms;Late March enters fruit expanding period, every mu execute nitrogen, phosphorus, the ratio of potash fertilizer are N P205K20=1 0.5 1.5 compound fertilizer 25 kilograms;Early April fruit enters and expands, colour the period of maturation, and executing N, P, K, Ca content by 500 times of liquid mus is 16 3 24 15 rush and apply fertilizer 20 kilograms.
The temperature and humidity management heliogreenhouse peach tree button canopy time is late October, first detain tight teleblem, do not detain tight foot film, with caudacoria overlying lid straw screen or mat, open rear wall vent, initial several days, it is beneficial to logical cold wind, closes forward foot in a step curtain before sunrise in morning tight, with cold insulation temperature, when nocturnal temperature is too low or meet snow sky do not open daytime straw screen or mat time, the measure of heating will be used;When isothermal chamber temperature reaches 0 DEG C, cover tightly forward foot in a step curtain and straw screen or mat, close air vent, when in greenhouse 0-7.2 DEG C of temperature reach 600 little time effective chilling requirement time, complete to force dormancy, can heat up.Late November starts to warm up, and the temperature in daytime late November in the budding period keeps 17-20 DEG C, and night, temperature maintained 5-8 DEG C;In the December canopy of budding period, temperature is stable at 20-26 DEG C daytime, and night, temperature maintained 7-10 DEG C, and relative humidity controls at 60%-80%.Early January enters the florescence, and temperature control in daytime at florescence is at 18-22 DEG C, and night, temperature maintained 10-12 DEG C, and relative humidity controls at 50%-60%, until the florescence terminates.Early March is young fruit period, enters fruit expanding period mid-March, until early April expanding stage terminates, in canopy, temperature control in daytime is between 24-26 DEG C, and night, temperature maintained 10-15 DEG C, and relative humidity controls below 60%.Mid or late April enters into fruit maturation collection period.In canopy, temperature control in daytime is between 25-28 DEG C, and night, temperature maintained 10-15 DEG C, and relative humidity controls below 60%.When the very night, temperature was stablized by 10 DEG C, remove straw screen or mat, when night, temperature was stablized by 15 DEG C, remove Anti-fogging Film.
Prune it is important that heat up time and twice pruning in puerperal.The once pruning carried out when annual late November starts to heat, the tree of next year entrance result Sheng phase, stay 100 120 fruitful branches, fruitful branch spread length distance to be 9-10 centimetre, after pruning, branch length is 10-18 centimetre.Cut at Flos Lonicerae bud during pruning and cut.Pruning the pruning referring to that tree body is carried out after fruit harvesting by the annual the first tenday period of a month in May puerperal, result branch carries out the cutting back that bounces back, a length of 4-5 centimetre after retraction, will be thinning out overstocked branch and the branch of excessive growth, pruning rate requires that branch is 10-12 centimetre with the spacing of branch.
The pollination of peach tree uses artificial pollination, uses water-wet finger, touches flower pesticide and stigma with finger gently, do not go directly to strike the post head with hands, prevent stigma to fracture, every other day carry out an artificial pollination, vibrate with foot trunk of playing gently while pollination, promote the space motion of pollen.
The principle of pest and disease damage Synthetical prevention technology is based on cultural control, advocates Biological control, scientifical use chemical prevention, and emphasis carries out the insect pest preventing and controlling work of following 3 critical periods.(1) annual late November heats up the initial stage, cleans field, spray lime sulfur after pruning, and sterilize and hold concurrently pest control;(2) bud mid-December reveals the green phase, sprays 10% imidacloprid wettable powder 2000~3000 times of liquid+2% abamectin emulsifiable concentrates, 1000 times of liquid of 4000 times of liquid+70% thiophanate methyl wettable powders, anti-eliminates aphis, mite pest and disease;(3) late Febuary next year young fruit period, notes preventing and treating the leaf diseases such as gray mold, brown rot, shothole disease in time;Other periods, preventing and treating of suiting the medicine to the illness in time according to concrete pest and disease damage situation: (1) shothole disease: greenhouse occurrent time, in mid or late Febuary, sprays preventing and treating with 500 times of liquid of 65% Zineb wettable powder;(2) gray mold: greenhouse onset peak, in mid-February, sprays preventing and treating with 1000 times of liquid of 70% thiophanate methyl wettable powder;(3) aphid: the budding period in tree occurs, sprays preventing and treating with 2000 times of liquid of 5% imidacloprid cream;(4) red spider: greenhouse occurs at early March, sprays preventing and treating with 2000 times of liquid of 20% azocyclotin dispersant;(5) apple leaf miner: greenhouse occurs at early March, sprays preventing and treating with 25% d ichlorbenzuron, 1000 times of liquid of No. 3 suspending agents.
In mid or late April, 2013 gathers in the crops every per mu yield and reaches 3080 kilograms, and the soluble solid of Peach fruits reaches 12.1%, and the ratio of high-quality Fructus Persicae is 86%, relatively with place of production greenhouse cultivation Fructus Persicae listing 10-12 days ahead of time.
Embodiment 3
Within 2012, High-cold regions of the present invention heliogreenhouse Fructus Persicae cultural method is used to carry out show-how in the Dang Liu village, Southern Suburb, Datong City, Shanxi Province vegetable Specialty Co-operative Organization.Demonstration pilot project north latitude 39 ° 98 ', height above sea level 1040 meters, 10 mu of day-light greenhouses of area of demonstrating.Oil 4 in peach variety employing.Being spacing in the rows 85cm according to greenhouse length and width structural adjustment planting density, north-south is spacing in the rows, and line-spacing is 190 cm, and East and West direction is line-spacing.Every mu of booth field planting 320 strain.In October, 2012, planting peach tree at booth, management method is with embodiment 1.
In mid or late April, 2013 gathers in the crops every per mu yield and reaches 3120 kilograms, and the soluble solid of Peach fruits reaches 12.3%, and the ratio of high-quality Fructus Persicae is 89%, relatively with place of production greenhouse cultivation Fructus Persicae listing 10-12 days ahead of time.

Claims (1)

1. High-cold regions heliogreenhouse Fructus Persicae cultural method, it is adaptable to the High-cold regions Cultivation in Greenhouse Fructus Persicae of the foundation of north latitude 39-40 degree
Tree, including selecting excellent peach tree new varieties, high density field planting, cultivations of specular removal tree-shaped, liquid manure standardized management, carrying out temperature and humidity management and pruning by peach tree period of duration and time cycle, carry out pollinating and pest and disease damage Synthetical prevention manages in good time, it is characterised in that:
(1) peach variety is middle oily No. 4 and spring snow;
(2) planting density is spacing in the rows 90cm, and line-spacing is 180-190cm, and north-south is spacing in the rows, and East and West direction is line-spacing;
(3) trunk of tree being trained specular removal " Y " font tree-shaped, two big trunks to extend to line-spacing direction, and Y font is opened a business
Angle is 70;The cultural method of described specular removal " Y " font tree-shaped is, surely the shoot sent on major branch after doing when planting grows to the long pinching of 22cm, the branch grown again after pinching grows to 22-25cm and continues pinching, the tree that growing way is good to carry out three pinching, so every strain tree can reach 30-40 fruitful branch then, every branch averagely ties 1-2 fruit, reserves two major branches extended to both sides, line-spacing direction on trunk, and opening angle is the most unreasonable uses method for drawing branches to be adjusted;Then spacing in the rows ground south stay an auxiliary support branch bar, cut again after result, when set body grow fine branch amount reach more than 30 branches time, auxiliary support branch bar will be cut when second time pinching;
(4) strengthening fertilizer irrigation standardized management, the little tree planted then, the branch newly grown after determining to do grows to topdress during 20-35cm, executes 8-10 kilogram of carbamide for every mu;From 6 middle of the month, every fertilising in 15 days once, totally 3 times, each mu executes N, P2O5、K2O content is the compound fertilizer 15 kilograms of 15: 15: 15, to irrigate in time after fertilising;The first tenday period of a month in August spray foliage fertilizer potassium dihydrogen phosphate 45 kilograms by 300 times of liquid every mu;8 the middle of the month peach tree enter into bud differentiation and vegetative storage phase, use 4-5 cube of fertilizer, pour water in time after fertilising for every mu, covering with ground sheeting to be carried out after pouring water five days;The last ten-days period in November start to warm up, after intensification 8-10 days, topdress before blooming, and little tree every mu executes N, P then2O5、K2O content is compound fertilizer 45 kilograms or 75 kilograms of the soaked cake fertilizer of 15: 15: 15;Enter that young fruit period executes nitrogen, phosphorus, the ratio of potash fertilizer are N: P middle of the month next year 32O5 : K2O=1 : the compound fertilizer of 0.5: 0.5 20 kilograms;Enter fruit expanding period the last ten-days period in March, every mu execute nitrogen, phosphorus, the ratio of potash fertilizer are N: P2O5 : K2O=1 : the compound fertilizer of 0.5: 1.5 25 kilograms;Fruit entered and expanded, colour the period of maturation the first tenday period of a month in April, and executing N, P, K, Ca content by 500 times of liquid mus is 16: 3: 24: 15 rush and apply fertilizer 20 kilograms;
(5) carry out temperature and humidity management by peach tree period of duration and time cycle, the heliogreenhouse peach tree button canopy time be the last ten-days period in October extremely
At the beginning of 11 months, first detain tight teleblem, do not detain tight foot film, with caudacoria overlying lid straw screen or mat, open rear wall vent, initial several days, be beneficial to logical cold wind, close forward foot in a step curtain before sunrise in morning tight, with cold insulation temperature;When nocturnal temperature is too low or meet snow sky do not open daytime straw screen or mat time, the measure of heating will be used;When isothermal chamber temperature reaches 0 DEG C, cover tightly forward foot in a step curtain and straw screen or mat, close air vent;When in greenhouse 0-7.2 DEG C of temperature reach 600 little time effective chilling requirement time, complete to force dormancy, can heat up;The last ten-days period in November start to warm up, and the temperature in the daytime last ten-days period in November in the budding period keeps 20 DEG C, and night, temperature maintained 5-8 DEG C;In the December canopy of budding period, temperature is stable at 20-26 DEG C daytime, and night, temperature maintained 7-10 DEG C, and relative humidity controls 60%;The first tenday period of a month January next year enter the florescence, and temperature control in daytime at florescence is at 22 DEG C, and night, temperature maintained 10-12 DEG C, and relative humidity controls 50%, until the florescence terminates;The first tenday period of a month in March are young fruit period, enter fruit expanding period 3 middle of the month, until the first tenday period of a month in April, expanding stage terminated, in canopy, temperature control in daytime is between 24-26 DEG C, and night, temperature maintained 10-15 DEG C, and relative humidity controls below 60%;Entering into fruit maturation collection period the middle ten days and the last ten days in April, in canopy, temperature control in daytime is between 25-28 DEG C, and night, temperature maintained 10-15 DEG C, and relative humidity controls below 60%;When the very night, temperature was stablized by 10 DEG C, remove straw screen or mat, when night, temperature was stablized by 15 DEG C, remove Anti-fogging Film;
(6) prune by peach tree period of duration and time cycle, including pruning when heating up and pruning in puerperal, prune during intensification and refer to that peach tree reaches certain rest period, the once pruning carried out when starting to heat, enter result and contain the tree of phase, 100 120 fruitful branches, fruitful branch spread length distance will be stayed to be 9-10 centimetre, after pruning, branch length is 10-15 centimetre, it is noted that cut at Flos Lonicerae bud and cut during pruning;Pruning the pruning after referring to fruit harvesting carried out tree body puerperal, result branch carry out the cutting back that bounces back, a length of 4-5 centimetre after retraction, will be thinning out overstocked branch and the branch of excessive growth, pruning rate requires that branch is 10-12 centimetre with the spacing of branch;
(7) pollinating, including honeybee pollination or artificial pollination, when using honeybee pollination, the greenhouse of 0.07 hectare puts 300 in good time
One beehive of honeybee, put the honeybee time every strain tree open one to two colored time;When using artificial pollination, use water-wet finger, use hands
Refer to touch flower pesticide and stigma gently, do not go directly to strike the post head with hands, prevent stigma to fracture, the most manually award
Powder, vibrates with foot trunk of playing gently while pollination, promotes the space motion of pollen;
(8) carrying out pest and disease damage Synthetical prevention management in good time, heat up the initial stage including the annual last ten-days period in November, clean field, spray lime sulfur after pruning, sterilize and hold concurrently pest control;12 the middle of the month bud reveal the green phases, spray 10% imidacloprid wettable powder 2000~3000 times of liquid+2% abamectin emulsifiable concentrates, 1000 times of liquid of 4000 times of liquid+70% thiophanate methyl wettable powders, anti-eliminate aphis, mite pest and disease;Last ten-days period February next year, young fruit period, noted preventing and treating gray mold, brown rot, shothole disease leaf diseases in time;Other periods, preventing and treating of suiting the medicine to the illness in time according to concrete pest and disease damage situation: shothole disease occurrent time, in the middle ten days and the last ten days in February, sprays preventing and treating with 500 times of liquid of 65% Zineb wettable powder;Gray mold onset peak, in 2 middle of the month, sprays preventing and treating with 1000 times of liquid of 70% thiophanate methyl wettable powder;There is the budding period in tree in aphid, sprays preventing and treating with 2000 times of liquid of 5% imidacloprid cream;Red spider occurred in the first tenday period of a month in March, sprayed preventing and treating with 2000 times of liquid of 20% azocyclotin dispersant;Apple leaf miner occurred in the first tenday period of a month in March, sprayed preventing and treating with 25% d ichlorbenzuron, 1000 times of liquid of No. 3 suspending agents.
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