CN106416904B - A kind of breeding method of branded oil tea seedling - Google Patents

A kind of breeding method of branded oil tea seedling Download PDF

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CN106416904B
CN106416904B CN201610891626.5A CN201610891626A CN106416904B CN 106416904 B CN106416904 B CN 106416904B CN 201610891626 A CN201610891626 A CN 201610891626A CN 106416904 B CN106416904 B CN 106416904B
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seedling
soil
days
grafting
water
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CN106416904A (en
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柏斐
施长城
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Hunan Tangjiashan Tea-Oil Tree Development Co Ltd
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Hunan Tangjiashan Tea-Oil Tree Development Co Ltd
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/005Cultivation methods
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G2/00Vegetative propagation
    • A01G2/30Grafting
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G24/00Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G9/00Cultivation in receptacles, forcing-frames or greenhouses; Edging for beds, lawn or the like
    • A01G9/02Receptacles, e.g. flower-pots or boxes; Glasses for cultivating flowers
    • A01G9/029Receptacles for seedlings
    • A01G9/0299Handling or transporting of soil blocks or seedlings
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05BPHOSPHATIC FERTILISERS
    • C05B9/00Fertilisers based essentially on phosphates or double phosphates of magnesium
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05DINORGANIC FERTILISERS NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C05B, C05C; FERTILISERS PRODUCING CARBON DIOXIDE
    • C05D9/00Other inorganic fertilisers
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05DINORGANIC FERTILISERS NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C05B, C05C; FERTILISERS PRODUCING CARBON DIOXIDE
    • C05D9/00Other inorganic fertilisers
    • C05D9/02Other inorganic fertilisers containing trace elements
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05FORGANIC FERTILISERS NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C05B, C05C, e.g. FERTILISERS FROM WASTE OR REFUSE
    • C05F11/00Other organic fertilisers
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05FORGANIC FERTILISERS NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C05B, C05C, e.g. FERTILISERS FROM WASTE OR REFUSE
    • C05F3/00Fertilisers from human or animal excrements, e.g. manure
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05FORGANIC FERTILISERS NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C05B, C05C, e.g. FERTILISERS FROM WASTE OR REFUSE
    • C05F5/00Fertilisers from distillery wastes, molasses, vinasses, sugar plant or similar wastes or residues, e.g. from waste originating from industrial processing of raw material of agricultural origin or derived products thereof
    • C05F5/002Solid waste from mechanical processing of material, e.g. seed coats, olive pits, almond shells, fruit residue, rice hulls
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05GMIXTURES OF FERTILISERS COVERED INDIVIDUALLY BY DIFFERENT SUBCLASSES OF CLASS C05; MIXTURES OF ONE OR MORE FERTILISERS WITH MATERIALS NOT HAVING A SPECIFIC FERTILISING ACTIVITY, e.g. PESTICIDES, SOIL-CONDITIONERS, WETTING AGENTS; FERTILISERS CHARACTERISED BY THEIR FORM
    • C05G3/00Mixtures of one or more fertilisers with additives not having a specially fertilising activity
    • C05G3/80Soil conditioners

Abstract

A kind of breeding method of branded oil tea seedling disclosed by the invention, is related to commodity trees seedling-raising technique field, and cultivating process is as follows: (i), oil tea cladus cultivate: 1., kind branch selection;2., kind branch pretreatment;3., kind branch transplanting: A, cultivate ground selection;B, readjustment of field plot;4., cladus selection;1., oil tea Root-stock selection (ii), graft:;2., cut anvil;3., embedding fringe binding;(iii), grafting is cultivated: 1., grafting selects with cultivating and arrangement;2., grafting transplantation of seedlings;3., Managing small seeding;(iv), big seedling cultivation: 1., big seedling cultivation select and arrange;2., tree transplanted;3., seedlings management: A, initial prophase management;B, initial final-period management;C, middle and later periods management.Have the characteristics that survival rate is high, fast at garden, yield is high after transplanting, can be not only used for cultivating oil tea seedlings, it can also be used to the cultivation of other plant seedlings.

Description

A kind of breeding method of branded oil tea seedling
Technical field
The present invention relates to commodity trees seedling-raising technique field, especially a kind of breeding method of branded oil tea seedling.
Technical background
Oil tea is the distinctive traditional oil tree in China, and one of the important leverage of maintenance China's grain and oil safety.Currently, China oil tea is mostly low production forest, and a large amount of high-quality sapling is needed to improve oil tea low production forest.The cultivation of oil tea nursery stock, tradition Method is picking camellia oleifera fruit seed growing seedling as stock, then chooses good oil tea fruitful branch and carry out as grafting cladus Grafting." breeding method of oil tea sapling ", this method as disclosed in Chinese patent (number of patent application 201310519325.6) It is: is planted in by selecting tea seed seed, cultivating rootstock seedling, selection choiceness scion, scion and rootstock seedling grafting, grafting In Light media non-woven container, plastic covering film, shading shed, the temperature in control plastic film and wet are built above seedbed Degree, controlling disease, increase substantially the survival rate of grafting.There are also Chinese patent, (number of patent application is 201310519437.1) disclosed " propagation method of oil tea sapling grafting radical bud ", comprising the following steps: a. dries in the shade tea fruit certainly So tea seed of cracking abjection, selects that its full grain is big, seed of no disease and pests harm, and it is spare to carry out sand hiding for seed soaking disinfection;B.3 the first tenday period of a month moon After temperature is stablized, clean sand is selected, sterilizes final finishing into casting bed;One layer of seed of heavy seeding, then lid layer of sand, and flatten, compress, It is covered with film;C.4 between the moon~May, the rootstock seedling length that tea seed germination is grown is at 8 centimetres~12 centimetres and layer of sand is exposed at end When;Rootstock seedling is risen and grafts radical bud to get oil tea sapling.
Technology contents
The oil tea sapling cultivation side that the purpose of the present invention is to provide survival rates after a kind of transplanting is high, fast at garden, yield is high Method.
To achieve the above object, the technical solution adopted by the present invention is that inventing a kind of cultivation side of branded oil tea seedling Method, cultivating process are as follows:
(i), oil tea cladus is cultivated:
1., kind branch selection:
In existing camellia oleifera lam, selection is flourishing, stem is sturdy, fruiting rate is high, the tea oil tree of no disease and pests harm, selects color Pool is good, limb is straight, leaf is bud green, and newborn spray is as kind of a branch within 1 year;
2., kind branch pretreatment:
By the kind branch of picking with 3-5 root/bundle, being put into concentration is that urging in root agent for 100-200ppm impregnates 10-30min, Afterwards, fixed, immersion 8-20h will be put into silt slurry by the kind branch for urging root agent to impregnate, and keeping the temperature of silt slurry is 24-30 DEG C, become pretreatment kind branch;
3., kind branch transplanting:
A, ground selection is cultivated:
The gradient is selected to be lower than 10 degree, heliotropism is good, and the soil is porous, yellow soil or sand soil of the soil thickness in 35cm or more Earth is used as wait cultivate ground;
B, readjustment of field plot:
A, it turns down the bed slot: will wait cultivate deep-cut 25cm or more, and sort out the bed slot of wide 3-6m, long 8-15m;
B, filler: it first is put into mixing river silt in bed trench bottom, with a thickness of the 1/4 of groove depth;Mixed soil is inserted again mixed River silt surface is closed, with a thickness of the 2/4 of groove depth;Then will mixing topsoil fill up remaining space, flatten, wait transplant Plot;
C, it transplants:
It is first 35-50cm by line space in the bed slot in plot to be transplanted, the plantation that strain spacing is 25-35cm excavation taper Cave, cave depth are 15-20cm, and cave width is 10-18cm;Pretreatment kind branch is covered as in 1/cave insertion kind plant hole with soil again, Compacting, pours root water, while the prevention against water-logging ridge heap that the gradient is 5-10 ° is formed around root, becomes kind of a branch cultivation seedling;
D, it manages:
It after pretreatment kind branch transplanting, when temperature is at 20-30 DEG C, watered every 3-5 days, water is 100-200ml/ plants; It applied fertilizer every 5-8 days, organic fertilizer is 10-30g/ plants or decomposed dung is 60-100g/ plants;
It when temperature is at 30 DEG C or more, watered every 2-3 days, water is 250-400ml/ plants, applied fertilizer, has every 4-6 days Machine fertilizer is 10-30g/ plants or decomposed dung is 60-100g/ plants;
When temperature is at 20 DEG C or less, in the straw of the above thickness of Waterlogged soil 3cm or mulch is covered along line-spacing direction, often 24-32 DEG C of warm water was poured every 3-4 days, water is 160-240ml/ plants;It applied fertilizer every 7-9 days, applying decomposed dung is 240- 350g/ plants;
4., cladus selection:
When kind of branch cultivation seedling is after cultivation in 4 months, it is bud green that selection wherein grows situation stabilization, no disease and pests harm, leaf Kind branch, newborn, branch diameter 0.35cm or more spray as oil tea cladus;
(ii), graft:
1., oil tea Root-stock selection:
It is cultivated in nursery in existing Seed of Camellia oleifera, selects good growth situation, no disease and pests harm, ground diameter in 2.5cm or more, has The seedling of 2 sections or more cotyledons is as stock;
2., cut anvil: carried out at 3cm above the cotyledon petiole it is vertical cut, cut out the anvil that length is 2-3.5cm, depth is a diameter 2/3 Mouthful;
3., embedding fringe binding: by the oil tea cladus cut be embedded in anvil mouth, be aligned forming layer, appearance mix soil surround connects Mouth one encloses, and with a thickness of 1-1.5 times of diameter of stock, then surrounds one with plastic film and encloses, covers soil, then use cord, become Grafting;Then, become grafting to be transplanted after 3-4 months according to Routine Management method;
(iii), grafting is cultivated:
1., grafting cultivate ground selection and arrange:
A, grafting cultivates ground selection: selection gentle gradient, the soil is porous, and yellow soil of the soil thickness in 35cm or more is made It waits cultivating ground for grafting;
B, grafting cultivates ground and arranges: grafting is deep-cut into 30cm or more with waiting cultivating, remove forest or shrub tree stump, Weeds and stone, and the grafting groundbed slot to be cultivated of wide 4-7m, long 10-15m are sorted out simultaneously;
C, grafting groundbed slot to be cultivated arranges:
A, thickness first is stacked in the mixing river silt of 2-5cm, as slot bottom, leveling in bottom;
B, again will be by rice-straw ash: quick lime be by 1:(0.3-0.45) the mixed material that mixes of weight ratio be laid on it is mixed River silt surface is closed, with a thickness of 2-4cm;
C, the surface of filling soil filling mixed material is flattened with a thickness of the 2/3 of remaining space again;
D, the thiophanate methyl solution for being again 500-700ppm with concentration, by 4-10ml/m2The ratio on filling soil surface Sprinkling, then, natural drying 2-4 days;
E, filling surface soil is filled up into remaining space again, flattens, becomes grafting bed slot to be planted;
2., grafting transplantation of seedlings:
A, it opens cave: excavating the kind plant hole of taper in the grafting bed slot to be planted of leveling, cave depth 20cm or more, spacing is 25-35cm, line-spacing 35-50cm, cave width are 12-16cm;
B, lifting: grafting to be transplanted band soil is risen, to keep the seedling soil weight of institute's adhesive tape be 8-15 times of seedling weight, Root length is 8-16cm, is become wait transplant grafting seedling;
C, plant: it will be wait transplant in grafting seedling implantation kind plant hole, righting compacting, then with soil covering graft union and extremely At adjacent axillary bud, root water is poured in compacting, and water is 100-200ml/ plants, becomes grafting seedling;
3., Managing small seeding:
It after plant, when temperature is at 20-30 DEG C, watered every 3-5 days, water is 100-200ml/ plants;It was applied every 5-8 days Fertilizer, organic fertilizer is 10-30g/ plants or decomposed dung is 60-100g/ plants;
It when temperature is at 30 DEG C or more, watered every 2-3 days, water is 250-400ml/ plants, applied fertilizer, has every 4-6 days Machine fertilizer is 10-30g/ plants or decomposed dung is 60-100g/ plants;
When temperature is at 20 DEG C or less, in the straw of the above thickness of Waterlogged soil 3cm or mulch is covered along line-spacing direction, often 24-32 DEG C of warm water was poured every 3-4 days, water is 220-340ml/ plants;It applied fertilizer every 7-9 days, applying decomposed dung is 240- 350g/ plants;
It is other conventionally, after 2-3 months, become grafting seedling to be transplanted;
(iv), big seedling cultivation:
1., select and arrange to big seedling cultivation:
A, select to big seedling cultivation: selection gentle gradient, the soil is porous, and soil thickness is in the soil of 35cm or more as big Seedling waits cultivating ground;
B, it arranges to big seedling cultivation:
A, big seedling cultivation groundbed slot arranges: seedlings being deep-cut 10-18cm with waiting cultivating, sort out wide 3-5m, long 6-10m Bed slot, leveling;
B, it arranges: Light media being inserted in bed slot, and 15-30cm above ground level to kind of furrow, then dug in the surrounding of bed slot Soil out encloses with a thickness of 5-10cm, the gradient in the oblique mound of 5-10 degree, and native gauge pressure is real, becomes to kind of a furrow;
C, it digs cave: seedlings kind plant hole, the cave depth 20- of narrow row being excavated using width plantation row breeding method on to kind of furrow 35cm, spacing 20-35cm, line-spacing 30-50cm, cave width are 15-18cm;The cave depth 25-40cm of wide row, spacing and line-spacing are narrow Capable 1.5-2.0 times, cave width are 20-25cm;Wide row is arranged every 3-5 row's narrow row plantation 2-3, is successively planted;
2., tree transplanted:
A, transplanted seedling selects: grafting in seedling wait transplant for ground is cultivated in grafting, selection growth is stablized, and cotyledon is bud green, No disease and pests harm has the seedling of one section or more newborn cotyledon to be used as to transplanted seedling;
B, it digs seedling: by digging out from nursery to transplanted seedling for selection, keeping root system complete, the seedling soil weight of adhesive tape is sapling 15-25 times of weight, becomes transplanted seedling;
C, it tree transplanted: by the transplanted seedling dug out by 1 plant/cave, is implanted into seedlings kind plant hole, then fills up pressure with Light media material It is real, and built in root and pile the gradient in the ridge heap of 5-10 degree, root water is poured, water is 200-300ml/ plants, film greenhouse is covered, As transplanting seedlings;
3., seedlings management:
A, initial prophase management: a month of 1-4 after transplanting seedlings are planted poured a water, water 150-250ml/ every 2-3 days Strain;Mixed fertilizer was poured every 3-5 days, dosage is 200-340g/ plants;The first for being 500-700ppm to root spraying concentration every 30 days Base thiophanate solution, dosage are 50-70ml/ plants;
When meeting temperature in 30 DEG C or more fine days, the period at noon throws off film 1-3h, carries out hardening;Exist when meeting night temperature At 15 DEG C or less, evening 21-24 point throws off film 2-4h, carries out hardening;
B, after transplanting tree transplanted 4 months, a water, water 300-450ml/ initial final-period management: were poured every 3-6 days Strain;Mixed fertilizer was poured every 5-10 days, dosage is 360-480g/ plants;
It when meeting temperature in 30 DEG C or more fine days, throws off film daytime and carries out hardening, when chance night temperature is at 15 DEG C or less When, night throws off film hardening;
C, middle and later periods management: after conventionally planting 1-2, branded oil tea seedling is become.
Described that root agent is urged to can be ABT root-inducing powder, be also possible to by Nafusaku: the fresh rouge of indoles is by 1:(0.15-0.3) weight Amount ratio mixes.
The silt slurry can be river silt or Pond Silt, be also possible to be prepared by the raw material of following parts by weight:
River silt 40-60 rice-straw ash 3-9 quick lime 1-4
Thin river sand 2-5 inorganic salts 1-3 edible mushroom heel 20-30;
Preparation method is as follows:
A, first quick lime is slowly added in river silt, side edged stirs, temperature be 30-45 DEG C, relative humidity 50- It is quiet under conditions of 65% to put 8-15h;Rice-straw ash is added in river silt again, is stirred evenly, it is quiet at room temperature to put 20-35h, obtain mixing river silt Mud;
B, edible mushroom heel is crushed, crosses 100 mesh with upper screen cloth, obtains edible mushroom heel fine powder;
C, above-mentioned mixing river silt, thin river sand, edible mushroom heel fine powder and inorganic salts are uniformly mixed, become mixing Material, add the clear water for accounting for 1-2 times of weight of mixture, stir evenly, silt slurry;
D, the inorganic salts include one of sodium sulphate, magnesium phosphate, calcium chloride, ammonium chloride or a variety of, when being two kinds When above, the weight proportion of each component is equal portions or other ratios.
The thin river sand is that river sand is crossed to 40 mesh screens, and gained is thin river sand;
The mixing river silt be also possible to by river silt with etc. the quick lime of parts by weight mix or by following weight The raw material of part is prepared:
River silt 40-60 rice-straw ash 3-9 quick lime 1-4;
Preparation method is: first quick lime being slowly added in river silt, side edged stirs, and is 30-45 DEG C, relatively in temperature Humidity is quiet under conditions of being 50-65% to put 8-15h;Rice-straw ash is added in river silt again, is stirred evenly, it is quiet at room temperature to put 20-35h, Up to mixing river silt.
The mixed soil can be by garden mould: organic fertilizer is mixed by the weight ratio of 3:1, is also possible to by garden Soil: rot leaf: oil tea shell powder: decomposed animal fertilizer: microbial flora presses (5-10): (1-3): (0.2-0.5): and (2-6): The weight ratio of (0.01-0.1) mixes;The microbial flora include potassium solubilizing bacteria, phosphate solubilizing bacteria, nitrogen-fixing bacteria, actinomyces, One of lactic acid bar is a variety of, and when to be two or more, the weight proportion of each component is equal portions or other ratios.
The mixing topsoil can be garden mould, be also possible to by garden mould: biological organic fertilizer: edible mushroom heel presses (5- 10): (0.2-0.35): 1 weight ratio mixes.
The mixing soil can be rice field soil, be also possible to by garden mould: wood sawdust: fine sand: clear water presses (10-15): The weight ratio of (3-5): 0.2:1 mixes.
The filling soil can be by garden mould: farm organic fertilizer is mixed by the weight ratio of 3:1, be also possible to by The raw material of following parts by weight is prepared:
The decomposed animal manure 15-20 of garden mould 40-50 rape cake 3-7
Rice bran 5-10 fine sand 3-7 liana dregs of a decoction 10-15
Microelement 0.5-2.5;
Its preparation process is as follows:
1., rice bran is first ground into the fineves of 80 mesh or more, be then added in the boiling water of equivalent weight and impregnate 30-45min, Filtering obtains rice bran water and mixes object;Again rice bran water is mixed object to be evaporated to water content is 35-60%, obtains rice bran material;
2., the liana dregs of a decoction (moist) are first processed into 10-30 mesh fines again, then be added account for liana thereto The microbial flora of dregs of a decoction weight 1.5-3.5% mixes;Then, 4-8 days are stood at 28-36 DEG C, then be added thereto micro Element stirs evenly, and encapsulation process 5-10 days;Then, dry in the shade naturally to moisture reduce 30-45%, processing the liana dregs of a decoction Material;
3., by garden mould, rape cake, decomposed animal manure, fine sand and processing liana dregs of a decoction material, rice bran material mix, Filling soil;
4., the microbial flora include one of potassium solubilizing bacteria, phosphate solubilizing bacteria, nitrogen-fixing bacteria, actinomyces, lactic acid bar or more Kind, when to be two or more, the weight proportion of each component is equal portions or other ratios;The microelement include iron, phosphorus, zinc, One of selenium, magnesium (generalling use salt or minerals containing equivalent) are a variety of, when to be two or more, the weight of each component Amount proportion is equal portions or other ratios;The liana dregs of a decoction include grape leaf, caulis lonicerae, honeysuckle, one in ivy The dregs of a decoction after kind or a variety of effective component extractings, when to be two or more, the weight proportion of each component is equal portions or other ratios.
The filling surface soil can be by garden mould: decomposed animal manure is mixed by the weight ratio of 3:1, be also possible to by Garden mould: organic fertilizer: fertile soil presses (5-10): (0.2-0.35): 1 weight ratio mixes.
The Light media can be by garden mould: rice husk: wood sawdust: decomposed animal manure is mixed by the weight ratio of 5:1:2:1 It forms, is also possible to be prepared by the raw material of following parts by weight:
Rice husk 3-8 wood sawdust 5-10 rots stalk 10-15
The decomposed animal manure 15-25 of garden mould 30-40 oil tea shell 3-7
Peat 20-30 fine sand 2-5;
Its preparation process is as follows:
A, rice husk, oil tea shell, the stalk that rots are processed into the rice husk fine powder of 60 mesh or more respectively, oil tea shell fine powder, rotted Stalk fine powder;
B, rice husk fine powder, oil tea shell fine powder, rotten stalk fine powder and wood sawdust are mixed again through mixing machine, obtains mixture Material;The sanitary wastewater of the Trichoderma, 10-25% that account for mixed material total weight 2.5-4.5% is added into mixed material again, mixes It is even, it is handled 5-10 days under conditions of temperature is 20-35 DEG C, relative humidity 70-85%, obtains processing mixed material;Again to processing The microbial flora for accounting for processing mixed material total weight 3.5-6.5% is added in mixed material, is 20-35 DEG C, relatively in temperature Under conditions of humidity 70-85%, it is sealed by fermentation processing 5-10 days, obtains fermenting mixture material;Then fermenting mixture material is dried in the shade 35-50% is reduced to moisture, is reprocessed into mixing fineves more than 80 mesh;
C, garden mould, decomposed animal manure, peat, fine sand and mixing fines are stirred evenly through mixing machine repeatedly, light base Matter;
D, the microbial flora includes one of potassium solubilizing bacteria, phosphate solubilizing bacteria, nitrogen-fixing bacteria, actinomyces, Bacillus acidi lactici or more Kind, when to be two or more, the weight proportion of each component is equal portions or other ratios.
The mixed fertilizer can be by organic fertilizer: urea: clear water is mixed by the weight ratio of 0.5:0.1:10, can also To be by organic fertilizer: inorganic salts: decomposed dung: night soil presses (0.3-0.5): (0.1-0.15): (3-6): the weight of (0.3-0.5) The mixing of amount ratio, then dilute 8-15 times with clear water and form;The inorganic salts include sodium sulphate, magnesium phosphate, calcium chloride, ammonium chloride One of or it is a variety of, when to be two or more, the weight proportion of each component is equal portions or other ratios.
The river silt is bed-silt of the content of organic matter 25% or more.
The garden mould is vegetable garden mellow soil.
The rotten leaf be rotten level 70-80% leaf (the usually leaf of deciduous tree, as hawthorn, Pears, apple, Chinese parasol tree etc.).
The oil tea shell powder is crushed by the shell of camellia oleifera fruit.
The decomposed animal fertilizer is the decomposed excrement of the domestic animals such as pig, ox, sheep.
The edible mushroom heel is remaining waste material after culture edible mushroom.
The rotten stalk is stalk (such as straw, straw, cornstalk, sorghum stalk) of the rotten level in 70-80%.
The farm organic fertilizer be it is decomposed after livestock and poultry or human urine excrement.
The organic fertilizer is commercial type, the organic fertilizer for meeting NY525-2012 standard.
The biological organic fertilizer is commercial type, the composite microbiological fertilizer for meeting 798-2004 standard of NY/T.
The sanitary wastewater is the washing water of daily life discharge.
The breeding method of branded oil tea seedling of the invention, oil tea sapling pass through a variety of spies by repeatedly transplanting in addition The cultivation of different soil, promotes cultivated oil tea sapling well developed root system, tree crown sturdy, adapts to various adverse circumstances, and improve Its cold-resistant on various terrains, drought resisting, anti-virus ability.Thus, it is out of the garden after transplanting, survival rate is high, and tea oil tree is raw Long situation is prominent, fast at garden, and yield is high.
The branded oil tea seedling that the breeding method of branded oil tea seedling according to the invention is cultivated, once in Yongzhou City, Hubei Province Qiyang County has carried out camellia oleifera lam and has built comparative test, and following table is experimental control data:
(note: test camellia oleifera lam in upper table and land occupation condition, soil, liquid manure, blockclimate for compareing camellia oleifera lam etc. are substantially Close, seedling is of the same age, same kind;It tests camellia oleifera lam and uses branded oil tea seedling of the invention, control camellia oleifera lam is using normal The oil tea sapling that rule method is cultivated).
It can be seen that from upper table construction experimental control data after building transplanting, the survival rate of the test camellia oleifera lam of 1-3 Respectively 93.1%, 92.4%, 91.5%, the survival rate 87.3%, 86.2%, 85.0% for relatively compareing camellia oleifera lam are respectively increased 5.8,6.2,6.5 percentage points;
The average product of 2-5 test camellia oleifera lam fresh fried flour fruit respectively reaches 65.6kg/667 ㎡, 254.6kg/667 ㎡, 414.0kg/667 ㎡ and 640.6kg/667 ㎡, relatively average product 10.3kg/667 ㎡ of the fresh fried flour fruit of control camellia oleifera lam, 72.8kg/667 ㎡, 152.0kg/667 ㎡ and 320.2kg/667 ㎡ be respectively increased 55.3kg, 181.8kg, 262kg, 320.4kg, this illustrates to test the 2-2.5 more early at the garden time than control camellia oleifera lam at the garden time of camellia oleifera lam.
Specific embodiment
With reference to embodiments, the present invention is further illustrated.Following explanation is but this hair in a manner of enumerating Bright protection scope is not limited thereto.
The breeding method of the branded oil tea seedling of the present embodiment, cultivating process are as follows:
One, prepared by auxiliary material:
1., urge root agent prepare:
Take respectively by weight: 0.2 part of the fresh rouge of 1 part of Nafusaku, indoles, be uniformly mixed, urge root agent.
2., silt slurry preparation:
Take respectively by weight: 50 parts of river silt, 6 parts of rice-straw ash, 6 parts of quick lime, 3 parts of thin river sand, inorganic salts (be by etc. Sodium sulphate, magnesium phosphate, calcium chloride, the ammonium chloride of parts by weight mix) 2 parts, 25 parts of edible mushroom heel;
Preparation method is as follows:
A, first quick lime is slowly added in river silt, side edged stirs, in the item that temperature is 35 DEG C, relative humidity is 55% It is quiet under part to put 12h;Rice-straw ash is added in river silt again, is stirred evenly, quiet 30h of putting is at room temperature to get mixing river silt (the present embodiment Involved in " mixing river silt " be all made of this mixing river silt);
B, edible mushroom heel is crushed, sieves with 100 mesh sieve net, obtain edible mushroom heel fine powder;
C, above-mentioned mixing river silt, thin river sand, edible mushroom heel fine powder and inorganic salts are uniformly mixed, become mixing Material, add the clear water for accounting for 1.5 times of weight of mixture, stir evenly, silt slurry.
3., mixed soil preparation:
Take respectively by weight: 8 parts of garden mould, rot 2 parts of leaf, 0.4 part of oil tea shell powder, 4 parts of decomposed animal fertilizer, microorganism 0.06 part of flora, be uniformly mixed, mixed soil;
Microbial flora therein such as is at the mixing of the potassium solubilizing bacteria, phosphate solubilizing bacteria, nitrogen-fixing bacteria, actinomyces, lactic acid bar of parts by weight Object.
4., mixing surface layer soil processing:
Take respectively by weight: 8 parts of garden mould, 0.3 part of biological organic fertilizer, 1 part of edible mushroom heel are uniformly mixed, it is mixed Close topsoil.
5., mixing soil preparation:
Take respectively by weight: 12 parts of garden mould, 4 parts of wood sawdust, 0.2 part of fine sand, 1 part of clear water, be uniformly mixed, mixing Soil.
6., filling soil preparation:
It takes respectively by weight: 45 parts of garden mould, 5 parts of rape cake, 18 parts of decomposed animal manure, 8 parts of rice bran, 5 parts of fine sand, rattan This plant medicine dregs (be by etc. dregs of a decoction mixing after the grape leafs of parts by weight, caulis lonicerae, honeysuckle, ivy effective component extracting Into) 12 parts, 1.5 parts of microelement (be by etc. iron, phosphorus, zinc, selenium, the magnesium of parts by weight mix);
Its preparation process is as follows:
A, rice bran is first ground into the fines of 80 mesh or more, is then added in the boiling water of equivalent weight and impregnates 40min, mistake Filter obtains rice bran water and mixes object;Again rice bran water is mixed object to be evaporated to water content is 50%, obtains rice bran material;
B, the liana dregs of a decoction (moist) are first processed into 20 mesh fineves again, then are added account for the liana dregs of a decoction thereto The microbial flora of weight 2.5% (mixing of the potassium solubilizing bacteria, phosphate solubilizing bacteria, nitrogen-fixing bacteria, actinomyces, lactic acid bar of parts by weight such as is Object), it mixes;Then, 6 days are stood at 32 DEG C, then microelement is added thereto, stirred evenly, encapsulation process 8 days;Then, natural Dry in the shade to moisture reduce 40%, processing liana dregs of a decoction material;
C, garden mould, rape cake, decomposed animal manure, fine sand and processing liana dregs of a decoction material, rice bran material are mixed, i.e., At filling soil.
7., filling surface soil preparation:
It takes respectively by weight: 8 parts of garden mould, organic fertilizer [the common organic fertilizer of commercial type, in which: quality of organic matter Score 45, mass fraction >=5.0 of total nutrient (nitrogen+phosphorus pentoxide+potassium oxide), similarly hereinafter] 0.3 part, 1 part of fertile soil, mixing Uniformly, filling surface soil.
8., Light media preparation:
It takes respectively by weight: 6 parts of rice husk, 8 parts of wood sawdust, 12 parts of the stalk that rots, 35 parts of garden mould, 5 parts of oil tea shell, decomposed 20 parts of animal manure, 25 parts of peat, 4 parts of fine sand;
Its preparation process is as follows:
A, rice husk, oil tea shell, the stalk that rots are processed into the rice husk fine powder of 60 mesh or more respectively, oil tea shell fine powder, rotted Stalk fine powder;
B, rice husk fine powder, oil tea shell fine powder, rotten stalk fine powder and wood sawdust are mixed again through mixing machine, obtains mixture Material;The sanitary wastewater of the Trichoderma, 18% that account for mixed material total weight 3.5% is added into mixed material again, mixes, in temperature To handle 8 days under conditions of 28 DEG C, relative humidity 75%, processing mixed material is obtained;It is added again into processing mixed material and accounts for place The microbial flora for managing mixed material total weight 5% (potassium solubilizing bacteria, phosphate solubilizing bacteria, nitrogen-fixing bacteria, actinomyces, the lactic acid of parts by weight such as is The mixture of bacillus), under conditions of temperature is 28 DEG C, relative humidity 75%, it is sealed by fermentation processing 8 days, obtains fermenting mixture Material;Then fermenting mixture material is dried in the shade and reduces 45% to moisture, reprocessed into mixing fineves more than 80 mesh;
C, garden mould, decomposed animal manure, peat, fine sand and mixing fines are stirred evenly through mixing machine repeatedly, light base Matter.
9., mixed fertilizer preparation:
Take respectively by weight: 0.4 part of organic fertilizer, inorganic salts (be by etc. the sodium sulphate of parts by weight, magnesium phosphate, calcium chloride, Ammonium chloride mixes) 0.12 part, 5 parts of decomposed dung, 0.4 part of night soil, it is uniformly mixed, then dilute 10 times with clear water, Mixed fertilizer.
Two, cultivating process:
(i), oil tea cladus is cultivated:
1., kind branch selection:
In existing camellia oleifera lam, selection is flourishing, stem is sturdy, fruiting rate is high, the tea oil tree of no disease and pests harm, selects color Pool is good, limb is straight, leaf is bud green, and newborn spray is as kind of a branch within 1 year;
2., kind branch pretreatment:
By the kind branch of picking with 4/bundle, being put into concentration is that urging for 150ppm impregnates 20min in root agent, thereafter, will be passed through The kind branch for urging root agent to impregnate is put into silt slurry fixed, immersion 15h, and keeping the temperature of silt slurry is 26 DEG C, becomes pretreatment kind Branch;
3., kind branch transplanting:
A, ground selection is cultivated:
The gradient is selected to be lower than 10 degree, heliotropism is good, and the soil is porous, yellow soil or sand soil of the soil thickness in 35cm or more Earth is used as wait cultivate ground;
B, readjustment of field plot:
A, it turns down the bed slot: will wait cultivate deep-cut 25cm or more, and sort out the bed slot of wide 3-6m, long 8-15m;
B, filler: it first is put into mixing river silt in bed trench bottom, with a thickness of the 1/4 of groove depth;Mixed soil is inserted again mixed River silt surface is closed, with a thickness of the 2/4 of groove depth;Then will mixing topsoil fill up remaining space, flatten, wait transplant Plot;
C, it transplants:
It is first 40cm by line space in the bed slot in plot to be transplanted, the kind plant hole that strain spacing is 3cm excavation taper, cave is deep For 18cm, cave width is 15cm;Pretreatment kind branch is covered with soil as in 1/cave insertion kind plant hole, is compacted, pours and determine root again Water, while the prevention against water-logging ridge heap that the gradient is 8 ° is formed around root, become kind of a branch cultivation seedling;
D, it manages:
It after pretreatment kind branch transplanting, when temperature is at 20-30 DEG C, watered every 4 days, water is 150ml/ plants;Every 6 days Fertilising, organic fertilizer is 20g/ plants or decomposed dung is 80g/ plants;
It when temperature is at 30 DEG C or more, watered every 2 days, water is 350ml/ plants, is applied fertilizer every 5 days, and organic fertilizer is 20g/ plants or decomposed dung are 80g/ plants;
When temperature is at 20 DEG C or less, along line-spacing direction in the straw of the above thickness of Waterlogged soil 3cm, one was poured every 3 days Secondary 28 DEG C of warm water, water are 200ml/ plants;It applied fertilizer every 8 days, applying decomposed dung is 300g/ plants;
4., cladus selection:
When kind of branch cultivation seedling is after cultivation in 4 months, it is bud green that selection wherein grows situation stabilization, no disease and pests harm, leaf Kind branch, newborn, branch diameter 0.35cm or more spray as oil tea cladus;
(ii), graft:
1., oil tea Root-stock selection:
It is cultivated in nursery in existing Seed of Camellia oleifera, selects good growth situation, no disease and pests harm, ground diameter in 2.5cm or more, has The seedling of 2 sections or more cotyledons is as stock;
2., cut anvil: carried out at 3cm above the cotyledon petiole it is vertical cut, cut out the anvil mouth that length is 3cm, depth is a diameter 2/3;
3., embedding fringe binding: by the oil tea cladus cut be embedded in anvil mouth, be aligned forming layer, appearance mix soil surround connects Mouth one encloses, and with a thickness of 1.2 times of diameter of stock, then surrounds one with plastic film and encloses, covers soil, then use cord, become and transfer Seedlings picking;Then, according to Routine Management method, after 4 months, become grafting to be transplanted;
(iii), grafting is cultivated:
1., grafting cultivate ground selection and arrange:
A, grafting cultivates ground selection: selection gentle gradient, the soil is porous, and yellow soil of the soil thickness in 35cm or more is made It waits cultivating ground for grafting;
B, grafting cultivates ground and arranges: grafting is deep-cut into 30cm or more with waiting cultivating, remove forest or shrub tree stump, Weeds and stone, and the grafting groundbed slot to be cultivated of wide 4-7m, long 10-15m are sorted out simultaneously;
C, grafting groundbed slot to be cultivated arranges:
A, thickness first is stacked in the mixing river silt of 4cm, as slot bottom, leveling in bottom;
B, again will be by rice-straw ash: quick lime be laid on mixing river silt by the mixed material that the weight ratio of 1:0.4 mixes Mud surface, with a thickness of 3cm;
C, the surface of filling soil filling mixed material is flattened with a thickness of the 2/3 of remaining space again;
D, the thiophanate methyl solution for being again 600ppm with concentration, by 7ml/m2The ratio on filling soil surface is sprayed, so Afterwards, natural drying 3 days;
E, filling surface soil is filled up into remaining space again, flattens, becomes grafting bed slot to be planted;
2., grafting transplantation of seedlings:
A, it opens cave: excavating the kind plant hole of taper in the grafting bed slot to be planted of leveling, cave depth 20cm or more, spacing is 30cm, line-spacing 45cm, cave width are 14cm;
B, lifting: grafting band soil to be transplanted is risen, and the seedling soil weight of holding institute's adhesive tape is 12 times, root of seedling weight Be length be 12cm, become wait transplant grafting seedling;
C, plant: it will be wait transplant in grafting seedling implantation kind plant hole, righting compacting, then with soil covering graft union and extremely At adjacent axillary bud, root water is poured in compacting, and water is 150ml/ plants, becomes grafting seedling;
3., Managing small seeding:
It after plant, when temperature is at 20-30 DEG C, watered every 4 days, water is 150ml/ plants;It applied fertilizer every 6 days, it is organic Fertilizer is 20g/ plants or decomposed dung is 80g/ plants;
It when temperature is at 30 DEG C or more, watered every 2 days, water is 350ml/ plants, is applied fertilizer every 5 days, and organic fertilizer is 20g/ plants or decomposed dung are 80g/ plants;
When temperature is at 20 DEG C or less, along line-spacing direction in the straw of the above thickness of Waterlogged soil 3cm, one was poured every 3 days Secondary 28 DEG C of warm water, water are 280ml/ plants;It applied fertilizer every 8 days, applying decomposed dung is 300g/ plants;
It is other conventionally, after 3 months, become grafting seedling to be transplanted;
(iv), big seedling cultivation:
1., select and arrange to big seedling cultivation:
A, select to big seedling cultivation: selection gentle gradient, the soil is porous, and soil thickness is in the soil of 35cm or more as big Seedling waits cultivating ground;
B, it arranges to big seedling cultivation:
A, big seedling cultivation groundbed slot arranges: seedlings being deep-cut 15cm with waiting cultivating, sort out the bed of wide 3-5m, long 6-10m Slot, leveling;
B, arrange: Light media being inserted in bed slot, and 20cm above ground level to kind of furrow, then bed slot surrounding with digging out Soil encloses the oblique mound with a thickness of 8cm, the gradient at 8 degree, and native gauge pressure is real, becomes to kind of a furrow;
C, dig cave: on to kind of furrow using width plantation row breeding method excavate seedlings kind plant hole, the cave depth 25cm of narrow row, Spacing 30cm, line-spacing 40cm, cave width are 18cm;The cave depth 35cm of wide row, spacing and line-spacing are 1.8 times of narrow row, and cave width is 24cm;2 row's wide rows are planted every 4 row's narrow rows, are successively planted;
2., tree transplanted:
A, transplanted seedling selects: grafting in seedling wait transplant for ground is cultivated in grafting, selection growth is stablized, and cotyledon is bud green, No disease and pests harm has the seedling of one section or more newborn cotyledon to be used as to transplanted seedling;
B, it digs seedling: by digging out from nursery to transplanted seedling for selection, keeping root system complete, the seedling soil weight of adhesive tape is sapling 20 times of weight, become transplanted seedling;
C, it tree transplanted: by the transplanted seedling dug out by 1 plant/cave, is implanted into seedlings kind plant hole, then fills up pressure with Light media material It is real, and built in root and pile ridge heap of the gradient at 8 degree, root water is poured, water is 250ml/ plants, covers film greenhouse, becomes shifting Plant seedlings;
3., seedlings management:
A, initial prophase management: after transplanting seedlings cultivation in 4 months, a water was poured every 2 days, water is every plant of 200ml, often Mixed fertilizer was poured every 4 days, dosage is 300g/ plants;The thiophanate methyl solution for being 600ppm to root spraying concentration every 30 days, is used Amount is 60ml/ plants;
When meeting temperature in 30 DEG C or more fine days, the period at noon throws off film 2h, carries out hardening;When chance night temperature is 15 DEG C or less when, evening 21-24 point throws off film 2-4h, carries out hardening;
B, initial final-period management: after transplanting tree transplanted 4 months, a water was poured every 4 days, water is 400ml/ plants, often Mixed fertilizer was poured every 8 days, dosage is 420g/ plants;
It when meeting temperature in 30 DEG C or more fine days, throws off film daytime and carries out hardening, when chance night temperature is at 15 DEG C or less When, night throws off film hardening;
C, middle and later periods management: after conventionally planting 1-2, branded oil tea seedling is become.
The breeding method of branded oil tea seedling of the invention can be not only used for cultivating oil tea seedlings, it can also be used to other plant The cultivation of seedlings.

Claims (9)

1. a kind of breeding method of branded oil tea seedling, which is characterized in that cultivating process is as follows:
(i), oil tea cladus is cultivated:
1., kind branch selection:
In existing camellia oleifera lam, selection is flourishing, stem is sturdy, fruiting rate is high, the tea oil tree of no disease and pests harm, selects color Well, limb is straight, leaf is bud green, and newborn spray is as kind of a branch within 1 year;
2., kind branch pretreatment:
By the kind branch of picking with 3-5 root/bundle, being put into concentration is that urging for 100-200ppm impregnates 10-30min in root agent, thereafter, will Fixed, immersion 8-20h is put into silt slurry by the kind branch for urging root agent to impregnate, and keeping the temperature of silt slurry is 24-30 DEG C, is become Pretreatment kind branch;
3., kind branch transplanting:
A, ground selection is cultivated:
The gradient is selected to be lower than 10 degree, heliotropism is good, and the soil is porous, and yellow soil or sandy soil of the soil thickness in 35cm or more are made For wait cultivate ground;
B, readjustment of field plot:
A, it turns down the bed slot: will wait cultivate deep-cut 25cm or more, and sort out the bed slot of wide 3-6m, long 8-15m;
B, filler: it first is put into mixing river silt in bed trench bottom, with a thickness of the 1/4 of groove depth;Mixed soil is inserted into mixing river again Muck surface, with a thickness of the 2/4 of groove depth;Then will mixing topsoil fill up remaining space, flatten, to transplanting site Block;
C, it transplants:
It is first 35-50cm by line space in the bed slot in plot to be transplanted, the kind plant hole that strain spacing is 25-35cm excavation taper, Cave depth is 15-20cm, and cave width is 10-18cm;Pretreatment kind branch is covered with soil, pressed as in 1/cave insertion kind plant hole again It is real, root water is poured, while forming the prevention against water-logging ridge heap that the gradient is 5-10 ° around root, becomes kind of a branch cultivation seedling;
D, it manages:
It after pretreatment kind branch transplanting, when temperature is at 20-30 DEG C, watered every 3-5 days, water is 100-200ml/ plants;Every It applies fertilizer within 5-8 days, organic fertilizer is 10-30g/ plants;
When temperature is at 30 DEG C or more, to water every 2-3 days, water is 250-400ml/ plants, it applied fertilizer every 4-6 days, organic fertilizer It is 10-30g/ plants;
When temperature is at 20 DEG C or less, in the straw of the above thickness of Waterlogged soil 3cm or mulch is covered along line-spacing direction, every 3- 24-32 DEG C of warm water is poured within 4 days, water is 160-240ml/ plants;It applied fertilizer every 7-9 days, applying decomposed dung is 240-350g/ Strain;
4., cladus selection:
When kind of branch cultivation seedling is after cultivation in 4 months, selection wherein grows the bud green kind of situation stabilization, no disease and pests harm, leaf Branch, newborn, branch diameter 0.35cm or more spray as oil tea cladus;
(ii), graft:
1., oil tea Root-stock selection:
It is cultivated in nursery in existing Seed of Camellia oleifera, selects good growth situation, no disease and pests harm, ground diameter in 2.5cm or more, has 2 sections The seedling of the above cotyledon is as stock;
2., cut anvil: carried out at 3cm above the cotyledon petiole it is vertical cut, cut out the anvil mouth that length is 2-3.5cm, depth is a diameter 2/3;
3., embedding fringe binding: by the oil tea cladus cut be embedded in anvil mouth, be aligned forming layer, appearance with mixing soil surround interface one Circle with a thickness of 1-1.5 times of diameter of stock, then surrounds one with plastic film and encloses, covers soil, then use cord, become grafting Seedling;Then, become grafting to be transplanted after 3-4 months according to Routine Management method;
(iii), grafting is cultivated:
1., grafting cultivate ground selection and arrange:
A, grafting cultivates ground selection: selection gentle gradient, the soil is porous, and soil thickness is used as in the yellow soil of 35cm or more and transfers Seedlings picking waits cultivating ground;
B, grafting cultivates ground and arranges: grafting being deep-cut 30cm or more with waiting cultivating, removes tree stump, the weeds of forest or shrub And stone, and the grafting groundbed slot to be cultivated of wide 4-7m, long 10-15m are sorted out simultaneously;
C, grafting groundbed slot to be cultivated arranges:
A, thickness first is stacked in the mixing river silt of 2-5cm, as slot bottom, leveling in bottom;
B, again will be by rice-straw ash: quick lime be by 1:(0.3-0.45) the mixed material that mixes of weight ratio be laid on mixing river Muck surface, with a thickness of 2-4cm;
C, the surface of filling soil filling mixed material is flattened with a thickness of the 2/3 of remaining space again;
D, the thiophanate methyl solution for being again 500-700ppm with concentration, by 4-10ml/m2The ratio on filling soil surface is sprayed, Then, natural drying 2-4 days;
E, filling surface soil is filled up into remaining space again, flattens, becomes grafting bed slot to be planted;
2., grafting transplantation of seedlings:
A, it opens cave: excavating the kind plant hole of taper, cave depth 20cm or more, spacing 25- in the grafting bed slot to be planted of leveling 35cm, line-spacing 35-50cm, cave width are 12-16cm;
B, lifting: grafting band soil to be transplanted is risen, and the seedling soil weight of holding institute's adhesive tape is 8-15 times, root system of seedling weight Length is 8-16cm, is become wait transplant grafting seedling;
C, transplant: will be wait transplant in grafting seedling implantation kind of plant hole, righting compacting, then with soil covering graft union and to close to Axillary bud at, root water is poured in compacting, and water is 100-200ml/ plants, becomes grafting seedling;
3., Managing small seeding:
It after plant, when temperature is at 20-30 DEG C, watered every 3-5 days, water is 100-200ml/ plants;It applied fertilizer every 5-8 days, Organic fertilizer is 10-30g/ plants;
When temperature is at 30 DEG C or more, to water every 2-3 days, water is 250-400ml/ plants, it applied fertilizer every 4-6 days, organic fertilizer It is 10-30g/ plants;
When temperature is at 20 DEG C or less, in the straw of the above thickness of Waterlogged soil 3cm or mulch is covered along line-spacing direction, every 3- 24-32 DEG C of warm water is poured within 4 days, water is 220-340ml/ plants;It applied fertilizer every 7-9 days, applying decomposed dung is 240-350g/ Strain;
It is other conventionally, after 2-3 months, become grafting seedling to be transplanted;
(iv), big seedling cultivation:
1., select and arrange to big seedling cultivation:
A, select to big seedling cultivation: selection gentle gradient, the soil is porous, and soil thickness waits in the soil of 35cm or more as seedlings Cultivate ground;
B, it arranges to big seedling cultivation:
A, big seedling cultivation groundbed slot arranges: seedlings being deep-cut 10-18cm with waiting cultivating, sort out the bed of wide 3-5m, long 6-10m Slot, leveling;
B, arrange: Light media being inserted in bed slot, and 15-30cm above ground level to kind of furrow, then bed slot surrounding with digging out Soil encloses with a thickness of 5-10cm, the gradient in the oblique mound of 5-10 degree, and native gauge pressure is real, becomes to kind of a furrow;
C, dig cave: on to kind of furrow using width plantation row breeding method excavate seedlings kind plant hole, the cave depth 20-35cm of narrow row, Spacing 20-35cm, line-spacing 30-50cm, cave width are 15-18cm;The cave depth 25-40cm of wide row, spacing and line-spacing are narrow row 1.5-2.0 times, cave width is 20-25cm;Wide row is arranged every 3-5 row's narrow row plantation 2-3, is successively planted;
2., tree transplanted:
A, transplanted seedling selects: cultivating grafting in seedling wait transplant for ground in grafting, selection growth is stablized, and cotyledon is bud green, disease-free Insect pest has the seedling of one section or more newborn cotyledon to be used as to transplanted seedling;
B, it digs seedling: by digging out from nursery to transplanted seedling for selection, keeping root system complete, the seedling soil weight of adhesive tape is sapling weight 15-25 times, become transplanted seedling;
C, tree transplanted: by the transplanted seedling dug out by 1 plant/cave, being implanted into seedlings kind plant hole, then fill up compacting with Light media material, And built in root and pile the gradient in the ridge heap of 5-10 degree, root water is poured, water is 200-300ml/ plants, film greenhouse is covered, at To transplant seedlings;
3., seedlings management:
A, initial prophase management: a month of 1-4 after transplanting seedlings are planted poured a water every 2-3 days, and water is every plant of 150-250ml; Mixed fertilizer was poured every 3-5 days, dosage is 200-340g/ plants;The methyl for being 500-700ppm to root spraying concentration every 30 days Thiophanate solution, dosage are 50-70ml/ plants;
When meeting temperature in 30 DEG C or more fine days, the period at noon throws off film 1-3h, carries out hardening;When chance night temperature is at 15 DEG C When following, evening 21-24 point throws off film 2-4h, carries out hardening;
B, initial final-period management: after transplanting tree transplanted 4 months, a water was poured every 3-6 days, water is 300-450ml/ plants; Mixed fertilizer was poured every 5-10 days, dosage is 360-480g/ plants;
When meeting temperature in 30 DEG C or more fine days, throws off film daytime and carry out hardening, when meeting night temperature at 15 DEG C or less, evening Between throw off film hardening;
C, middle and later periods management: after conventionally planting 1-2, branded oil tea seedling is become.
2. the breeding method of branded oil tea seedling according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: described to urge root agent be by methyl α-naphthyl acetate Sodium: the fresh rouge of indoles is by 1:(0.15-0.3) weight ratio mix.
3. the breeding method of branded oil tea seedling according to claim 1 or claim 2, which is characterized in that the silt slurry is under The raw material of column parts by weight is prepared:
River silt 40-60 rice-straw ash 3-9 quick lime 1-4
Thin river sand 2-5 inorganic salts 1-3 edible mushroom heel 20-30;
Preparation method is as follows:
A, first quick lime is slowly added in river silt, side edged stirs, temperature is 30-45 DEG C, relative humidity is 50-65%'s Under the conditions of quiet put 8-15h;Rice-straw ash is added in river silt again, is stirred evenly, it is quiet at room temperature to put 20-35h, obtain mixing river silt;
B, edible mushroom heel is crushed, crosses 100 mesh with upper screen cloth, obtains edible mushroom heel fine powder;
C, above-mentioned mixing river silt, thin river sand, edible mushroom heel fine powder and inorganic salts are uniformly mixed, become mixture, then Be added and account for the clear water of 1-2 times of weight of mixture, stir evenly, silt slurry;
D, the inorganic salts include one of sodium sulphate, magnesium phosphate, calcium chloride, ammonium chloride or a variety of, when being two or more When, the weight proportion of each component is equal portions or other ratios.
4. the breeding method of branded oil tea seedling according to claim 3, it is characterised in that: the mixed soil is by soil: Rot leaf: oil tea shell powder: decomposed animal fertilizer: microbial flora presses (5-10): (1-3): (0.2-0.5): (2-6): (0.01- 0.1) weight ratio mixes;The microbial flora includes potassium solubilizing bacteria, phosphate solubilizing bacteria, nitrogen-fixing bacteria, actinomyces, lactic acid bar One of or it is a variety of, when to be two or more, the weight proportion of each component is equal portions or other ratios.
5. the breeding method of branded oil tea seedling according to claim 4, it is characterised in that: the mixing topsoil be by Garden mould: biological organic fertilizer: edible mushroom heel presses (5-10): (0.2-0.35): 1 weight ratio mixes.
6. the breeding method of branded oil tea seedling according to claim 5, it is characterised in that: the mixing soil is by garden Soil: wood sawdust: fine sand: clear water presses (10-15): the weight ratio of (3-5): 0.2:1 mixes.
7. the breeding method of branded oil tea seedling according to claim 6, which is characterized in that the filling soil is by following The raw material of parts by weight is prepared:
The decomposed animal manure 15-20 of garden mould 40-50 rape cake 3-7
Rice bran 5-10 fine sand 3-7 liana dregs of a decoction 10-15
Microelement 0.5-2.5;
Its preparation process is as follows:
1., rice bran is first ground into the fineves of 80 mesh or more, be then added in the boiling water of equivalent weight and impregnate 30-45min, mistake Filter obtains rice bran water and mixes object;Again rice bran water is mixed object to be evaporated to water content is 35-60%, obtains rice bran material;
2., the liana dregs of a decoction are first processed into 10-30 mesh fines again, then be added account for liana dregs of a decoction weight 1.5- thereto 3.5% microbial flora mixes;Then, 4-8 days are stood at 28-36 DEG C, then microelement is added thereto, stirred evenly, it is close Envelope processing 5-10 days;Then, dry in the shade naturally to moisture reduce 30-45%, processing liana dregs of a decoction material;
3., by garden mould, rape cake, decomposed animal manure, fine sand and processing liana dregs of a decoction material, rice bran material mix, Filling soil;
4., the microbial flora include one of potassium solubilizing bacteria, phosphate solubilizing bacteria, nitrogen-fixing bacteria, actinomyces, lactic acid bar or a variety of, when When being two or more, the weight proportion of each component is equal portions or other ratios;The microelement includes iron, phosphorus, zinc, selenium, magnesium One of or it is a variety of, when to be two or more, the weight proportion of each component is equal portions or other ratios;The liana medicine Cinder ladle includes the dregs of a decoction after one of grape leaf, caulis lonicerae, honeysuckle, ivy or a variety of effective component extractings, when being two kinds When above, the weight proportion of each component is equal portions or other ratios.
8. the breeding method of branded oil tea seedling according to claim 7, it is characterised in that: the filling surface soil is by garden Soil: organic fertilizer: fertile soil presses (5-10): (0.2-0.35): 1 weight ratio mixes.
9. the breeding method of branded oil tea seedling according to claim 8, which is characterized in that the Light media is by following heavy The raw material of amount part is prepared:
Rice husk 3-8 wood sawdust 5-10 rots stalk 10-15
The decomposed animal manure 15-25 of garden mould 30-40 oil tea shell 3-7
Peat 20-30 fine sand 2-5;
Its preparation process is as follows:
A, rice husk, oil tea shell, the stalk that rots are processed into the rice husk fine powder of 60 mesh or more, oil tea shell fine powder, rotten stalk respectively Fine powder;
B, rice husk fine powder, oil tea shell fine powder, rotten stalk fine powder and wood sawdust are mixed again through mixing machine, obtains mixed material; The sanitary wastewater of the Trichoderma, 10-25% that account for mixed material total weight 2.5-4.5% is added into mixed material again, mixes, Temperature is 20-35 DEG C, handles 5-10 days under conditions of relative humidity 70-85%, obtains processing mixed material;Again to processing mixture The microbial flora for accounting for processing mixed material total weight 3.5-6.5% is added in material, is 20-35 DEG C, relative humidity 70- in temperature Under conditions of 85%, it is sealed by fermentation processing 5-10 days, obtains fermenting mixture material;Then fermenting mixture material is dried in the shade to moisture and is subtracted Few 35-50%, is reprocessed into mixing fineves more than 80 mesh;
C, garden mould, decomposed animal manure, peat, fine sand and mixing fines are stirred evenly through mixing machine repeatedly, Light media;
D, the microbial flora includes one of potassium solubilizing bacteria, phosphate solubilizing bacteria, nitrogen-fixing bacteria, actinomyces, Bacillus acidi lactici or a variety of, when When being two or more, the weight proportion of each component is equal portions or other ratios.
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CN107211789A (en) * 2017-05-31 2017-09-29 安徽梅兰园林景观工程有限公司 A kind of seedling growth method
CN107602297A (en) * 2017-10-20 2018-01-19 太湖县纯野生态茶油有限责任公司 It is exclusively used in promoting bio-feritlizer of Growth of Camellia oleifera and preparation method thereof
CN108142191A (en) * 2017-12-03 2018-06-12 李红光 A kind of method for improving the field planting of yuluxiang pear seedling and surviving
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