A kind of Novel fruit-tree cultivation method
The invention belongs to fruit tree cultivation technical field, what be specifically related to is a kind of Novel fruit-tree cultivation method.
Fruit tree occupies critical role in national economy.China long-term implementation fruit tree go up a hill lower beach, do not strive the strategy on ground with grain and cotton, most orchard soil is barren, and soil organic matter content is low, and soil aggregate is poor, and soil pH value is improper, preserve moisture and fertility ability, often the various nutrition nutritional deficiency disease of appearance.Therefore, make fruit tree high yield high-quality, orchard sustainable development, it is crucial for improving orchard soil quality.
China mainly adopts following several orchard soil management system, and the pluses and minuses of several orchard soil management system are as follows: (1) soil ploughs management system clearly: mainly carry out manpower weeding, loosen the soil, and keeps the not raw weeds in orchard, loosing soil.Its advantage to prevent weeds and fruit tree from fighting for nutrient, and shortcoming is long-term clear cultivated meeting spoiled soil granular structure, increases the weight of the soil erosion and water and soil loss; (2) soil overlay management system: namely the soil agricultural crop straw, plastic foil etc. in orchard are covered.Its advantage to improve the hot situation of soil water fat gas, improves soil organic matter content, improves fruit yield and quality; Shortcoming increases human and material resources, improves management cost; (3) orchard ground cover system: orchard ground cover has artificial sward and natural grass two kinds of methods.No matter which kind of sward mode, after grass grows to certain altitude, cradles, covers on soil.Its advantage to prevent erosion, and improves soil organic matter content; Shortcoming be sometimes with fruit tree root competition nutrition, increase labour costs; (4) no-tillage system: namely with weed killer herbicide, orchard weed killed, do not hoe up weeds, do not loosen the soil.Its advantage is saving of labor, effectively can prevent farmland running to weeds, soil protection structure; Shortcoming increases cost, has certain pollution to soil.
Current, what China promoted is that soil covers system, is promote crops to be covered as master.Mainly embody with soil environment friendly according to mulch farming thing, meet straw-returning, land used, the principle of increasing soil fertility.Soil covers system and also can combine with sward, covers with grass, needs a large amount of human and material resources because it covers, and thus promotes difficulty comparatively large, and applying maximum on producing is then plough system clearly.
The information being disclosed in this background technology part is only intended to increase the understanding to general background of the present invention, and should not be regarded as admitting or imply in any form that this information structure has been prior art that persons skilled in the art are known.
Summary of the invention
The technical problem to be solved in the present invention is to provide a kind of one-tenth orchard soil in age management system improved into orchard soil fertility in age, improve soil quality.
The present invention solves the problems of the technologies described above with following technical scheme:
A kind of Novel fruit-tree cultivation method, is characterized in that, comprise the following steps:
(1) arrange field planting hole: according to spacing in the rows be 2.0m, line-spacing be 4m arrange field planting hole;
(2) dig field planting hole: with center, field planting hole for round dot, be that radius digs out the mellow soil of the degree of depth in the 30cm of ground with 50cm, place it in the surrounding in field planting hole;
(3) backfill soil: the mellow soil dug out is mixed according to volume ratio 1:2-5 with farmyard manure, be then backfilled to together with ground level after, by dig out the immature soil backfill on mellow soil;
(4) field planting: cheat center, native face in the field planting of backfill and dig the planting pit that diameter is 50cm, water is poured in the planting pit dug, when having oozed under water is also not comprehensive, seedling being put into planting pit blinding to exceeding ground level 30-50cm, after planting pit blinding, the soil around seedling being piled tree dish;
(5) overlay film: laying plastic on the tree dish piled up at every strain fruit seedling after field planting;
(6) field management: in 4-9 month, need spray blade face fruit retention swelling agent 1 time/month;
(7) pruning fruit tree: prune every plant height degree 60-100cm, every strain stays the bud of 3-5 different directions, branch to surrounding elongation growth, forms major branch of bearing fruit.
In technical scheme of the present invention, described in step (3), farmyard manure is made up of following raw materials according by weight: stalk 200 parts, pig manure 20-50 part, night soil 20-50 part, groundnut cake 10-50 part, 5 parts, lime, chicken manure 10-50 part and water 100-500 part.
In technical scheme of the present invention, described in step (4), tree dish is low inside and high outside turtleback, and the periphery of tree dish is the annular groove of dark 30cm, wide 30cm.
In technical scheme of the present invention, blade face fruit retention swelling agent described in step (6) is the mixed liquor containing 5-10ppm gibberellin (GA3) and 1.0-2.0ppm CPPU.
In addition, present invention also offers the application of described Novel fruit-tree cultivation method on longan, lichee.
Compared with prior art, the present invention has following beneficial effect:
1. cultivation method of the present invention arranges circular groove, high dish, makes the fallen leaves etc. piled up on high dish flow into circular groove through rainwater, is conducive to the gas permeability promoting high dish soil, thus improves soil aggregate.
2. what cultivation method of the present invention flowed into rainwater in ditch and fallen leaves waits decomposition to be fertilizer, has very large benefit for root system nutrition intensive under drip, by promoting root growth, and raising fruit yield and quality.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is fruit growing method individual plant fruit tree field planting schematic diagram of the present invention;
Fig. 2 is fruit growing distance between rows and hills specification schematic diagram of the present invention;
Main Reference Numerals illustrates:
1-fruit tree seedlings; The height dish that 2-fruit tree is piled up; 3-annular groove.
Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing, the specific embodiment of the present invention is described in detail, but is to be understood that protection scope of the present invention not by the restriction of embodiment.
Under isolated tree dish drip, dig the ditch of dark 30cm, wide 30cm, dig out mound on tree dish, tree dish is organized into the outer low turtleback of inner height.
Be examination material in early March, 2013 with the good longan of the storage of field planting in 2002, the process of circular groove height dish be set: under isolated tree dish drip, dig the ditch of dark 30cm, wide 30cm, dig out mound on tree dish, tree dish is organized into the outer low turtleback of inner height.With not open loop ditch not epiphragma plough clearly into contrast.At in late March, 2014 in the circle tree dish that circular groove is formed, fetch earth with earth boring auger apart from the tree dish that trunk is about 1.5m, the degree of depth that fetches earth is 0-20cm, 20-40cm; Institute digs in annular groove and also fetches earth with earth boring auger, and the degree of depth that fetches earth is 0-20cm, 20-40cm.Soil moisture content is measured immediately, air-dry rear mensuration soil pH, the content of organic matter after fetching earth.With the root drilling collection longan root system of diameter 10cm on the tree dish of distance longan trunk 1.5m, the sampling depth on tree dish is respectively 0-20cm, 20-40cm; In circular groove, gather longan root system equally by this method, sampling depth is 0-20cm, 20-40cm.Root system after collection measures its quantity, weight, average diameter.Get the annual young sprout top firm turn green leaf of downward 6-8 joint and measure its leaf r elative water content.Measure output in mid-August, 2014 fruit picking, and measure content of fruit soluble solids, total reducing sugar, titratable acid, vitamin C.Adopt single factor test randomised block design, each process repeats 3 times.
Result shows: tree dish 0-20cm soil moisture content height dish and contrast be respectively 16.4 and 18.2,20-40cm soil layer be respectively 16.6 and 17.0, illustrates that high water content of coiling is lower than contrast.But ditch 0-20 soil moisture in layer: 19.9,20-40cm soil layer is: 19.0, is significantly higher than contrast.Be 14.52g/kg, contrast 11.97g/kg in content of organic matter ditch, process is significantly higher than contrast.Tree dish soil pH value 0-20 soil layer height dish and contrast are respectively 4.98,4.76,20-40cm soil layers and are respectively 4.87 and 4.46, and process soil pH value significantly improves.Root heavily processes and contrast is respectively 137.34 and 120.26, and leaf r elative water content is respectively 81.4% and 79.8%, is all process significantly to be better than contrast.Output is respectively 9.42kg and 8.23kg, and soluble solid content is respectively 21.4 and 20.1, and process is significantly higher than contrast.
The aforementioned description to concrete exemplary of the present invention is to illustrate and the object of illustration.These descriptions not want the present invention to be defined as disclosed precise forms, and obviously, according to above-mentioned instruction, can much change and change.The object selected exemplary embodiment and describe is to explain certain principles of the present invention and practical application thereof, thus those skilled in the art can be realized and utilize various different exemplary of the present invention and various different selection and change.Scope of the present invention is intended to limited by claims and equivalents thereof.