CN103875409B - A kind of to new arrange to plough carry out straw and to change places the potato fertilizer application method in also field - Google Patents

A kind of to new arrange to plough carry out straw and to change places the potato fertilizer application method in also field Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103875409B
CN103875409B CN201410105306.3A CN201410105306A CN103875409B CN 103875409 B CN103875409 B CN 103875409B CN 201410105306 A CN201410105306 A CN 201410105306A CN 103875409 B CN103875409 B CN 103875409B
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potato
straw
furrow
carry
new
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CN103875409A (en
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范美蓉
秦晓波
杨润新
廖育林
彭辉辉
李玉娥
鲁艳红
孙玉桃
汤桂容
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HUNAN INSTITUTE OF SOIL AND FERTILIZER
People's Government Of Chaxi Town Xinhua County
Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development in Agriculturem of CAAS
Changsha Environmental Protection College
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HUNAN INSTITUTE OF SOIL AND FERTILIZER
People's Government Of Chaxi Town Xinhua County
Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development in Agriculturem of CAAS
Changsha Environmental Protection College
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Priority to CN201410105306.3A priority Critical patent/CN103875409B/en
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Abstract

The present invention selects newly to arrange arable land and carries out straw and to change places also field plantation potato, utilize straw, potato stalk Study on Fertilizing newly arranges arable soil, the new deep ploughing (topsoil is greater than 25cm) arranging arable land is carried out in mid or late November, ditch is held successfully by potato seed planting technology, ground is flattened, execute base manure (urea 10 ~ 15kg/ mu, fused calcium magnesium phosphate 30-50kg/ mu, potassium sulfate 40 ~ 50kg/ mu), base fertilizer is disposable to be applied, by the specification plantation potato of 5000-6000 cave/mu, the straw reorganized and outfit (400-600kg/ mu) is covered in furrow ridge, carry out the Routine Management of potato planting, mid or late April next year carries out the results of potato and reorganizes and outfit the cycling of the farming such as second stubble crop plantation, high financial profit of the present invention, and after potato harvest, potato stalk and the straw rotted do organic materials direct returning to farmland, new arrangement arable soil Study on Fertilizing and physicochemical character are improved there is good effect.

Description

A kind of to new arrange to plough carry out straw and to change places the potato fertilizer application method in also field
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of to new arrange to plough carry out straw and to change places the potato fertilizer application method in also field.
Background technology
Potato is of high nutritive value with it, resistance to accumulating and being loved by the people.But traditional extensive cultivation mode and unscientific management can cause, and potato yield is low, commodity is poor.Therefore improve potato culture technical merit and be still one of major measure improving potato yield and economic benefit.And in consolidation and standard farmland construction, most area only focuses on the increase of arable area, pay attention to not to farmland quality, newly-increased farmland fertility is generally poor, and soil nutrient content declines, and topsoil shoals, the thick bone in soil is strong, amount of cure is low, preserve moisture and fertility reduced capability, and on such soil, long-term cropping is the main cause causing crop yield low.
Straw, as the fertilizer of a kind of cheapness in south China paddy fields, contains the abundant composition such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, trace element.Straw incorporation can increase soil organic matter accumulation and nutrient content, changes soil humus composition and characteristic; Improve soil physical property, reduce the bulk density of soil, increase porosity; Strengthen microbial activity, improve nitrogen cycle and crop to the absorption of nitrogen, for the growth of next batch of crop provides a large amount of utilized nitrogens; Straw incorporation also has retains and conserve soil moisture, and adjustably gentleness conserves water and soil, and suppresses the functions such as weeds in field.Straw has very important effect to improvement of soil fertility, lifting cultivated-land, but traditional straw turns over and field is time-consuming, labour intensity is large, and economic value added is low, is difficult to be received by peasant.A large amount of field is burned straw or is abandoned the phenomenon of straw to have caused rural area to occur, not only wastes resource but also contaminated environment.
Summary of the invention
The present invention is solved the deficiencies in the prior art and provides a kind of time of site preparation newly being arranged arable land by adjustment south rice growing area, carry out straw change places cover produce potato, the output of potato can be increased, and the stem tuber of results has that size is even, surface clean is smooth, breakage rate is few, easy peeling, output are higher, commodity is good to new arrange to plough carry out straw and to change places the potato fertilizer application method in also field, adopt high financial profit of the present invention; And after potato harvest, potato stalk and the straw rotted do organic materials direct returning to farmland, new arrangement arable soil Study on Fertilizing and physicochemical character are improved there is good effect.
The present invention is achieved through the following technical solutions above-mentioned purpose:
Carry out straw to new arrangement arable land to change places and the potato fertilizer application method in field, comprise the steps:
A, whole: in mid or late November, to be deep ploughed in the new arable land that arranges, according to potato seed method for planting, is ditched in field, leveling, then in furrow face, plant potato 5000 ~ 6000 caves/mu, apply fertilizer to the subsoil after having sowed;
B, the straw that uniform fold 10 ~ 12cm is thick on the furrow face of having planted potato, the direction of rice straw mulching is vertical with the trend in furrow face;
C, field management: during potato growth, take during arid along ridge furrow irrigation; In rainy season, draining prevention against water-logging; Carry out except tiller after the seedling of potato 90% exposes straw face 5 ~ 10cm, vigorous branches 1 ~ 2 is stayed in every cave, removes weak seedling, and potato bud stage extracts bud in time, prevents nutrient consumption;
D, results: mid or late April next year, when potato more than 50% cauline leaf from green to yellow and withered and yellow gradually, gather in the crops during the stolon drying shrinkage of bottom, during results, open the straw on furrow face, can potato be picked up;
E, to plough: after potato harvest, deep ploughed in field, rotten straw and potato stalk are fully mixed with topsoil soils, undertaken by the planting requirement of second stubble crop whole.
In described step a, trench digging is ditched by the furrow face of wide 1.5 ~ 2m, and furrow width 20 ~ 40cm, ditch depth 15 ~ 25cm, the earth dug out during trench digging is thrown in the middle of furrow equably, and hunchbacked shape is made in furrow face.
In described step a, when potato sowing, potato kind is directly placed on furrow face, then by potato kind press-in soil, eye is fully contacted with soil, eye upward, by line-spacing 50cm, spacing in the rows 20cm puts potato, broadcast 5000 ~ 6000 strains for every mu, finish after planting, fertilise, fertilizer is not contacted with potato seed, the fertilizer amount of every mu is urea 10 ~ 15kg, fused calcium magnesium phosphate 50 ~ 60kg, potassium sulfate 40 ~ 50kg, base fertilizer adopts row replacement, after seeding and fertilizing, the straw that uniform fold 10 ~ 12cm is thick, thickness is even, do not interspace, need move towards vertical with furrow face when straw is laid lay and need to make real after laying.
In step a, carry out the extermination of disease and insect pest prior to seeding to potato seed, concrete steps are: bask seeds, and potato seed are placed on temperature and are 10 ~ 15 DEG C and keep 10 ~ 15 days or put under having the environment of loose coloured light shining 3 ~ 5 days in the sun; Then the mixed liquid dipping potato seed 5-10 minute of 5mg/L gibberellin and 600 times of carbendazim or thiophanate methyl is used, fill with root with 200 ~ 500mg/L agricultural streptomycin and prevent and treat black febrile disease with symptoms such as convulsion, opisthotonos, trismus, etc., 2 ~ 3 times are alternately sprayed, every spray in 7 ~ 10 days once with carbendazim and mancozeb 400 ~ 500 times of liquid; If there is aphid, carry out control of aphids.
In steps d, can adopt and gather by stages, when potato haulm starts to turn yellow, straw be pushed aside, ripe potato of gathering, then straw is built allow immature potato continued growth.
In described step c, at the bud stage of potato growth, spray the paclobutrazol of 100 ~ 120mg/kg, potato can be made to downgrade and the expanding of underground stem tuber.
2-3 foliage-spray was carried out every 5-7 days at potato block expanding stage 0.3% ~ 0.5% potassium dihydrogen phosphate.
Second stubble crop is early rice, and Potato Cultivars need select disease resistance is strong, breeding time is shorter No. 2, middle potato, No. 3, middle potato, Dongnong303, river taro morning, Favorita, new No. 4 of Hubei Province potato No. 5, gram, Kexin No.13 or new taro No. 4 kinds.
In described step a neutralization procedure e, the topsoil of described deep ploughing is greater than 25cm.
Adopt said method, tool of the present invention has the following advantages:
1, plough deeply cultivated in mid or late November to the new arable land that arranges, avoiding repeats to turn over arranges the cost caused increases, and suppresses weed growth.
2, adopt during newly arranging winter slack of ploughing and produce potato, add the income of peasant, and the output of potato can be increased.
3, new arrange plough on plough deeply cultivated whole, carrying out straw changes places and field covers produce potato, take full advantage of the nutrient in rice straw, cover and organic materials for potato growth provides, reach the new object arranging arable soil and increase potato yield of fostering and apply fertilizer.
4, utilize rice straw mulching to produce potato, can be potato seedling and shelter from heat or light, reduce potato plant water evaporation quantity, for emerging of potato provides good ecotope.Adopt this method plantation potato than the method for general planting potato have emerge neat, emerge Zao, growing way good and output high, and effectively prevent the labour of general planting potato harvest process, is conducive to potato stable and high yields.
5, straw is changed places and is gone back the idle periods that field production potato make use of new arrangement arable land, carry out using in advance of phosphorus potash fertilizer, add the output of potato, reduce the expense of labour during second stubble crop fertilising, straw and potato straw-returning fertilizing soil can reduce fertilizer amount and improve second stubble crop output, thus reduce the planting benefit that chemical fertilizer dropped into, improve peasant household.
6, traditional extensive cultivation mode and unscientific management can cause potato yield low, and commodity is poor.Employing is changed places straw incorporation culture underglass technology, and the potato tubers of results has the characteristics such as size is even, surface clean is smooth, breakage rate is few, easy peeling, output is higher, commodity is good.
7, turn over traditional, compared with no-tillage potato planting, have potato yield high, every per mu yield can reach more than 2000kg, remarkable in economical benefits, every mu can increase income more than 5000 yuan, and rotten straw and potato stalk improve the new soil fertility arranging arable land, can increase the output of second stubble crop.
In sum, this method newly arranges the time of site preparation in arable land by adjustment south rice growing area, carry out straw change places cover produce potato, the output of potato can be increased, and the stem tuber of results has the characteristics such as size is even, surface clean is smooth, breakage rate is few, easy peeling, output is higher, commodity is good, high financial profit; And after potato harvest, potato stalk and the straw rotted do organic materials direct returning to farmland, new arrangement arable soil Study on Fertilizing and physicochemical character are improved there is good effect.
Embodiment
Further describe the embodiment of this patent below.
The first step, wholely
In conjunction with the new requirement arranging arable land project, carry out dark non watered ploughing (topsoil is greater than 25cm) in mid or late November, ground is flattened, holds ditch successfully by potato seed planting technology, ditch by the furrow face of wide 1.5 ~ 2m, furrow width 20 ~ 40cm, ditch depth 15 ~ 25cm.The earth dug out during trench digging will be thrown in the middle of furrow equably, and hunchbacked shape is made in furrow face, is beneficial to draining.
Second step, sowing and fertilising
Sow in mid or late November.Choosing containing main virus and viroids, without ring rot, late blight and root knot nematode disease, does not have the potato seed of obvious dry rot, soft corruption, silver color tertia symptom about 30 ~ 50g size.During sowing, potato seed be directly placed on furrow face, eye, carries out pendulum potato by line-spacing 50cm, spacing in the rows 20cm upward, broadcasts 5000-6000 strain for every mu.During sowing potato seed a little with defeating.Eye is fully contacted with soil.Finish after planting, then bar to fertilize, and chemical fertilizer is not contacted with potato seed.The fertilizer amount of every mu is, urea 10 ~ 15kg, fused calcium magnesium phosphate 50 ~ 60kg, potassium sulfate 40 ~ 50kg, base fertilizer is disposable to be applied, and does not generally need the time of infertility to topdress, but depending on the growth of cereal crop seedlings, foliage-spray can be carried out at potato block expanding stage 0.3% ~ 0.5% potassium dihydrogen phosphate.After planting, the straw that uniform fold 10 ~ 12cm is thick, thickness is even, and do not interspace (lid grass too emerge by thick being unfavorable for, the green potato of too thin then easy formation, affects quality), moves towards vertical, make real straw gently with furrow face.
3rd step, field management
During potato growth, must ensure enough moisture, especially tuber expansion period, be the period that water requirement is maximum, and soil should often keep moistening, to promote that stem tuber expands.Should take during arid along furrow furrow irrigation.In rainy season, note draining prevention against water-logging, especially Later growth, if now do not strengthen draining, potato block can be made to rot, affect output.Carry out after seedling all sprouts except tiller, vigorous branches 1 ~ 2 is stayed in general every cave, removes weak seedling.The flower bud phase extracts bud in time, prevents nutrient consumption.There is the field of excessive growth trend squaring period, the paclobutrazol of 100 ~ 120mg/kg can be sprayed, potato can be made to downgrade and the expanding of underground stem tuber.
4th step, the extermination of disease and insect pest
Bask seeds, potato seed being placed on 10 ~ 15 DEG C to have under the condition of loose coloured light 10 ~ 15 days, preferably puts and shines 3 ~ 5 days in the sun, not only can sterilization, can also improve the content of solanine in potato body, thus improve potato block disease resistance.With the mixed liquid dipping potato seed 5-10 minute of 5mg/L gibberellin and 600 times of carbendazim or thiophanate methyl, come short its germinate and prevent virus diseases, bacterial wilt; Fill with root with 200 ~ 500mg/L agricultural streptomycin and prevent and treat black febrile disease with symptoms such as convulsion, opisthotonos, trismus, etc., alternately spray 2 ~ 3 times with carbendazim and mancozeb 400 ~ 500 times of liquid, every spray in 7 ~ 10 days once, effectively can prevent the generation of late blight.Control of aphids is carried out with Aphox wetting powder 2000 ~ 3000 times of liquid etc. of 1000 ~ 1500 times of Rogor or 50%.
5th step, gathers in the crops in good time
When potato more than 50% cauline leaf from green to yellow and withered and yellow gradually, bottom stolon drying shrinkage, is easy to results when stem tuber departs from.Open straw, can potato be picked up; Can also gather by stages, when potato haulm starts to turn yellow, straw be pushed aside gently, the potato block of growing up of gathering, then straw is built allow little potato continued growth, this method can improve output and commodity rate, obtains good economic benefit.
6th step, ploughs
After mid or late April next year potato harvest, carry out deep tillage area (topsoil is greater than 25cm), rotten straw and potato stalk are fully mixed with topsoil soils, undertaken by the planting requirement of second stubble crop whole.Other management are with potato general planting.
Embodiment 1
Within 2011, in Anxiang County, the selection of safe and comfortable township is new arranges 15 mu, arable land, carries out dark non watered ploughing (topsoil is greater than 25cm), flattened on ground, hold ditch successfully, ditch by the furrow face of wide 2m, furrow width 30cm, ditch depth 15cm by potato seed planting technology on November 18th, 2011.Potato Cultivars is " No. 3, middle potato ".Concrete farming operation is as follows:
1, November 21, choosing containing main virus and viroids, without ring rot, late blight and root knot nematode disease, does not have the potato seed of obvious dry rot, soft corruption, silver color tertia symptom about 30 ~ 50g size.During sowing, potato seed be directly placed on furrow face, eye, carries out pendulum potato by line-spacing 50cm, spacing in the rows 20cm upward, every mu broadcast 5500 strains about.The fertilizer amount of every mu is, urea 15kg, fused calcium magnesium phosphate 60kg, potassium sulfate 50kg, and base fertilizer adopts row replacement, disposablely applies, the thicker straw reorganized and outfit of uniform fold 10cm.
2, on February 26th, 2012, carry out except tiller after seedling all sprouts, every cave stays vigorous branches 1-2.Spray the paclobutrazol of 100mg/kg squaring period.Other management are with potato general planting.
3, on April 10th, 2012, gather by stages, when potato haulm starts to turn yellow, straw is pushed aside gently, the potato block of growing up of gathering, then straw is built allow little potato continued growth.
4, after potato harvest on April 26, carry out deep tillage area (topsoil is greater than 25cm), undertaken by the planting requirement of paddy rice whole.April 28 basal dressing.April 29, early-rice seedlings was transplanted, and rice transplanting is identical with the operation of traditional early rice farming.
With newly arranges compared with winter slack of ploughing, 2012 annuals every mu results potato 2145kg, the every per mu yield of early rice on average increases 85.0kg, plants potato improve effects 5200 yuan/mu, increase early rice benefit 114 yuan/mu.
Embodiment 2
Cha Xi town, Xinhua County within 2011, is selected newly to arrange 18 mu, arable land.Carry out dark non watered ploughing (topsoil is greater than 25cm) on November 20th, 2011, ground is flattened, holds ditch successfully by potato seed planting technology, ditch by the furrow face of wide 1.5m, furrow width 25cm, ditch depth 20cm.Potato Cultivars is " Favorita ".Concrete farming operation is as follows:
1, November 19, bask seeds, potato seed being placed on 10 ~ 15 DEG C to have under the condition of loose coloured light 10 ~ 15 days, puts and shines 3 days in the sun.
2, October 22, the potato seed of about 30 ~ 50g size is selected.During sowing, potato seed be directly placed on furrow face, eye, carries out pendulum potato by line-spacing 50cm, spacing in the rows 20cm upward, every mu broadcast 5500 strains about.The fertilizer amount of every mu is 15kg, fused calcium magnesium phosphate 60kg, potassium sulfate 50kg, and base fertilizer adopts row replacement, disposablely applies, the thicker straw reorganized and outfit of uniform fold 12cm.
3, on February 27th, 2012, carry out except tiller after seedling all sprouts, every cave stays vigorous branches 1-2.Spray the paclobutrazol of 120mg/kg squaring period.
4, April 12, gather by stages, when potato haulm starts to turn yellow, straw is pushed aside gently, the potato block of growing up of gathering, then straw is built allow little potato continued growth.Other management are with potato general planting.
5, after potato harvest on April 24, deeply carry out deep tillage area (topsoil is greater than 25cm), undertaken by the planting requirement of paddy rice whole.April 26 basal dressing.April 27, early-rice seedlings was transplanted, and rice transplanting is identical with the operation of traditional early rice farming.
Compared with newly arranging with locality winter slack of ploughing, 2012 annual every mu results potato 2075kg, the every per mu yield of early rice on average increases 91.0kg, and plantation potato improve effects 5000 yuan/mu, increases early rice benefit 127 yuan/mu.

Claims (7)

1. carry out straw to new arrangement arable land to change places and the potato fertilizer application method in field, it is characterized in that, comprise the steps:
A, wholely: in mid or late November, deep ploughed in the new arable land that arranges, according to potato seed method for planting, is ditched in field, leveling, trench digging is ditched by the furrow face of wide 1.5 ~ 2m, furrow width 20 ~ 40cm, ditch depth 15 ~ 25cm, the earth dug out during trench digging is thrown equably in the middle of furrow, and hunchbacked shape is made in furrow face, then in furrow face, potato 5000 ~ 6000 caves/mu is planted, when potato sowing, potato kind is directly placed on furrow face, then by potato kind press-in soil, eye is fully contacted with soil, eye upward, by line-spacing 50cm, spacing in the rows 20cm puts potato, broadcast 5000 ~ 6000 caves for every mu, finish after planting, fertilise, fertilizer is not contacted with potato seed, the fertilizer amount of every mu is urea 10 ~ 15kg, fused calcium magnesium phosphate 50 ~ 60kg, potassium sulfate 40 ~ 50kg, base fertilizer adopts row replacement,
After b, seeding and fertilizing, the straw that uniform fold 10 ~ 12cm is thick on the furrow face of having planted potato, thickness is even, does not interspace, and need move towards vertical lay and need to make real after laying when straw is laid with furrow face;
C, field management: during potato growth, take during arid along ridge furrow irrigation; In rainy season, draining prevention against water-logging; Carry out except tiller after the seedling of potato 90% exposes straw face 5 ~ 10cm, vigorous branches 1 ~ 2 is stayed in every cave, removes weak seedling, and potato bud stage extracts bud in time, prevents nutrient consumption;
D, results: mid or late April next year, when potato more than 50% cauline leaf from green to yellow and withered and yellow gradually, gather in the crops during the stolon drying shrinkage of bottom, during results, open the straw on furrow face, pick up potato;
E, to plough: after potato harvest, deep ploughed in field, rotten straw and potato stalk are fully mixed with topsoil soils, undertaken by the planting requirement of second stubble crop whole.
2. according to claim 1 to new arrange to plough carry out straw and to change places the potato fertilizer application method in also field, it is characterized in that, in step a, prior to seeding the extermination of disease and insect pest is carried out to potato seed, concrete steps are: bask seeds, and potato seed are placed on temperature and are 10 ~ 15 DEG C and keep 10 ~ 15 days or put under having the environment of loose coloured light shining 3 ~ 5 days in the sun; Then the mixed liquid dipping potato seed 5-10 minute of 5mg/L gibberellin and 600 times of carbendazim or thiophanate methyl is used, fill with root with 200 ~ 500mg/L agricultural streptomycin and prevent and treat black febrile disease with symptoms such as convulsion, opisthotonos, trismus, etc., 2 ~ 3 times are alternately sprayed, every spray in 7 ~ 10 days once with carbendazim and mancozeb 400 ~ 500 times of liquid; If there is aphid, carry out control of aphids.
3. according to claim 1 to new arrange to plough carry out straw and to change places the potato fertilizer application method in also field, it is characterized in that, in steps d, adopt and gather by stages, when potato haulm starts to turn yellow, straw is pushed aside, ripe potato of gathering, then straw is built allow immature potato continued growth.
4. according to claim 1 to new arrange to plough carry out straw and to change places the potato fertilizer application method in also field, it is characterized in that, in described step c, at the bud stage of potato growth, spray the paclobutrazol of 100 ~ 120mg/kg, potato can be made to downgrade and the expanding of underground stem tuber.
5. according to claim 1 to new arrange to plough carry out straw and to change places the potato fertilizer application method in also field, it is characterized in that, carried out 2-3 foliage-spray at potato block expanding stage 0.3% ~ 0.5% potassium dihydrogen phosphate every 5-7 days.
6. according to claim 1 to new arrange to plough carry out straw and to change places the potato fertilizer application method in also field, it is characterized in that, second stubble crop is early rice, and Potato Cultivars need select disease resistance is strong, breeding time is shorter No. 2, middle potato, No. 3, middle potato, Dongnong303, river taro morning, Favorita, new No. 4 of Hubei Province potato No. 5, gram, Kexin No.13 or new taro No. 4 kinds.
7. according to claim 1 to new arrange to plough carry out straw and to change places the potato fertilizer application method in also field, it is characterized in that, in described step a neutralization procedure e, the topsoil of described deep ploughing is greater than 25cm.
CN201410105306.3A 2014-03-20 2014-03-20 A kind of to new arrange to plough carry out straw and to change places the potato fertilizer application method in also field Expired - Fee Related CN103875409B (en)

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