CN104686158B - Method for improving hillside forest land and interplanting selenium-rich camellia oleifera trees at high yield - Google Patents

Method for improving hillside forest land and interplanting selenium-rich camellia oleifera trees at high yield Download PDF

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CN104686158B
CN104686158B CN201510104761.6A CN201510104761A CN104686158B CN 104686158 B CN104686158 B CN 104686158B CN 201510104761 A CN201510104761 A CN 201510104761A CN 104686158 B CN104686158 B CN 104686158B
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王寿南
胡齐放
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胡齐放
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/005Cultivation methods
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01BSOIL WORKING IN AGRICULTURE OR FORESTRY; PARTS, DETAILS, OR ACCESSORIES OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINES OR IMPLEMENTS, IN GENERAL
    • A01B79/00Methods for working soil
    • A01B79/02Methods for working soil combined with other agricultural processing, e.g. fertilising, planting
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for

Abstract

The invention relates to a method for improving hillside forest lands and interplanting high-yield selenium-rich tea-oil trees, which is a method for jointly planting osmunda japonica and tea-oil trees in the hillside forest lands and specifically comprises the steps of land preparation, planting, pruning and fertilizing, wherein the tea-oil trees are kept alive in the first year and need low-concentration fertilizers for watering and full flower thinning, the tea-oil trees are kept strong seedlings in the second year, accelerated nitrogen fertilizers and organic selenium fertilizers need to be applied before young shoots sprout, and the yield is kept in the third year and later, so that the application amounts of organic fertilizers and phosphorus and potassium fertilizers need to be increased. The interplanting of the oil-tea trees can realize the high yield of single-plant oil-tea trees and the rich organic selenium, and improve the economic benefit of agriculture and forestry planting.

Description

Method for improving hillside forest land and interplanting selenium-rich camellia oleifera trees at high yield
Technical Field
The invention relates to the field of agricultural production, in particular to a method for improving hillside forest lands and interplanting selenium-rich tea-oil trees in a high yield mode.
Background
Osmunda japonica, named Zijiu, belongs to perennial ferns and is widely available in Dabie mountain areas. The osmunda japonica is rich in protein, vitamins, potassium, calcium, scales and other trace elements, can be made into delicious dishes, has the effects of resisting cancer, clearing heat, detoxifying, losing weight, beautifying and the like, has an obvious inhibiting effect on viruses such as influenza, Japanese encephalitis and the like, is a vegetable which is exported for a long time and sold overseas, and is particularly exported to Japan.
At present, osmunda japonica is mostly collected in the field, although local experiments and manual planting are also available, the yield is low, the collected osmunda japonica stems are thin, the quality is poor, and the osmunda japonica withers or does not bud again after being picked for one or two years.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to provide a method for improving hillside forest lands and interplanting selenium-rich tea-oil trees with high yield, which can effectively solve the problems, has high yield of osmunda japonica, is thick and strong, has good quality, can be picked for a long time, does not reduce the yield, can realize the high yield of single-plant tea-oil trees by interplanting the tea-oil trees, and improves the economic benefit of agriculture and forestry planting.
In order to achieve the purpose, the invention adopts the following technical scheme:
a method for improving hillside forest lands and interplanting selenium-rich tea-oil trees at high yield is a method for jointly planting osmunda japonica and tea-oil trees in the hillside forest lands, and specifically comprises the following operation steps:
s1: the method comprises the steps of preparing the mountain slope forest land into steps, arranging planting lands after land preparation along contour lines of the mountain slope, piling dam banks on the outer sides of slopes between adjacent planting lands by adopting stones, arranging ditches in the middle of each planting land, arranging the ditches along the length direction of the planting land, arranging partition sections in the ditches along the length direction of the ditches, dividing the ditches into water tanks by the partition sections, arranging a first water flow port and a second water flow port on the partition sections at two ends of each water tank respectively, arranging a third water flow port on the tank wall outside the water tank, keeping the height of the third water flow port on the same water tank consistent with that of the water flow port with smaller height in the first water flow port and the second water flow port, arranging the partition sections and the third water flow ports on the adjacent ditches in a spaced staggered manner respectively, connecting the top ditches on the mountain slope forest land with a water supply device, arranging water spray pipes transversely on the outer side of the dam banks, and arranging water spray holes/spray nozzles at intervals on pipe, the water outlet direction of the water spray holes/nozzles obliquely points to the side wall of the dam ridge, the ditch divides a planting field into a first planting field and a second planting field, the first planting field is formed by filling and shaping improved soil, the improved soil is dry field soil, peat soil and fire fertile soil which are mixed and prepared according to the weight ratio of 0.5:1: 0.2-0.8: 1:0.4, the dry field soil is rice field soil taken after the paddy field is drained and sunned for 3-6 months, crops are not sown during the sunning period and the soil is turned over for 2-3 times, and the fire fertile soil is formed by mixing and preparing fire ash burnt by straws, branches and leaves and weeds and forest soil according to the weight ratio of 1: 2-3;
s2: digging a planting hole with the depth of 50-55 cm on a second planting ground in 3-4 months in the first year, planting the tea tree seedlings with the oil of 2-3 years in the planting hole, backfilling the planting hole with a layer of soil and a layer of base fertilizer, pouring once diluted fertilizer water after the tea tree seedlings are planted for 20 days, wherein the first diluted fertilizer water contains 2% of urea and 0.2% of potassium chloride, and the base fertilizer is obtained by mixing and decomposing 10 parts by weight of green manure, 2 parts by weight of lime, 15 parts by weight of livestock manure and 8 parts by weight of cake fertilizer; in 8 months, annular grooves are formed in the periphery of a bag of the camellia oleifera, 100g of nitrogen fertilizer is applied to the annular grooves, and flower thinning is carried out after the camellia oleifera blooms; planting artificially-propagated/wild osmunda seedlings on a first planting land at intervals in autumn of the same year, wherein the artificial-propagated/wild osmunda seedlings are close to the bottom of a dam ridge, irrigating water in a ditch, the height of the water surface in the ditch is 12-17 cm lower than the height of the ground surface of the first planting land, stopping irrigation after frost fall, and covering a layer of leaves on the ground surface of the first planting land;
s3: irrigating after the frightened dormancy in the second year, starting bud buds of the osmunda japonica in 4-5 months, opening water spraying holes/nozzles at night after the bud buds for spraying/atomizing for 3-5 min every day, and not picking the osmunda japonica in the first year; pinching along the position 100-110 cm high of the tea-oil tree, shaping the tea-oil tree by adopting a natural heart-opening shape pruning mode, reserving 5-7 main branches on a main trunk, turning over a second planting land at the end of 3 months, applying 500g of nitrogen fertilizer to the root of the tea-oil tree, forming an annular groove at the periphery of a pocket of the tea-oil tree in 10 months, applying 500g of phosphorus-potassium fertilizer and 2kg of biological organic fertilizer to the annular groove, and thinning the tea-oil tree after flowering; sowing ryegrass on the first and second planting lands in autumn in the next year, adding 2kg of bacillus subtilis GB03 bacterial liquid and 1.5g of ammonium molybdate to soak seeds for 4-4.5 hours to 1kg of ryegrass seeds before sowing, wherein the bacillus subtilis GB03 bacterial liquid is prepared by diluting 10 times of bacillus subtilis GB03 mother liquid, and OD in the bacillus subtilis GB03 mother liquid6000.8-1.0, after seed soaking, mixing ryegrass seeds with 8kg of calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizer and 10kg of fire-fat soil, sowing, wherein the mu sowing amount of the ryegrass seeds is 0.8kg, harvesting for the first time when the ryegrass grows to the height of 40-45 cm to be used as agricultural and livestock forage grass, leaving 5-8 cm of stubble when harvesting for the first time to promote tillering and regeneration of the ryegrass, when the ryegrass grows to the height of 35-40 cm again, laying the harvested ryegrass on the ground surface of a first planting land together with leaves after harvesting the first planting land, leaving 1-3 cm of stubble when harvesting for the second time, burying the ryegrass on the spot on a second planting land, and stopping irrigation after frost fall;
s4: from the third year onwards, the following operations are repeated each year: irrigating after the frightening, applying a bud-assisting fertilizer to the osmunda japonica once in 3 and 4 months, opening a water spraying hole/nozzle to perform spraying/mist spraying for 3-5 min every night after bud, and picking the osmunda japonica 3-4 times in 4-5 months; bracing is carried out on the main branches of the camellia oleifera trees, so that the included angle between the main branches and the trunk is 40-45 degrees, and the main branches are bracedPruning the lateral branches on the main branches to ensure that the height of the top ends of the main branches is not more than 3.5m, applying 800g of nitrogen fertilizer to each plant before a new sprout, and applying 800g of phosphorus-potassium fertilizer and 5kg of bio-organic fertilizer to each plant in 10 months; applying fruit tree water flush fertilizer in the fruit expansion period of the oil-tea camellia, and spraying organic selenium fertilizer in the fruit maturation period of the oil-tea camellia; sowing ryegrass on the first and second planting lands in autumn, adding 2kg of bacillus subtilis GB03 bacterial liquid and 1.5g of ammonium molybdate to soak seeds for 4-4.5 h before sowing ryegrass seeds, wherein the bacillus subtilis GB03 bacterial liquid is prepared by diluting 10 times of bacillus subtilis GB03 mother liquid, and OD in the bacillus subtilis GB03 mother liquid6000.8-1.0, after seed soaking, mixing ryegrass seeds with 8kg of calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizer and 10kg of fire-fat soil, sowing, wherein the mu sowing amount of the ryegrass seeds is 0.8kg, harvesting for the first time when the ryegrass grows to the height of 40-45 cm to be used as agricultural and livestock forage grass, leaving 5-8 cm of stubble when harvesting for the first time to promote tillering and regeneration of the ryegrass, when the ryegrass grows to the height of 35-40 cm again, laying the harvested ryegrass on the ground surface of a first planting land together with leaves after harvesting the first planting land, leaving 1-3 cm of stubble when harvesting for the second time, burying the ryegrass on the spot on a second planting land, and stopping irrigation after frost fall;
the livestock manure is feces collected by feeding livestock; pulverizing and mixing sorghum, wheat and soybean according to a mass ratio of 6:3:1 to prepare a fermentation substrate, uniformly mixing yeast selenium and the fermentation substrate according to a mass ratio of 1:5, adding water, fermenting at 28 ℃ for 70 days, mixing the fermented product with feed for feeding livestock and poultry, and collecting the feces of the livestock and poultry.
The planting of the osmunda japonica is mainly the control of water and fertilizer, and the osmunda japonica prefers water and is fond of yin but is afraid of waterlogging and extremely harsh on growing soil. The invention can uniformly irrigate the whole hillside forest land by the irrigation system formed by the water ditch through the reformation of the hillside forest land, meanwhile, the water level in the ditch is controlled to be 12-17 cm lower than the ground surface of the first planting field, the water-loving irrigation of the osmunda japonica is guaranteed, the waterlogging does not occur, the osmunda japonica is planted close to the bottom of the dam ridge, the planting effect is far better than that of flat ground, the osmunda japonica is influenced by the dam ridge, so that the newly-emerged stems and leaves grow to the side far away from the dam bank, the phytohormone in the stems and leaves stimulates the roots to sprout more spores, the yield is improved, meanwhile, the arrangement of the dam banks can prevent water flow above the first planting field from flowing from the ground surface of the first planting field and permeating into the ditch from the lower part of the first planting field, prevent the osmunda japonica from waterlogging, in addition, the dam ridge built by the stones can play a role in fixing at the initial stage of forest land transformation, and prevents landslide from causing damage to the mountain slopes and forest lands in rainy seasons; the water spraying holes/nozzles spray in a short time at night to simulate a rainy day, so that part of rainwater is sprayed on the osmunda japonica buds sparsely, the growth of the osmunda japonica buds is promoted, and the osmunda japonica buds are thicker; meanwhile, the prepared improved soil is matched with the optimal requirement of growth of the osmunda japonica in acidity and fertilizer cultivation, so that the osmunda japonica is thicker and stronger, the milk vetch can grow luxuriantly on the soil of the first planting field, the harvested milk vetch and the harvested leaves are covered, the osmunda japonica can live through the winter better, the osmunda japonica spores in the next year are guaranteed, the milk vetch and the harvested leaves can well supplement the fertility of the first planting field and adjust the acidity through the rot of the milk vetch and the harvested leaf, and the osmunda japonica can be picked every year.
In addition, the survival rate of the oil-tea tree planted by the scheme is 100%, the oil-tea tree is green leaves all the year round, and a shady fence is formed on the periphery of the osmunda japonica, so that the requirement of the osmunda japonica on the growth environment is met, and the period of the whole forest land transformation is shortened. In addition, the combined planting of the oil tea trees and the osmunda japonica can improve the economic benefit of agricultural planting. The camellia oleifera seedlings can be directly purchased from a seedling raising factory and can be quickly grown, meanwhile, the base fertilizer can ensure the fertilization that the demand of the camellia oleifera seedlings for nutrients changes year by year, the fertilizer is also set according to the growth demands of the camellia oleifera seedlings in different periods, the camellia oleifera trees are survived in the first year, low-concentration fertilizer is needed for watering and all thinning, strong seedlings are needed in the second year, a quick nitrogen fertilizer needs to be applied before young sprouts, the yield is kept in the third year and later, and the application amounts of the organic fertilizer and the phosphorus-potassium fertilizer need to be increased. In addition, the shaping of the oil-tea tree ensures that a large number of fruits of the oil-tea tree and the osmunda japonica are reasonably shaded.
Certainly, the main functions of the factors are simply explained, the high-yield osmunda japonica thunb can be picked at high yield every year through the mutual coordination of the factors, and the picked osmunda japonica thunb is thick and strong and has good quality.
The detailed scheme is as follows:
the height of the dam ridge is 60-80 cm, the filling thickness of the improved soil is 30-35 cm, a sandy soil layer is arranged on the lower side of the filling layer of the improved soil, the bottom of the dam ridge extends into the sandy soil layer, and the height of the ground surface of the second planting field is 20-25 cm higher than that of the first planting field. The improved soil is prepared by mixing dry land soil, peat soil and topsoil according to the weight ratio of 0.5:1:0.2, and the bud-promoting fertilizer is prepared by 50kg of topsoil and 10L of urine of human. The dwarfing tea-oil tree branches are luxuriant as if a fence is formed outside a ditch, and at the moment, a larger tea tree seedling is planted inside the ditch, so that tea trees like yin, can well grow, and can be interplanted for multiple crops, and the whole economic benefit is improved.
In addition, the selenium-rich fertilizer obtained by mixing, compacting and composting the livestock and poultry manure rich in organic selenium with weeds, lime and cake fertilizer and the application of the organic selenium fertilizer in the fruit expanding period can effectively absorb the organic selenium by the camellia oleifera so that the selenium content in the squeezed tea oil is more than 2 times that in the common tea oil. The fruit tree water flush fertilizer is used before the organic selenium fertilizer, can effectively promote the absorption of the oil-tea camellia on the organic selenium fertilizer, and can also achieve the effects of strong disease resistance, early maturity and grease resistance.
Above-mentioned technical scheme can show output and the quality that improves the osmunda japonica thunb, and can both pick the osmunda japonica thunb annually after the third year, and the high yield also can be realized to the tea-oil camellia tree of planting simultaneously, improves peasant's economic benefits.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic structural view of a slope surface provided with a ditch;
fig. 2 is a schematic sectional view of the slope.
Detailed Description
In order that the objects and advantages of the invention will be more clearly understood, the following description is given in conjunction with the accompanying examples. It is to be understood that the following text is merely illustrative of one or more specific embodiments of the invention and does not strictly limit the scope of the invention as specifically claimed.
The following examples 1 to 2 are carried out in a cool wind farm (Yuexi county lotus village cool wind group) jointly developed by Anqingwan Chimu agricultural science and technology limited company, Uygur lake Hengnuo energy technology limited company and Yuexi county Hongsheng agricultural science and technology limited company, wherein the spores are tender white spores emitted from roots of osmunda japonica, the spores are picked after growing into the osmunda japonica, dilute excrement water is prepared by mixing human urine and 2 times of water, and the urea water is prepared from 100 to 200g of urea and 1L of water. In the following examples 1 and 2, the specific application amount of the fertilizer, which is not specified, can be determined by those skilled in the art according to the effect and the application period of the fertilizer, so as to ensure the reliable planting of crops. In the present invention, the percentages of the components are mass concentrations unless otherwise specified.
The fruit tree water flush fertilizer applied in the fruit expansion period is the water flush fertilizer for the fruit trees of the cloud tillage brand produced by Zhengzhou cloud tillage agriculture science and technology limited company, the application method is that 800-fold water flush drip irrigation is adopted for dilution, and 1200-fold water flush drip irrigation is adopted, and 1.7 kilograms of water flush irrigation is adopted by a dropper per mu; the organic selenium fertilizer sprayed in the mature period of the fruits is selenium source brand organic selenium fertilizer produced by modern agriculture science and technology limited company of Anhui selenium, the application method of the organic selenium fertilizer is to dilute 500 times of liquid, uniformly spray the liquid on the leaves of the crops, and spray the liquid twice at intervals, wherein each time is 7 days; the spraying amount is determined according to the tree form and the tree age, the tree form and the tree age are large, the spraying amount is correspondingly increased, and generally 1.2L-1.8L per mu is obtained. Certainly, the fruit tree water flush fertilizer and the organic selenium fertilizer produced by other companies can be used, and the same effect is achieved. The livestock manure is feces collected by feeding livestock; pulverizing and mixing sorghum, wheat and soybean according to a mass ratio of 6:3:1 to prepare a fermentation substrate, uniformly mixing yeast selenium and the fermentation substrate according to a mass ratio of 1:5, adding water, fermenting at 28 ℃ for 70 days, mixing the fermented product with feed for feeding livestock and poultry, and collecting the feces of the livestock and poultry.
Example 1
The method comprises the steps of building a fire line on a selected mountain slope forest land to smelt the mountain, burning the land thoroughly on a sunny day, shoveling tree roots and grass roots after burning the land, preparing the mountain slope forest land into a step shape, respectively arranging planting lands 11 after preparation along the contour lines of the mountain slope, adopting stones to stack dam banks 12 on the outer sides of slopes between adjacent planting lands 11, arranging ditches 13 in the middle parts of the planting lands 11, arranging water ditches 13 along the length direction of the planting lands 11, arranging partition sections 131 in the water ditches 13 at intervals along the length direction, dividing the water ditches 13 into water tanks by the partition sections 131, respectively arranging first and second water flow ports 132 on the partition sections 131 at two ends of each water tank, arranging third water flow ports 133 on the tank walls outside the water tanks, keeping the height of the third water flow ports 133 on the same water tank consistent with the height of the water flow ports with the lower height of the first and second water flow ports 132 (if the height of the first water flow ports is lower than the height of the second water flow ports, the height of the third water flowing port 133 is consistent with that of the first water flowing port), the partitions 131 on the adjacent ditches 13 are arranged in a staggered manner at intervals, the third water flowing ports 133 on the adjacent ditches 13 are arranged in a staggered manner at intervals, the top ditches 13 of the hillside forest land are connected with a water supply device, the outer side of the upper part of the dam ridge 12 is provided with horizontal spray pipes 14, the pipe bodies of the spray pipes 14 are provided with spray holes at intervals, the water outlet directions of the spray holes are obliquely directed to the side wall of the dam ridge 12, the ditches 13 divide the planting field 11 into a first planting field 111 positioned at the inner side of the ditches 13 and a second planting field 112 positioned at the outer side of the ditches 13, the first planting field 111 is filled and prepared by adopting improved soil, the improved soil is dry field soil, peat soil and burnt soil are mixed and prepared according to the weight ratio of 0.5:1:0.2, the dry field soil is rice field soil taken after the water of the rice field is drained and the rice field is sunned for 3-6 times, crops are not sowed during the sunn, the fire-fertile soil is prepared by mixing fire ash formed by burning straws, branches and leaves and weeds with forest land soil according to the weight ratio of 1: 2; the height of the dam ridge 12 is 60-80 cm, the filling thickness of the improved soil is 30-35 cm, a sandy soil layer 15 is arranged on the lower side of the filling layer of the improved soil, the bottom of the dam ridge 12 extends into the sandy soil layer 15, the width of the first planting field 111 is 30-40 cm, the width of the second planting field 112 is 1-1.2 m, and the height of the ground surface of the second planting field is 20-25 cm higher than that of the first planting field;
digging a planting hole with the depth of 50-55 cm on a second planting ground in 3-4 months in the first year, planting 11b seedlings of oil tea trees (purchased from a nursery station) of 2-3 years in the planting hole, backfilling the planting hole with a layer of soil and a layer of base fertilizer, pouring once diluted fertilizer water 20 days after the tea oil is planted, wherein the first-stage diluted fertilizer water contains 2% of urea and 0.2% of potassium chloride, and the base fertilizer is obtained by mixing and decomposing 10 parts by weight of green manure, 2 parts by weight of lime, 15 parts by weight of livestock manure and 8 parts by weight of cake fertilizer; in 8 months, annular grooves are formed in the periphery of a bag of the camellia oleifera, 100g of nitrogen fertilizer is applied to the annular grooves, and flower thinning is carried out after the camellia oleifera blooms; planting the artificially propagated osmund seedlings 11a at intervals on the first planting field 111 close to the bottom of the dam bank 12 in autumn of the same year, wherein the width of a planting hole is 20-25 cm, the planting hole is 20 multiplied by 20cm, the planting is carried out according to the plant spacing of 15cm, when the osmund seedlings are transplanted, the osmund seedlings 11a are transplanted with soil without damaging root systems, after planting, root fixing water is poured, water is poured in the ditch 13, the height of the water surface in the ditch 13 is 12-17 cm lower than the height of the ground surface of the first planting field 111, after frost falls, the irrigation is stopped, a layer of leaves is laid on the ground surface of the first planting field 111, and the fallen leaves of the mixed trees and pine needles can be selected for laying;
irrigating after the frightened dormancy in the second year, starting bud buds of the osmunda japonica in 4-5 months, opening water spray holes at night every day after the bud buds for spraying for 3-5 min, topdressing and seedling lifting by using diluted liquid dung or urea water before and after the spores, and not picking the osmunda japonica in the first year by using the bud buds; pinching along the tea-oil tree at the position 100-110 cm high, shaping the tea-oil tree 11b by adopting a natural heart-opening shape pruning mode, reserving 5-7 main branches on a main trunk, turning over a second planting land at the end of 3 months, applying 500g of nitrogen fertilizer to the root of the tea-oil tree, forming an annular groove at the periphery of a pocket of the tea-oil tree in 10 months, applying 500g of phosphorus-potassium fertilizer and 2kg of bio-organic fertilizer (produced by Shizhuang Maofeng fertilizer industry Co., Ltd.), and thinning the flower after the tea-oil tree blooms; the brace is pulled down along the direction opposite to the growth direction of the branch by using a flexible rope, the other end of the flexible rope is fixed by using a bamboo stick inserted on the ground, the angle between the main branch and the trunk is adjusted to be 50-55 degrees, after the branch is formed, the flexible rope is detached, and all flowers are removed after the branch is bloomed; sowing ryegrass on the first and second planting lands in autumn in the next year, adding 2kg of bacillus subtilis GB03 bacterial liquid and 1.5g of ammonium molybdate to soak seeds for 4-4.5 hours to 1kg of ryegrass seeds before sowing, wherein the bacillus subtilis GB03 bacterial liquid is prepared by diluting 10 times of bacillus subtilis GB03 mother liquid, and OD in the bacillus subtilis GB03 mother liquid6000.8-1.0 percent, soaking ryegrass seeds, 8kg of calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizer and 10kg of fireThe method comprises the following steps of uniformly mixing fertile soil and sowing, wherein the sowing quantity per mu of ryegrass seeds is 0.8kg, the ryegrass is harvested for the first time when the ryegrass grows to the height of 40-45 cm and is used as agricultural and livestock forage grass, the stubble is left for the first time by 5-8 cm, tillering and regeneration of the ryegrass are promoted, the ryegrass grows to the height of 35-40 cm again, the ryegrass on the first planting land is harvested and laid on the ground surface of the first planting land together with leaves, the stubble is left for the second time by 1-3 cm, the ryegrass on the second planting land is buried on the spot, and irrigation is stopped after frost fall;
from the third year onwards, the following operations are repeated each year: irrigating after the frightening, applying a bud-assisting fertilizer once in 3 and 4 months, topdressing and seedling lifting by using diluted liquid manure or urea water before or after spores, opening water spray holes at night every day after buds are sprayed for 3-5 min, picking osmunda japonica 3-4 times in 4-5 months, not damaging roots during picking, and applying diluted liquid manure once after each picking; bracing the main branches of the camellia oleifera so that the included angle between the main branches and the trunk is 40-45 degrees, trimming the side branches on the main branches and trimming so that the top heights of the main branches are not more than 3.5m, applying 800g of nitrogen fertilizer to each plant before new sprouts, applying fruit tree flushing fertilizer in the fruit expansion period of the camellia oleifera, and spraying organic selenium fertilizer in the fruit maturation period of the camellia oleifera; applying 800g of phosphorus-potassium fertilizer and 5kg of bio-organic fertilizer to each plant in 10 months; sowing ryegrass on the first and second planting lands in autumn in the next year, adding 2kg of bacillus subtilis GB03 bacterial liquid and 1.5g of ammonium molybdate to soak seeds for 4-4.5 hours to 1kg of ryegrass seeds before sowing, wherein the bacillus subtilis GB03 bacterial liquid is prepared by diluting 10 times of bacillus subtilis GB03 mother liquid, and OD in the bacillus subtilis GB03 mother liquid6000.8-1.0, after seed soaking, mixing ryegrass seeds with 8kg of calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizer and 10kg of fire-fat soil, sowing, wherein the mu sowing amount of the ryegrass seeds is 0.8kg, harvesting for the first time when the ryegrass grows to the height of 40-45 cm to be used as agricultural and livestock forage grass, leaving 5-8 cm of stubble when harvesting for the first time to promote tillering and regeneration of the ryegrass, when the ryegrass grows to the height of 35-40 cm again, laying the harvested ryegrass on the ground surface of a first planting land together with leaves after harvesting the first planting land, leaving 1-3 cm of stubble when harvesting for the second time, burying the ryegrass on the spot on a second planting land, and stopping irrigation after frost fall; the germination-assisting fertilizer is prepared from 50kg of fire-fertilizing soil and 10L of human urine storage liquid.
Example 2
The method comprises the steps of building a fire line on a selected mountain slope forest land to smelt the mountain, burning the land thoroughly on a sunny day, shoveling tree roots and grass roots after burning the land, preparing the mountain slope forest land into a step shape, respectively arranging planting lands 11 after preparation along the contour lines of the mountain slope, adopting stones to stack dam banks 12 on the outer sides of slopes between adjacent planting lands 11, arranging ditches 13 in the middle parts of the planting lands 11, arranging water ditches 13 along the length direction of the planting lands 11, arranging partition sections 131 in the water ditches 13 at intervals along the length direction, dividing the water ditches 13 into water tanks by the partition sections 131, respectively arranging first and second water flow ports 132 on the partition sections 131 at two ends of each water tank, arranging third water flow ports 133 on the tank walls outside the water tanks, keeping the height of the third water flow ports 133 on the same water tank consistent with the height of the water flow ports with the lower height of the first and second water flow ports 132 (if the height of the first water flow ports is lower than the height of the second water flow ports, the height of the third water flowing port 133 is consistent with that of the first water flowing port), the partitions 131 on the adjacent ditches 13 are arranged in a staggered manner at intervals, the third water flowing ports 133 on the adjacent ditches 13 are arranged in a staggered manner at intervals, the top ditches 13 of the mountain slope forest land are connected with a water supply device, the outer sides of the upper parts of the dam ridges 12 are provided with water spraying pipes 14 which are arranged transversely, the pipe bodies of the water spraying pipes 14 are provided with spray heads at intervals, the water outlet directions of the spray heads are obliquely directed to the side walls of the dam ridges 12, the ditches 13 divide the planting field 11 into a first planting field 111 positioned on the inner side of the ditches 13 and a second planting field 112 positioned on the outer side of the ditches 13, the first planting field 111 is formed by filling and shaping improved soil, the improved soil is dry field soil, peat soil and burnt soil which are mixed and prepared according to the weight ratio of 0.8:1:0.4, the dry field soil is taken after the paddy field is drained and the paddy field is sunned for 3-6 months, crops are not sowed in, the fire-fertile soil is prepared by mixing fire ash burnt by straws, branches and leaves and weeds with forest land soil (the native soil of a mountain slope forest land) according to the weight ratio of 1: 3; the height of the dam ridge 12 is 60-80 cm, the filling thickness of the improved soil is 30-35 cm, a sandy soil layer is arranged on the lower side of the filling layer of the improved soil, the bottom of the dam ridge 12 extends into the sandy soil layer, the width of the first planting field 111 is 30-40 cm, and the width of the second planting field 112 is 1-1.2 m;
digging a planting hole with the depth of 50-55 cm on a second planting ground in 3-4 months in the first year, planting 11b seedlings of oil tea trees (purchased from a nursery station) of 2-3 years in the planting hole, backfilling the planting hole with a layer of soil and a layer of base fertilizer, pouring once diluted fertilizer water 20 days after the tea oil is planted, wherein the first-stage diluted fertilizer water contains 2% of urea and 0.2% of potassium chloride, and the base fertilizer is obtained by mixing and decomposing 10 parts by weight of green manure, 2 parts by weight of lime, 15 parts by weight of livestock manure and 8 parts by weight of cake fertilizer; in 8 months, annular grooves are formed in the periphery of a bag of the camellia oleifera, 100g of nitrogen fertilizer is applied to the annular grooves, and flower thinning is carried out after the camellia oleifera blooms; planting the artificially propagated osmund seedlings 11a at intervals on the first planting field 111 close to the bottom of the dam bank 12 in autumn of the same year, wherein the width of a planting hole is 20-25 cm, the planting hole is 20 multiplied by 20cm, the planting is carried out according to the plant spacing of 15cm, when the osmund seedlings are transplanted, the osmund seedlings 11a are transplanted with soil without damaging root systems, after planting, root fixing water is poured, water is poured in the ditch 13, the height of the water surface in the ditch 13 is 12-17 cm lower than the height of the ground surface of the first planting field 111, after frost falls, the irrigation is stopped, a layer of leaves is laid on the ground surface of the first planting field 111, and the fallen leaves of the mixed trees and pine needles can be selected for laying;
irrigating after the frightened dormancy in the second year, starting bud buds of the osmunda japonica in 4-5 months, opening water spray holes at night every day after the bud buds for spraying for 3-5 min, topdressing and seedling lifting by using diluted liquid dung or urea water before and after the spores, and not picking the osmunda japonica in the first year by using the bud buds; pinching along the position 100-110 cm high of the tea-oil tree, shaping the tea-oil tree 11b by adopting a natural heart-opening shape pruning mode, reserving 5-7 main branches on a main trunk, turning over a second planting field at the end of 3 months, applying 500g of nitrogen fertilizer to the root of the tea-oil tree, forming an annular groove at the periphery of a pocket of the tea-oil tree in 10 months, applying 300g of phosphorus-potassium fertilizer and 2kg of biological organic fertilizer in the annular groove, and thinning flowers after the tea-oil tree blooms; the brace is pulled down along the direction opposite to the growth direction of the branch by using a flexible rope, the other end of the flexible rope is fixed by using a bamboo stick inserted on the ground, the angle between the main branch and the trunk is adjusted to be 50-55 degrees, after the branch is formed, the flexible rope is detached, and all flowers are removed after the branch is bloomed; sowing ryegrass on the first and second planting lands in autumn in the next year, and adding 2kg of bacillus subtilis GB03 bacterial liquid and 1 to 1kg of ryegrass seeds before sowing.5g of ammonium molybdate for 4-4.5 h, the Bacillus subtilis GB03 bacterial liquid is prepared by diluting 10 times of the Bacillus subtilis GB03 mother liquid, and OD in the Bacillus subtilis GB03 mother liquid6000.8-1.0, after seed soaking, mixing ryegrass seeds with 8kg of calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizer and 10kg of fire-fat soil, sowing, wherein the mu sowing amount of the ryegrass seeds is 0.8kg, harvesting for the first time when the ryegrass grows to the height of 40-45 cm to be used as agricultural and livestock forage grass, leaving 5-8 cm of stubble when harvesting for the first time to promote tillering and regeneration of the ryegrass, when the ryegrass grows to the height of 35-40 cm again, laying the harvested ryegrass on the ground surface of a first planting land together with leaves after harvesting the first planting land, leaving 1-3 cm of stubble when harvesting for the second time, burying the ryegrass on the spot on a second planting land, and stopping irrigation after frost fall;
from the third year onwards, the following operations are repeated each year: irrigating after the frightening, applying a bud-assisting fertilizer once in 3 and 4 months, topdressing and seedling lifting by using diluted liquid manure or urea water before or after spores, opening water spray holes at night every day after buds are sprayed for 3-5 min, picking osmunda japonica 3-4 times in 4-5 months, not damaging roots during picking, and applying diluted liquid manure once after each picking; bracing the main branches of the tea oil trees to enable the included angle between the main branches and the trunk to be 40-45 degrees, trimming the side branches on the main branches and trimming to enable the height of the top ends of the main branches not to exceed 3.5m, applying 800g of nitrogen fertilizer to each plant before a new sprout, and applying 800g of phosphorus-potassium fertilizer and 5kg of bio-organic fertilizer to each plant in 10 months; applying fruit tree water flush fertilizer in the fruit expansion period of the oil-tea camellia, and spraying organic selenium fertilizer in the fruit maturation period of the oil-tea camellia; sowing ryegrass on the first and second planting lands in autumn in the next year, adding 2kg of bacillus subtilis GB03 bacterial liquid and 1.5g of ammonium molybdate to soak seeds for 4-4.5 hours to 1kg of ryegrass seeds before sowing, wherein the bacillus subtilis GB03 bacterial liquid is prepared by diluting 10 times of bacillus subtilis GB03 mother liquid, and OD in the bacillus subtilis GB03 mother liquid6000.8-1.0, mixing the soaked ryegrass seeds with 8kg of calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizer and 10kg of fire-fertilized soil, sowing, wherein the sowing amount per mu of the ryegrass seeds is 0.8kg, harvesting the ryegrass for the first time when the ryegrass grows to the height of 40-45 cm to be used as agricultural and livestock forage grass, leaving 5-8 cm of stubble during harvesting for the first time to promote tillering and regeneration of the ryegrass, and when the ryegrass grows to the height of 35-40 cm again, sowing the ryegrass on the first planting groundThe wheat straws are cut and harvested, and are paved on the ground surface of a first planting field together with leaves, stubbles are left for 1-3 cm when the wheat straws are harvested for the second time, the wheat straws are turned over and buried on the spot on a second planting field, and irrigation is stopped after frost falls; the germination-assisting fertilizer is prepared from 50kg of fire-fertilizing soil and 10L of human urine storage liquid.
In the above examples 1 and 2, the planting amount of the osmunda japonica is 2000-2500 plants per mu, 330 kg of fresh osmunda japonica is produced per mu per year, the length of the picked fresh osmunda japonica is 15-20 cm, the root diameter of the root of the fresh osmunda japonica is 0.8-1.2 cm, and the fibrosis degree of the fresh osmunda japonica is low.
The method is characterized by being used for planting the fresh osmunda japonica thunb in the traditional flat ground, wherein the planting amount of the osmunda japonica thunb per mu is 4500-6000, 300 kilograms of fresh osmunda japonica thunb are produced per mu in each year, the length of the picked fresh osmunda japonica thunb is 15-20 cm, the root diameter of the root of the fresh osmunda japonica thunb is 0.3-0.6 cm, and the surface fibrosis degree of the fresh osmunda japonica thunb is.
In addition, in the embodiments 1 and 2, 20-50 jin of camellia seeds can be picked from each camellia oleifera in the third, fourth and fifth years, 50-80 jin of camellia seeds can be harvested from each camellia oleifera 11b in the fifth year, and the selenium content in the tea oil squeezed by the camellia oleifera seeds is more than 2 times of the selenium content in the common camellia oil.
The foregoing is only a preferred embodiment of the present invention, and it should be noted that those skilled in the art, after learning the present disclosure, can make several equivalent changes and substitutions without departing from the principle of the present invention, and these equivalent changes and substitutions should also be considered as belonging to the protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (4)

1. A method for improving hillside forest lands and interplanting selenium-rich tea-oil trees at high yield is a method for jointly planting osmunda japonica and tea-oil trees in the hillside forest lands, and specifically comprises the following operation steps:
s1: the method comprises the steps of preparing hillside forest lands in a stepped manner, arranging planting lands after land preparation along contour lines of hillsides respectively, building dam banks on the outer sides of slopes between adjacent planting lands by adopting stones, arranging ditches in the middle of each planting land, arranging the ditches along the length direction of the planting lands, arranging partition sections in the ditches along the length direction at intervals, dividing the ditches into water tanks by the partition sections, arranging a first water flow port and a second water flow port on the partition sections at two ends of each water tank respectively, arranging a third water flow port on the wall of the outer side of each water tank, keeping the height of the third water flow port on the same water tank consistent with the height of the water flow port with the lower height in the first water flow port and the second water flow port, arranging the third water flow ports on the adjacent ditches in a staggered manner at intervals, connecting the ditches at the tops of the hillside forest lands with a water supply device, arranging water spraying pipes transversely outside the upper parts of the dam banks, and arranging water spraying holes, the water outlet direction of the water spray holes/nozzles obliquely points to the side wall of the dam ridge, the ditch divides a planting field into a first planting field and a second planting field, the first planting field is formed by filling and shaping improved soil, the improved soil is dry field soil, peat soil and fire fertile soil which are mixed and prepared according to the weight ratio of 0.5-0.8: 1: 0.2-0.4, the dry field soil is rice field soil taken after the paddy field drains water and is exposed to the sun for 3-6 months, crops are not sown during the period of exposure to the sun and are turned over for 2-3 times, and the fire fertile soil is prepared by mixing ash formed by burning straws, branches and leaves and weeds and forest soil according to the weight ratio of 1: 2-3;
s2: digging a planting hole with the depth of 50-55 cm on a second planting ground in 3-4 months in the first year, planting the 2-3 years old oil tea tree seedlings in the planting hole, backfilling the planting hole with a layer of soil and a layer of base fertilizer, pouring once dilute fertilizer water after the oil tea trees are planted for 20 days, wherein the dilute fertilizer water contains 2% of urea and 0.2% of potassium chloride, and the base fertilizer is obtained by mixing and decomposing 10 parts by weight of green manure, 2 parts by weight of lime, 15 parts by weight of livestock manure and 8 parts by weight of cake fertilizer; in 8 months, annular grooves are formed in the periphery of a pocket of the oil tea tree, 100g of nitrogen fertilizer is applied to the annular grooves, and flower thinning is carried out after the oil tea tree blooms; planting artificially-propagated/wild osmunda seedlings on a first planting land at intervals in autumn of the same year, wherein the artificial-propagated/wild osmunda seedlings are close to the bottom of a dam ridge, irrigating water in a ditch, the height of the water surface in the ditch is 12-17 cm lower than the height of the ground surface of the first planting land, stopping irrigation after frost fall, and covering a layer of leaves on the ground surface of the first planting land;
s3: irrigating after the frightened dormancy in the second year, starting bud buds of the osmunda japonica in 4-5 months, opening water spraying holes/nozzles at night after the bud buds for spraying/atomizing for 3-5 min every day, and not picking the osmunda japonica in the first year; pinching is carried out along the position 100-110 cm high of the camellia oleifera tree, and nature is adoptedShaping the camellia oleifera tree in a heart-opening shape pruning mode, reserving 5-7 main branches on a main trunk, turning over a second planting field at the end of 3 months, applying 500g of nitrogen fertilizer to roots, forming an annular groove at the periphery of a pocket of the camellia oleifera tree in 10 months, applying 500g of phosphorus-potassium fertilizer and 2kg of bio-organic fertilizer to the annular groove, and thinning flowers after the camellia oleifera tree blooms; sowing ryegrass on the first and second planting lands in autumn in the next year, adding 2kg of bacillus subtilis GB03 bacterial liquid and 1.5g of ammonium molybdate seed for 4-4.5 h to 1kg of ryegrass seeds before sowing the ryegrass seeds, wherein the bacillus subtilis GB03 bacterial liquid is prepared by diluting 10 times of bacillus subtilis GB03 mother liquid, and OD in the bacillus subtilis GB03 mother liquid6000.8-1.0, after seed soaking, mixing 1kg of ryegrass seeds with 8kg of calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizer and 10kg of fire-fertile soil, sowing, wherein the mu sowing amount of the ryegrass seeds is 0.8kg, harvesting for the first time when the ryegrass grows to the plant height of 40-45 cm to serve as agricultural and livestock forage grass, leaving 5-8 cm of stubble during harvesting for the first time to promote tillering and regeneration of the ryegrass, growing the ryegrass to the plant height of 35-40 cm again, laying the ryegrass on the ground surface of a first planting land after harvesting the first planting land and leaves, leaving 1-3 cm of stubble during harvesting for the second time, burying the ryegrass on the spot, and stopping irrigation after frost;
s4: from the third year onwards, the following operations are repeated each year: irrigating after the frightening, applying a bud-assisting fertilizer to the osmunda japonica once in 3-4 months, opening a water spraying hole/nozzle to perform spraying/mist spraying for 3-5 min every night after bud, and picking the osmunda japonica 3-4 times in 4-5 months; bracing main branches of the camellia oleifera trees to enable an included angle between the main branches and a trunk to be 40-45 degrees, trimming side branches on the main branches and trimming to enable the height of the top ends of the main branches to be not more than 3.5m, applying 800g of nitrogen fertilizer to each plant before a new sprout, and applying 800g of phosphorus-potassium fertilizer and 5kg of bio-organic fertilizer to each plant in 10 months; applying fruit tree water flush fertilizer in the fruit expansion period of the oil-tea camellia, and spraying organic selenium fertilizer in the fruit maturation period of the oil-tea camellia; sowing ryegrass on the first and second planting lands in autumn, adding 2kg of bacillus subtilis GB03 bacterial liquid and 1.5g of ammonium molybdate to soak seeds for 4-4.5 hours per 1kg of ryegrass seeds before sowing ryegrass seeds, wherein the bacillus subtilis GB03 bacterial liquid is prepared by diluting 10 times of bacillus subtilis GB03 mother liquid, and OD in the bacillus subtilis GB03 mother liquid6000.8-1.0, after seed soaking, mixing 1kg of ryegrass seeds with 8kg of calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizer and 10kg of fire-fertile soil, sowing, wherein the mu sowing amount of the ryegrass seeds is 0.8kg, harvesting for the first time when the ryegrass grows to the plant height of 40-45 cm to serve as agricultural and livestock forage grass, leaving 5-8 cm of stubble during harvesting for the first time to promote tillering and regeneration of the ryegrass, growing the ryegrass to the plant height of 35-40 cm again, laying the ryegrass on the ground surface of a first planting land after harvesting the first planting land and leaves, leaving 1-3 cm of stubble during harvesting for the second time, burying the ryegrass on the spot, and stopping irrigation after frost;
the livestock manure is feces collected by feeding livestock; pulverizing and mixing sorghum, wheat and soybean according to a mass ratio of 6:3:1 to prepare a fermentation substrate, uniformly mixing yeast selenium and the fermentation substrate according to a mass ratio of 1:5, adding water, fermenting at 28 ℃ for 70 days, mixing the fermented product with feed for feeding livestock and poultry, and collecting the feces of the livestock and poultry.
2. The method for improving the hillside forest land and interplanting the selenium-rich camellia oleifera in high yield according to claim 1, is characterized in that: the height of the dam ridge is 60-80 cm, the filling thickness of the improved soil is 30-35 cm, a sandy soil layer is arranged on the lower side of the filling layer of the improved soil, the bottom of the dam ridge extends into the sandy soil layer, and the height of the ground surface of the second planting field is 20-25 cm higher than that of the first planting field.
3. The method for improving the hillside forest land and interplanting the selenium-rich camellia oleifera in high yield according to claim 1, is characterized in that: the improved soil is prepared by mixing dry land soil, peat soil and fire fertile soil according to the weight ratio of 0.5:1: 0.2.
4. The method for improving the hillside forest land and interplanting the selenium-rich camellia oleifera in high yield according to claim 1, is characterized in that: the germination-assisting fertilizer is prepared from 50kg of fire-fertilizing soil and 10L of human and animal urine.
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