CN104756685A - Black-skin wax gourd cultivation method - Google Patents

Black-skin wax gourd cultivation method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104756685A
CN104756685A CN201410009489.9A CN201410009489A CN104756685A CN 104756685 A CN104756685 A CN 104756685A CN 201410009489 A CN201410009489 A CN 201410009489A CN 104756685 A CN104756685 A CN 104756685A
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wax gourd
planting
soil
cultivation method
film
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CN201410009489.9A
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龚镔
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龚镔
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Priority to CN201410009489.9A priority Critical patent/CN104756685A/en
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for

Abstract

The invention provides a black-skin wax gourd cultivation method. The black-skin wax gourd cultivation method comprises the following steps: choosing cultivating land and preparing soil, applying enough base fertilizer, establishing a wax ground frame, sowing and cultivating seedlings in a cultivating season, controlling the planting density, covering the soil with a film, and preventing diseases and pests. In order to overcome the defects that in the conventional wax gourd cultivation management, the plants grow on the ground, the plant row spacing is relatively small, about 300 plants are planted per mu, the management is relatively rough, stems grow freely or the side stems are picked before fruiting, and grow freely after fruiting; the fruits are relatively bad in shape, and are frequently supported, otherwise, the malformed fruit rate is relatively high; the fruit skin is easy to damage by external environmental interferences, so that the storage is affected; in order to overcome the defects that the light energy utilization is low, the fruits are not uniform in size, and the unit area yield is relatively low, the invention provides the black-skin wax gourd cultivation method which is used for increasing the unit area yield of the black-skin wax gourds and increasing the market black-skin wax gourd supply.

Description

A kind of casting skin wax gourd cultivation method
Technical field
The invention belongs to economic crops cultivation method class, relate to a kind of casting skin wax gourd cultivation method.
Background technology
General traditional wax gourd cultivation: plant grows with climbing, and seeding row spacing is rarer, generally about every mu of plantation 300 strains, Comparison of Management is extensive, and climing substantially the letting alone of stem grows or extract lateral bine before result, grows arbitrarily after result; Its advantage is that worker employed in a plant nursery is few, and cost is lower; Shortcoming is that melon type is not good enough, often holds up melon; Otherwise malformed fruit rate is high; Pericarp is easily affected by the external environment and damaged, affects storage property; Light-use is low, and result sizes is uneven, and yield per unit area is lower.
Summary of the invention
In order to overcome traditional wax gourd cultivation management, plant grows with climbing, and seeding row spacing is rarer, and generally about every mu of plantation 300 strains, Comparison of Management is extensive, and stem is climing lets alone growth or result front excision lateral bine substantially, grows arbitrarily after result; Melon type is not good enough, often holds up melon; Otherwise malformed fruit rate is high; Pericarp is easily affected by the external environment and damaged, affects storage property; Light-use is low, and result sizes is uneven, the shortcoming that yield per unit area is lower, the invention provides how a kind of casting skin wax gourd cultivation method, to improve casting skin wax gourd yield per unit area, increases market casting skin wax gourd supply.
The technical scheme that the present invention takes is:
The process route that the present invention takes: selection of land wholely, uses sufficient base manure → take wax gourd frame → cultivation season → seeding and seedling raising → planting density → plastic mulching → prevention and elimination of disease and pests.
1, selection of land wholely, uses sufficient base manure, and the root system of wax gourd is very flourishing, and vegetative period is long, and in order to obtain high yield, select soil layer deep, it is that the sandy loam of 6-6.5 is planted to clay loam that organic matter enriches pH value; Irrigation and drainage easily field are advisable.
After choosing, should plough deeply as early as possible and plough rake, its degree of depth with 30 cm as well melon.The wax gourd of winter-spring season cultivation, with irrigation and drainage, late rice is as well easily.Should ploughing a field early after late rice harvesting, it is white to shine, and ploughs rake more carefully whole before planting.Furrow face is carried out behind whole ground; Ridging again on furrow face, row spacing 80-100 centimetre, high 30 cm in ridge, half furrow are respectively stayed on the both sides on ridge, leave shallow ridges between ridge and half furrow, in order to taking out the use that climing phase banking up is topdressed.Plant hole is determined, deeply about 30 centimetres, cave by spacing in the rows along ridge, and cave is wide about 40 centimetres.The vegetative period of wax gourd is longer, and the absorbing capacity of root system is strong, should use sufficient base manure.Base manure is generally based on high-quality farmyard manure, and 2000 kilograms every mu, soya-bean cake 30-50 kilogram, superphosphate 40-50 kilogram, mix ditch spread thoroughly or spread manuer in holes after stack retting, and fully mix rear sowing or field planting with soil.For loamy soil or clay soil, every mu with Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium 30-40 kilogram, urea 15-20 kilogram, is carried out that holostrome is mixed to be executed, to meet the equilibrium supply of nutrient.
2, take wax gourd frame, plant is taken out climing rear bamboo wood built and draws climing, and the form of support has multiple.Have " one continuous line ": namely, every strain one, 130-150 centimetre of eminence, coherent fixing with horizontal bamboo; Have " man-like shelf "; There are " a star drum longan " and " four stars drum longan ": be namely barricaded as drum with three or four bamboo poles, coherent fixing with horizontal bamboo in each drum, strain one drum.Though frame wax gourd form is varied, all in conjunction with Plant adjustment, utilize space preferably, improve percentage of fertile fruit and make fruit size even, being conducive to improving quantity and quality.
3, cultivation season, wax gourd happiness is warm, heat-resisting, is obtain high yield, the suitable weather conditions of wax gourd setting and fruit development should be selected to plant.Wax gourd Spring sowing date is in the 1-3 month, and the 6-7 month gathers; Autumn sowing date is in the 7-8 the first tenday period of a month month, and October gathers.
4, seeding and seedling raising, Spring sowing date, in the 1-3 month, by the impact of low temperature, should take feeding block seedlings raising.Desired nutritional soil will be prepared in advance, and can select the fertile garden mould that roasting solarization is sieved, pig of becoming thoroughly decomposed, cattle manure residue, rice husk ash etc. mix.Three's volume ratio is about 6: 2: 2, separately can add a small amount of nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer, and its addition generally to control to be advisable at 0.2%-0.3%, and requires to attenuate to be mixed, in case wound kind hinders root.Gourd seed vernalization is generally first soaked 10-15 minute (stirring of leaching limit, limit) with 50-55 DEG C of warm water, then, then continues leaching 10-12 hour at normal temperatures, best, is placed on vernalization at about 30 DEG C temperature.Seed soaking time is longer, germinates comparatively fast, comparatively neatly, one day half to two day time, just major part is germinateed; Before not germinateing, every day uses clear water rinsing seed 1 time sooner or later respectively, and moisture is filtered dry in time, then continue vernalization.Live on Seedling bag or seedbed after taking leaching.With the seed soaking of 100-150ppm gibberellin, make germination rapidly and neat.
Sowing the previous day alms bowl Middle nutrition soil to be irrigated, sowing depth 2-3 centimetre, each nutritive cube broadcasts chitting piece 1-2 grain, seed to keep flat or bud point upwards, cover the covering such as sunshade net or straw immediately after broadcasting; If meet cold wave or rainy weather, then covered rearing with plastic film should be used.After planting to before emerging, note watering, be sure not excess moisture, in case macerate kind rotten, keep soil moisture.Emerge about 70% time, remove covering in time.Before seedling breaks the heart, suitably control moisture, promote root growth; Keep Nutrition Soil to be semi-wet state through normal after the broken heart, melon seedling is steadily and surely grown.Within about 25-30 days, can be implanted into land for growing field crops, 2-3 days before plantation, available 10% thin people's liquid dung and 80% zineb 800 times or 75% tpn, 600 times of liquids drench seedlings, accomplish to be with fertile band medicine to transplant.
5, planting density: the planting density of wax gourd because of planting type different from cultivation season.Most every strain one fruit of casting skin wax gourd, its yield per unit area is by every mu of strain number and single fruit weight two factors composition.Rational close planted on the basis that should ensure single fruit weight.Frame wax gourd can utilize Growth In Space, in conjunction with Plant adjustment with draw climing, is conducive to dense planting.The general distance between rows and hills of frame wax gourd planting type is 150 × (70-80) centimetre, about mu can plant 560-600 strain; Fertilizer is sufficient, irrigation and drainage are convenient, and managerial skills are high, then should focus on the fruit that grows up, to strive for high yield, high-quality, and should not be too close.On the basis of extracing whole lateral bine, main climing pinching can be closeer than not pinching.
6, plastic mulching, touch culture underglass with ensureing stable high yield wax gourd, the planting environment conditions such as more superior temperature, light, water, fertilizer, soil can be createed, facilitate the root system of wax gourd and the growth of plant and growth, alleviate causing harm of some sick worm and cold, arid, heavy rain etc.Obvious effect of increasing production can be obtained.Winter-spring season plastic film mulching cultivation wax gourd, generally than outdoor cropping volume increase 30%-50%; Under severe weather conditions, sometimes increase production and even reach more than 1 times.
Plastic film mulching cultivation wax gourd, its mode is general only to be covered on kind of melon ridge.Mulch film fabric width selects 80-120 centimetre, and color adularescent, black and silver gray etc. are multiple.White films heats effective, but weeds are easy to growth, first spray a preemergence herbicide before overlay film: as, butachlor or Acetochlor etc., every mu of dosage is 75-100 milliliter, is watered about 30 kilograms of native faces of spray, and then overlay film; It is slightly poor that black film heats effect, but can occur by management of weeds; Silver gray film then can repellent aphid, reduces generation and the propagation of virus disease.Before overlay film, must note ground to flatten carefully whole, use sufficient base manure, and keep ground moistening.During overlay film, must film be evened up, and compress film limit.When planting melon after overlay film, note drenching sufficient normal root water, and by good for the capping of opening part fine earth.After this note making film humidity excessive, macerate root in order to avoid cause.As long as the ground moistening when epiphragma, after generally transplanting seedlings in about 20 days, do not need to rewater.Later lack of water, should take the method irrigated through furrow, and only fill with half ditch-water.
7, prevention and elimination of disease and pests, attention control epidemic disease, fusarium wilt, anthracnose, powdery mildew and melon thrips.

Claims (8)

1. the invention discloses a kind of casting skin wax gourd cultivation method, by selection of land whole, use sufficient base manure, take wax gourd frame, cultivation season, seeding and seedling raising, planting density, plastic mulching, prevention and elimination of disease and pests form.
2. a kind of casting skin wax gourd cultivation method according to claim 1, is characterized in that described selection of land wholely, uses sufficient base manure, the root system of wax gourd is very flourishing, and vegetative period is long, in order to obtain high yield, selection soil layer is deep, and it is that the sandy loam of 6-6.5 is planted to clay loam that organic matter enriches pH value; Irrigation and drainage easily field are advisable.
After choosing, should plough deeply as early as possible and plough rake, its degree of depth with 30 cm as well melon.The wax gourd of winter-spring season cultivation, with irrigation and drainage, late rice is as well easily.Should ploughing a field early after late rice harvesting, it is white to shine, and ploughs rake more carefully whole before planting.Furrow face is carried out behind whole ground; Ridging again on furrow face, row spacing 80-100 centimetre, high 30 cm in ridge, half furrow are respectively stayed on the both sides on ridge, leave shallow ridges between ridge and half furrow, in order to taking out the use that climing phase banking up is topdressed.Plant hole is determined, deeply about 30 centimetres, cave by spacing in the rows along ridge, and cave is wide about 40 centimetres.The vegetative period of wax gourd is longer, and the absorbing capacity of root system is strong, should use sufficient base manure.Base manure is generally based on high-quality farmyard manure, and 2000 kilograms every mu, soya-bean cake 30-50 kilogram, superphosphate 40-50 kilogram, mix ditch spread thoroughly or spread manuer in holes after stack retting, and fully mix rear sowing or field planting with soil.For loamy soil or clay soil, every mu with Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium 30-40 kilogram, urea 15-20 kilogram, is carried out that holostrome is mixed to be executed, to meet the equilibrium supply of nutrient.
3. a kind of casting skin wax gourd cultivation method according to claim 1, takes wax gourd frame described in it is characterized in that, plant is taken out climing rear bamboo wood built and draws climing, and the form of support has multiple.Have " one continuous line ": namely, every strain one, 130-150 centimetre of eminence, coherent fixing with horizontal bamboo; Have " man-like shelf "; There are " a star drum longan " and " four stars drum longan ": be namely barricaded as drum with three or four bamboo poles, coherent fixing with horizontal bamboo in each drum, strain one drum.Though frame wax gourd form is varied, all in conjunction with Plant adjustment, utilize space preferably, improve percentage of fertile fruit and make fruit size even, being conducive to improving quantity and quality.
4. a kind of casting skin wax gourd cultivation method according to claim 1, is characterized in that described cultivation season, wax gourd happiness temperature, heat-resisting, is obtain high yield, the suitable weather conditions of wax gourd setting and fruit development should be selected to plant.Wax gourd Spring sowing date is in the 1-3 month, and the 6-7 month gathers; Autumn sowing date is in the 7-8 the first tenday period of a month month, and October gathers.
5. a kind of casting skin wax gourd cultivation method according to claim 1, is characterized in that described planting density: the planting density of wax gourd because of planting type different from cultivation season.Most every strain one fruit of casting skin wax gourd, its yield per unit area is by every mu of strain number and single fruit weight two factors composition.Rational close planted on the basis that should ensure single fruit weight.Frame wax gourd can utilize Growth In Space, in conjunction with Plant adjustment with draw climing, is conducive to dense planting.The general distance between rows and hills of frame wax gourd planting type is 150 × (70-80) centimetre, about mu can plant 560-600 strain; Fertilizer is sufficient, irrigation and drainage are convenient, and managerial skills are high, then should focus on the fruit that grows up, to strive for high yield, high-quality, and should not be too close.On the basis of extracing whole lateral bine, main climing pinching can be closeer than not pinching.
6. a kind of casting skin wax gourd cultivation method according to claim 1, is characterized in that described cultivation season, wax gourd happiness temperature, heat-resisting, is obtain high yield, the suitable weather conditions of wax gourd setting and fruit development should be selected to plant.Wax gourd Spring sowing date is in the 1-3 month, and the 6-7 month gathers; Autumn sowing date is in the 7-8 the first tenday period of a month month, and October gathers.4, seeding and seedling raising, Spring sowing date, in the 1-3 month, by the impact of low temperature, should take feeding block seedlings raising.Desired nutritional soil will be prepared in advance, and can select the fertile garden mould that roasting solarization is sieved, pig of becoming thoroughly decomposed, cattle manure residue, rice husk ash etc. mix.Three's volume ratio is about 6: 2: 2, separately can add a small amount of nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer, and its addition generally to control to be advisable at 0.2%-0.3%, and requires to attenuate to be mixed, in case wound kind hinders root.Gourd seed vernalization is generally first soaked 10-15 minute (stirring of leaching limit, limit) with 50-55 DEG C of warm water, then, then continues leaching 10-12 hour at normal temperatures, best, is placed on vernalization at about 30 DEG C temperature.Seed soaking time is longer, germinates comparatively fast, comparatively neatly, one day half to two day time, just major part is germinateed; Before not germinateing, every day uses clear water rinsing seed 1 time sooner or later respectively, and moisture is filtered dry in time, then continue vernalization.Live on Seedling bag or seedbed after taking leaching.With the seed soaking of 100-150ppm gibberellin, make germination rapidly and neat.
Sowing the previous day alms bowl Middle nutrition soil to be irrigated, sowing depth 2-3 centimetre, each nutritive cube broadcasts chitting piece 1-2 grain, seed to keep flat or bud point upwards, cover the covering such as sunshade net or straw immediately after broadcasting; If meet cold wave or rainy weather, then covered rearing with plastic film should be used.After planting to before emerging, note watering, be sure not excess moisture, in case macerate kind rotten, keep soil moisture.Emerge about 70% time, remove covering in time.Before seedling breaks the heart, suitably control moisture, promote root growth; Keep Nutrition Soil to be semi-wet state through normal after the broken heart, melon seedling is steadily and surely grown.Within about 25-30 days, can be implanted into land for growing field crops, 2-3 days before plantation, available 10% thin people's liquid dung and 80% zineb 800 times or 75% tpn, 600 times of liquids drench seedlings, accomplish to be with fertile band medicine to transplant.
7. a kind of casting skin wax gourd cultivation method according to claim 1, it is characterized in that described plastic mulching, touch culture underglass with ensureing stable high yield wax gourd, the planting environment conditions such as more superior temperature, light, water, fertilizer, soil can be createed, facilitate the root system of wax gourd and the growth of plant and growth, alleviate causing harm of some sick worm and cold, arid, heavy rain etc.Obvious effect of increasing production can be obtained.Winter-spring season plastic film mulching cultivation wax gourd, generally than outdoor cropping volume increase 30%-50%; Under severe weather conditions, sometimes increase production and even reach more than 1 times.
Plastic film mulching cultivation wax gourd, its mode is general only to be covered on kind of melon ridge.Mulch film fabric width selects 80-120 centimetre, and color adularescent, black and silver gray etc. are multiple.White films heats effective, but weeds are easy to growth, first spray a preemergence herbicide before overlay film: as, butachlor or Acetochlor etc., every mu of dosage is 75-100 milliliter, is watered about 30 kilograms of native faces of spray, and then overlay film; It is slightly poor that black film heats effect, but can occur by management of weeds; Silver gray film then can repellent aphid, reduces generation and the propagation of virus disease.Before overlay film, must note ground to flatten carefully whole, use sufficient base manure, and keep ground moistening.During overlay film, must film be evened up, and compress film limit.When planting melon after overlay film, note drenching sufficient normal root water, and by good for the capping of opening part fine earth.After this note making film humidity excessive, macerate root in order to avoid cause.As long as the ground moistening when epiphragma, after generally transplanting seedlings in about 20 days, do not need to rewater.Later lack of water, should take the method irrigated through furrow, and only fill with half ditch-water.
8. a kind of casting skin wax gourd cultivation method according to claim 1, is characterized in that described prevention and elimination of disease and pests, attention control epidemic disease, fusarium wilt, anthracnose, powdery mildew and melon thrips.
CN201410009489.9A 2014-01-08 2014-01-08 Black-skin wax gourd cultivation method Pending CN104756685A (en)

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Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN106211986A (en) * 2016-07-26 2016-12-14 东莞市香蕉蔬菜研究所 The cultural method of a kind of Fructus Benincasae and gather and store and transport
CN106376332A (en) * 2016-08-30 2017-02-08 马健 Plantation method for a high-ferro white gourd
CN106717893A (en) * 2016-12-11 2017-05-31 陈培党 A kind of casting skin wax gourd plastic mulching cultivation technology method
CN107926520A (en) * 2017-11-07 2018-04-20 霍邱县范圩蔬菜种植专业合作社 A kind of implantation methods of wax gourd
CN108934832A (en) * 2018-08-08 2018-12-07 广西壮族自治区农业科学院 A kind of wax gourd implantation methods based on steel frame construction

Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN106211986A (en) * 2016-07-26 2016-12-14 东莞市香蕉蔬菜研究所 The cultural method of a kind of Fructus Benincasae and gather and store and transport
CN106376332A (en) * 2016-08-30 2017-02-08 马健 Plantation method for a high-ferro white gourd
CN106717893A (en) * 2016-12-11 2017-05-31 陈培党 A kind of casting skin wax gourd plastic mulching cultivation technology method
CN107926520A (en) * 2017-11-07 2018-04-20 霍邱县范圩蔬菜种植专业合作社 A kind of implantation methods of wax gourd
CN108934832A (en) * 2018-08-08 2018-12-07 广西壮族自治区农业科学院 A kind of wax gourd implantation methods based on steel frame construction

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Application publication date: 20150708

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