CN104186155A - Intensified integrated solar greenhouse environmental-friendly efficient cultivation method for autumn cucumbers grown in winter and spring - Google Patents

Intensified integrated solar greenhouse environmental-friendly efficient cultivation method for autumn cucumbers grown in winter and spring Download PDF

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CN104186155A
CN104186155A CN201410418995.3A CN201410418995A CN104186155A CN 104186155 A CN104186155 A CN 104186155A CN 201410418995 A CN201410418995 A CN 201410418995A CN 104186155 A CN104186155 A CN 104186155A
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greenhouse
cucumber
disease
dielectric
pipe
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CN104186155B (en
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刘全国
韩靖玲
高妍
郑艳美
杨春鹏
李聪晓
宋瑞生
刘海英
刘志强
苏胜宇
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Abstract

The invention relates to an intensified integrated solar greenhouse environmental-friendly efficient cultivation method for autumn cucumbers grown in winter and spring, and belongs to the technical field of green vegetable production. According to the technical scheme, a main-stem-reserving cucumber-fixing anytime stem-falling cultivation technology favorable for growth of female system cucumbers is adopted, a solar greenhouse pest and disease control system is built, pests and diseases are prevented from occurring through a built-in pest-prevention net belt, a dielectric pest-absorption board, a static pest-killing lamp, a greenhouse electric mist-removal and disease-prevention growth-promotion system and other equipment, and pesticide-free production of fruits is realized; microbial fertilizer made of cow-horn-contained cow dung under 180 days of soil microbial action can accelerate mineralization of organics and trigger and release nutrients in soil. Sixty grams of round double-hole peat nutritive blocks are used for seedling cultivation in an inarching mode, after stock scions are sown on the same nutritive block for grafting, slow seedlings survive soon, the grafted seedlings grow strong, the nutritive blocks are transplanted overall, no seedling slowing period exits, and plants grow fast. The intensified integrated solar greenhouse environmental-friendly efficient cultivation method for autumn cucumbers grown in winter and spring takes prevention first, realizes pesticide-free production in the whole growth period, and obtains excellent benefits as the yield of cucumbers can reach 3, 000 kg from the New Year's Day to the second month after the Spring Festival.

Description

A kind of intensive integrated day-light greenhouse winter spring stubble autumn cucumber green high-efficient cultivation method
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of intensive integrated day-light greenhouse winter spring stubble autumn cucumber green high-efficient cultivation method, belong to green vegetables production technical field.
Background technology
Cucumber be a kind of be loved by the people eat one of vegetables raw, in greenhouse by solar heat off-season cultivation, proportion is larger, during the stubble fruit harvesting of Winter-Spring, save (New Year's Day, Spring Festival) overlaids with China traditional two, price is higher, the planting type of background technology often improves output and pesticide control damage by disease and insect to use in a large number chemical fertilizer, cause soil acidification in greenhouse, cucumber remains of pesticide is more and jeopardize health; The grafting that adopts conventional seedbed system technology to cultivate need to be prepared matrix, and scion and stock need to be cultivated respectively, during grafting, stock and scion need to be taken off, and after grafting, again plant again, and time-consuming, slow seedling becomes current longer.Tradition autumn cucumber kind, can not guarantee that every joint position has female flower to sit melon, makes plant tall and big, and impact is ventilated.During application female series kind, do not note just the melon position of selecting and remain, occur later stage plant senesecence, affect later stage output.Because winter-spring cucumber growing period often runs into diastrous weather, chamber facility does not configure corresponding equipment, occurs that diastrous weather can only rely on restraining oneself of cucumber plant self to bear, and causes plant dead when serious, to production, brings heavy economic losses.Temperature indoor environment is a semiclosed system, and gas only relies on ventilation to regulate and control, and can not meet cucumber in solar-greenhouse high-yield condition to gas CO 2the demand of raw material, yields poorly.
Summary of the invention
The invention provides a kind of intensive integrated day-light greenhouse winter spring stubble autumn cucumber green high-efficient cultivation method, to put prevention first, realize without pesticide producing whole breeding time, grafting robust growth, saving of labor, water-fertilizer integral using water wisely, can give full play to the knot melon morning of female series kind and save the close feature of melon, guarantee the Product supply during two joints, solved the problems referred to above that background technology exists.
Technical scheme of the present invention is:
An intensive integrated day-light greenhouse winter spring stubble autumn cucumber green high-efficient cultivation method, comprises following processing step:
1. build greenhouse by solar heat damage by disease and insect prevention and control system
Greenhouse by solar heat damage by disease and insect prevention and control system is comprised of built-in insect protected guipure, dielectric fluke plate, electrostatic insect killing lamp and greenhouse electricity demist disease prevention growth-promoting system;
Built-in insect protected guipure: at the fly net of each leak informaton 50 orders for place, mesh diameter 0.4mm of greenhouse by solar heat inner side, fly net isolation strip is set, intercepting adult enters, the fly net at front roof ground connection place, greenhouse is real by soil pressure, the place of seam fits together perfectly, greenhouse door is established double-deck fly net, and inner side, the place of opening the door arranges polychrome dielectric fluke plate; In blink in administrative staff pass in and out greenhouse, the insect entering with people runs into the special tone of colour table to be stimulated, and can towards colour table motion, by dielectric fluke plate, be killed by the light of nature, reduces the individual amount of external intrusion insect;
Dielectric fluke plate, electrostatic insect killing lamp, for trapping and killing the adult that slips through the net; Polychrome dielectric fluke plate, consists of high voltage source, substrate, dielectric coat, yellow, blue wear-resistant protective layer; Utilize adult love look, adopt colour table to add dielectric adsorption technology the adult of insect is attracted to and on plate, cements and kill; Every 20m in greenhouse 2put a polychrome dielectric fluke plate, polychrome dielectric fluke plate is suspended on to cucumber plant top, bottom exceeds plant l0cm~15cm, and diurnal adult is leaked in trapping, and the plate face of polychrome dielectric fluke plate is clean with wet rag erasing in time; Electrostatic insect killing lamp is partly comprised of insect killing lamp cylindrical shell, pallet, light trap, light-controller, high-field electrode etc.; Every 667m 2the even cloth in greenhouse is hung 3 electrostatic insect killing lamps;
Greenhouse electricity demist disease prevention growth-promoting system diseases prevention: the greenhouse electricity demist disease prevention growth-promoting system of employing, is comprised of main power source, controller, 200m electrode wires, 20 suspension insulator four major parts; Controller and main power source are arranged on operation room wall, and on bow member more than electrode wires antenna height 2.3m, insulator comprises 1 band line insulator, 19 hanging wire insulators; To with line insulator, be fixed on apart from the nearest ceiling girder steel of main power source, other insulators are evenly laid on ceiling girder steel by greenhouse length direction, and electrode wires combines as a whole by the screw of insulator bottom;
2. cucumber cultivation
Soil beneficial microbe bacterial manure preparation: make container with ox horn, fresh cow dung is raw material, and the ox horn of filling fresh cow dung is imbedded to underground 1.5m place, transforms through 180 days edaphons, becomes soil beneficial microbe bacterial manure;
Kind is selected: require low temperature resistant, the low light level, anti-epidemic disease ability is strong, the fruit fast kind of growing under cryogenic conditions;
Cultivate healthy and strong anosis worm grafting; Late September, at warm indoor raising of seedling;
Stock and cucumber seeds sterilization, seed soaking and vernalization: first with 10% trisodium phosphate solution seed soaking 20min, pre-anti-virus, use again 800 times of liquid of 25% metalaxyl wetting powder, seed soaking 20min, prevent fungal disease in seedling stage, finally by 500 times of dilution seed soaking 2h of 100Wan unit's agricultural streptomycin, bacteriological protection venereal disease evil; After each seed soaking sterilization, all with clear water, rinse well, dry in the shade; Seed Seed soaking 6h at the temperature of 25~30 ℃ after sterilization; Before vernalization, seed is pulled out from water, with wet cloth, wrapped, be placed in container, be placed in 25~30 ℃ of indoor vernalization; Every 6h warm water rinsing 1 time, show money or valuables one carries unintentionally to seed;
Sowing: adopting circular diplopore 60g peat nutritive cube is carrier, and diplopore is respectively macropore and aperture; By bottom, seedbed smooth compacting paving layer of polyethylene film, by spacing, 3cm puts nutritive cube; With watering can, from top to bottom to nutritive cube water spray, film has stop-spraying after ponding, after blotting, ponding sprays again, and 6 times repeatedly, until nutritive cube complete expansion; Place after 12h simple grain program request cucumber seeds in aperture, broadcast simple grain fig-leaf gourd seed after 7 days in macropore, seed keeps flat in cave, above covers the vermiculite that 1.5cm is thick; Broadcast rear maintenance nutritive cube moisture sufficient;
Grafting: anvil fringe is sowed on same nutritive cube, when scion rough leaf, launch to have half a buck size, fig-leaf gourd cotyledon and while launching completely, start grafting, adopt inarching method grafting, after scion grafting survival, cut off scion cucumber plant, make cucumber seedling separated with self root system, start to utilize allosome fig-leaf gourd Root Absorption moisture and mineral nutrition; Grafting root system is covered with nutritive cube, and tender of white point slightly exposes, and field planting in time, prevents that root system is aging, the experienced seedling of cutting off the water before field planting; Nursery stage temperature treatment: 20 ℃ of 30 ℃ of daytimes in seeding stage, nights, 25~28 ℃ of Seedling Stage daytimes, 13~15 ℃ of nights, humidity 80%~90%;
Apply fertilizer 3. wholely,, do under furrow, spreading, film and lay drip irrigation pipe
Female series cucumber knot melon is good, and fertilizer requirement is large, must have sufficient base fertilizer;
In greenhouse, soil is ploughed deeply 30cm, applies 5000kg/ 667m 2decomposed manure, potassium sulfate 10kg/667m 2with diammonium phosphate 20 kg/667m 2make base manure; North-south Da Long, wide 40cm, high 25cm, distance between the ridges 80cm; To imbed the ground ox horn taking-up of the second half year, the cow dung in ox horn has changed into bacterial manure, puts into bucket and adds water, with waddy, repeatedly stirs, until bacterial manure disperses completely, then by atomizers spray, to ridge, carries on the back, and mixes bacterial manure consumption 4kg/667m with rake 2;
Adopt under-film drip irrigation system to supply with moisture, drip irrigation equipment adopts the anti-aging pipe of 50mm PE to be responsible for as drip irrigation, to be responsible for by greenhouse length to being laid on the outside of rear wall near pavement, hollow billet is selected the flat pressure drip irrigation pipe of 16mmPE internally-inlaid, water dropper flow 2L/h, lay drip irrigation pipe, two water droppers are at a distance of 35cm, spreading in drip irrigation pipe;
4. field planting
Late October, field planting; By spacing in the rows 40cm, apart from water dropper 3cm position, dig planting pit, 2800 strains/667m 2; Grafting field planting, in planting pit, is filled and led up to planting pit with the ridge soil taking out; After field planting, furrow waters, and makes water to both sides, ridge, infiltrate into water suction abundance in nutritive cube;
5. prune, draw climing, except tendril
Female series cucumber be take main climing knot melon as main, extracts all side shoots, draws in time climing lifting rope during climing long 30cm, occurs that tendril extracts in time;
6. dredge melon
Female series cucumber joint position is low, removes the flower below 5 joint positions, be beneficial to regulate to nourish and grow and reproductive growth, in case plant early ageing, high price melon output during assurance two joints;
7. gather with fall climing
Autumn cucumber fruit growth speed is fast, when fruit reaches commodity, gathers in time when ripe, plucks the seedling that will fall at any time in melon process, keeps rice shoot height consistent;
8. integrated liquid manure management
The moisture of field planting after 1 week is supplied with by drip irrigation system, and the initial stage irrigated once at interval of 3 days, and each 30min topdresses after 5 joint melons are occupied stably, and with dripping irrigation water, with aqueous solution form, by Development of Venturi Fertilizer Applicator, imposes urea 5kg/667m 2with NPK Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium 5kg/667m 2; Cold season, cloudy snow sky, haze sky prolongation interval appropriate minimizing drip irrigation time, to keep ground temperature.Knot melon contain during every 2d drip irrigation 1 time; The knot melon phase of containing needs purity nitrogen 2.6kg, phosphorus pentoxide 1.5kg, potassium oxide 3.5kg, calcium oxide 2.5kg, magnesium 0.5kg ratio Fertigation by producing 1000kg cucumber.
Processing step of the present invention also comprises sunlight indoor envirobnmental control:
After field planting, start greenhouse by solar heat damage by disease and insect prevention and control system; Dielectric fluke plate, electrostatic insect killing lamp remain on 15~20cm position, plant top, and height should be adjusted in time with plant strain growth; Greenhouse electricity demist disease prevention growth-promoting system adopts stops 30min/ work 30min pattern, prevents the generation of disease;
Temperature and gas delivery: be equipped with greenhouse temperature increasing hot-blast stove and add gentle flue gas electrodecontamination CO temporarily 2gaseous fertilizer apparatus regulating and controlling temperature and indoor CO 2concentration;
In greenhouse, be equipped with greenhouse temperature increasing hot-blast stove as provisional warming-up device, run into low temperature and less sunshine, haze, cloudy day, snowfall, the strong wind diastrous weathers such as there's a sudden fall in temperature, temperature is enabled in time hot-blast stove lower than 8 ℃ and is heated, and avoids cucumber plant to be subject to chilling damage.During cucumber growth, 25~32 ℃ of day temperatures, are not less than 10 ℃ night;
Configuration flue gas electrodecontamination CO 2gaseous fertilizer apparatus supplements indoor CO 2gas, can significantly increase plant strain growth gesture and cucumber yield.YD-660 type flue gas electrodecontamination CO 2gaseous fertilizer apparatus: formed by flue gas electrodecontamination main frame, Smoking pipe, snorkel, liquid fertilizer pipe.CO 2gaseous fertilizer apparatus main frame is fixed on the rear wall in the middle of greenhouse, and the soft first end of Smoking pipe and pipe clamp are inserted on the smoke-intake pipe of main frame lower end, and tightens and fix.In flue with coal stove for heating in the insertion greenhouse, one end of stainless-steel pipe, the degree of depth reaches 35mm.Snorkel one end and pipe clamp be inserted on the blast pipe of main frame upper end and tighten and reinforce, another termination threeway makes the CO producing 2along greenhouse length direction, extend to two ends, greenhouse, end sealing, snorkel is laid on 1.2~1.5m place, ground, and on snorkel, punching is for CO 2discharge.Flexible plastic tube is screwed on the flow liquid mouth of main frame bottom, and tight with lesser calorie subcard.After installing, light warming stove, switch on power and can supply CO 2.When liquid fertilizer pipe is full of yellow liquid, can liquid be received and kept with bottle, yellow liquid fertilizer mainly contains a large amount of available nitrogens, sulphur and bicarbonate radical and Trace Potassium, adds clear water can become quick-acting fertilizer use in the ratio of 1:30, and growth-promoting effect is very remarkable.
Flue gas electrodecontamination CO 2when Gaseous fertilizer apparatus newly grows 2 after field planting, now plant 5 joint position flowers form, start startup work.Be that fine day is taken off after curtain 30min and started to stop using gaseous fertilizer to 30min before leaking informaton service time, and do not execute afternoon.
Greenhouse by solar heat ventilation is mainly to discharge indoor harmful gas, supplements CO 2with reduction humidity, adopt under-film drip irrigation Techniques For Reducing humidity effect remarkable.As 32 ℃ of indoor temperatures, CO 2concentration reaches 1500 mg/m 3~1800mg/m 3time photosynthesis the strongest, supplement CO 2, when surpassing 32 ℃, warm indoor temperature ventilates, exhale pernicious gases, and fine day room temperature stops ventilating during lower than 32 ℃ in time, and sealing is put in sealing.When warm indoor temperature is no more than 32 ℃, the 20min~30min that generally ventilates, cloudy 10min.
The intensive integrated day-light greenhouse winter spring stubble autumn cucumber green high-efficient culture technique of the present invention, by increasing the input of greenhouse by solar heat environment conditioning facility and damage by disease and insect prevention and control systems equipment, employing is conducive to the main climing melon climing culture technique that falls at any time that surely saves of staying of female series cucumber growth, build greenhouse by solar heat damage by disease and insect prevention and control system, adopt built-in insect protected guipure, dielectric fluke plate, the pre-preventing disease and pests of equipment such as electrostatic insect killing lamp and greenhouse electricity demist disease prevention growth-promoting system occur, realize fruit without pesticide producing, the bacterial manure made from the edaphon effect of ox horn dress cow dung 180d, there is the organic mineral of acceleration, be beneficial to and activate and discharge nutrient in soil, for cucumber plant growth.Circular diplopore 60g peat nutritive cube is abutted against grows seedlings, and the sowing of anvil fringe survives slow seedling on same nutritive cube after grafting fast, grafting robust growth, and nutritive cube is whole transplants, and there is no seedling-slowing stage, and plant strain growth is fast.Greenhouse electricity demist disease prevention growth-promoting system discharge can generate nitrous acid gas, forms the nitrate nitrogen that can absorb for plant after chance water, plays the effect of fertilising.Utilize flue gas electrodecontamination CO 2gaseous fertilizer apparatus supplements CO 2gas applies fertilizer, and can bring into play to greatest extent the photosynthesis of blade, to fruit, carries product, and output improves.
The invention has the beneficial effects as follows: the present invention is to put prevention first, realize without pesticide producing whole breeding time, utilizing circular diplopore 60g peat nutritive cube to be abutted against grows seedlings, grafting robust growth, saving of labor, water-fertilizer integral using water wisely, reduces warm indoor air humidity, is conducive to the physics prevention and control of plant diseases.Regulation and control plant reproduction with nourish and grow, female series autumn cucumber stays 5 joint position root melons, knot melon early 1 week, the knot melon that can give full play to female series kind is early and the close feature of joint melon.Flue gas electrodecontamination CO 2gaseous fertilizer apparatus supplements indoor CO 2gas is given full play to the instinct of volume increase, has guaranteed the Product supply during two joints, makes its output reach 5000kg/667m 2, after New Year's Day to the Spring Festival, the cucumber product of two months reaches 3000kg, and benefit is splendid, and this technical value must be produced and be applied.
Embodiment
Below by example, the invention will be further described.
An intensive integrated day-light greenhouse winter spring stubble autumn cucumber green high-efficient cultivation method, comprises following processing step:
1. build greenhouse by solar heat damage by disease and insect prevention and control system
Greenhouse by solar heat damage by disease and insect prevention and control system is comprised of built-in insect protected guipure, dielectric fluke plate, electrostatic insect killing lamp and greenhouse electricity demist disease prevention growth-promoting system;
Built-in insect protected guipure: at the fly net of each leak informaton 50 orders for place, mesh diameter 0.4mm of greenhouse by solar heat inner side, fly net isolation strip is set, intercepting adult enters, the fly net at front roof ground connection place, greenhouse is real by soil pressure, the place of seam fits together perfectly, greenhouse door is established double-deck fly net, and inner side, the place of opening the door arranges polychrome dielectric fluke plate; In blink in administrative staff pass in and out greenhouse, the insect entering with people runs into the special tone of colour table to be stimulated, and can towards colour table motion, by dielectric fluke plate, be killed by the light of nature, reduces the individual amount of external intrusion insect;
Dielectric fluke plate, electrostatic insect killing lamp, for trapping and killing the adult that slips through the net; Polychrome dielectric fluke plate (Dalian agricultural mechanization Research Institute), consists of high voltage source, substrate, dielectric coat, yellow, blue wear-resistant protective layer; Utilize adult love look, adopt colour table to add dielectric adsorption technology the adult of insect is attracted to and on plate, cements and kill; Every 20m in greenhouse 2put a polychrome dielectric fluke plate, polychrome dielectric fluke plate is suspended on to cucumber plant top, bottom exceeds plant l0cm~15cm, and diurnal adult is leaked in trapping, and the plate face of polychrome dielectric fluke plate is clean with wet rag erasing in time; Electrostatic insect killing lamp is 3DJ-200 type Multifunctional electrostatic insect killing lamp (Dalian agricultural mechanization Research Institute), insect killing lamp cylindrical shell, pallet, light trap, light-controller, high-field electrode, consists of; Deinsectization cylindrical shell is divided into and lures worm blue and yellow two kinds, yellow lures yellow aphid, trialeurodes vaporariorum, liriomyza bryoniae etc. to approach deinsectization cylindrical shell, blueness lures thrips to approach deinsectization cylindrical shell, and light trap attracts the insects such as coleopteran pest, lepidoptera pest, mosquito, fly to kill; Every 667m 2the even cloth in greenhouse is hung 3 electrostatic insect killing lamps;
Greenhouse electricity demist disease prevention growth-promoting system diseases prevention: adopt 3DFC-600 type greenhouse electricity demist disease prevention growth-promoting system (production of Huhehaote City Yi Tian agricultural equipment Co., Ltd), formed by main power source, controller, 200m electrode wires, 20 suspension insulator four major parts; Controller and main power source are arranged on operation room wall, and on bow member more than electrode wires antenna height 2.3m, insulator comprises 1 band line insulator, 19 hanging wire insulators; To with line insulator, be fixed on apart from the nearest ceiling girder steel of main power source, other insulators are evenly laid on ceiling girder steel by greenhouse length direction together, and electrode wires combines as a whole by the screw of insulator bottom;
2. cucumber cultivation
Soil beneficial microbe bacterial manure preparation: make container with ox horn, fresh cow dung is raw material, and the ox horn of filling fresh cow dung is imbedded to underground 1.5m place, transforms through 180 days edaphons, becomes soil beneficial microbe bacterial manure;
Kind is selected: require low temperature resistant, the low light level, anti-epidemic disease ability is strong, the fruit fast kind of growing under cryogenic conditions; Female series Tang Qiu 208, Tang Qiu 209 that for example academy of agricultural sciences, Tangshan is bred as;
Cultivate healthy and strong anosis worm grafting; Late September, at warm indoor raising of seedling;
Stock and cucumber seeds sterilization, seed soaking and vernalization: first with 10% trisodium phosphate solution seed soaking 20min, pre-anti-virus, use again 800 times of liquid of 25% metalaxyl wetting powder, seed soaking 20min, prevent fungal disease in seedling stage, finally by 500 times of dilution seed soaking 2h of 100Wan unit's agricultural streptomycin, bacteriological protection venereal disease evil; After each seed soaking sterilization, all with clear water, rinse well, dry in the shade; Seed Seed soaking 6h at the temperature of 25~30 ℃ after sterilization; Before vernalization, seed is pulled out from water, with wet cloth, wrapped, be placed in container, be placed in 25~30 ℃ of indoor vernalization; Every 6h warm water rinsing 1 time, show money or valuables one carries unintentionally to seed;
Sowing: adopting circular diplopore 60g peat nutritive cube (Lushikong Science & Tech. Co., Ltd., Beijing's production) is carrier, and diplopore is respectively macropore and aperture; By bottom, seedbed smooth compacting paving layer of polyethylene film, by spacing, 3cm puts nutritive cube; With watering can, from top to bottom to nutritive cube water spray, film has stop-spraying after ponding, after blotting, ponding sprays again, and 6 times repeatedly, until nutritive cube complete expansion (pricking matrix without hard-core with toothpick); Place after 12h simple grain program request cucumber seeds in aperture, broadcast simple grain fig-leaf gourd seed after 7 days in macropore, seed keeps flat in cave, above covers the vermiculite that 1.5cm is thick; Broadcast rear maintenance nutritive cube moisture sufficient;
Grafting: anvil fringe is sowed on same nutritive cube, when scion rough leaf, launch to have half a buck size, fig-leaf gourd cotyledon and while launching completely, start grafting, adopt inarching method grafting, after scion grafting survival, cut off scion cucumber plant, make cucumber seedling separated with self root system, start to utilize allosome fig-leaf gourd Root Absorption moisture and mineral nutrition; Grafting root system is covered with nutritive cube, and tender of white point slightly exposes, and field planting in time, prevents that root system is aging, the experienced seedling of cutting off the water before field planting; Nursery stage temperature treatment: 20 ℃ of 30 ℃ of daytimes in seeding stage, nights, 25~28 ℃ of Seedling Stage daytimes, 13~15 ℃ of nights, humidity 80%~90%;
Apply fertilizer 3. wholely,, do under furrow, spreading, film and lay drip irrigation pipe
Female series cucumber knot melon is good, and fertilizer requirement is large, must have sufficient base fertilizer;
In greenhouse, soil is ploughed deeply 30cm, applies 5000kg/ 667m 2decomposed manure, potassium sulfate 10kg/667m 2with diammonium phosphate 20 kg/667m 2make base manure; North-south Da Long, wide 40cm, high 25cm, distance between the ridges 80cm; To imbed the ground ox horn taking-up of the second half year, the cow dung in ox horn has changed into bacterial manure, puts into bucket and adds water, with waddy, repeatedly stirs, until bacterial manure disperses completely, then by atomizers spray, to ridge, carries on the back, and mixes bacterial manure consumption 4kg/667m with rake 2;
Adopt under-film drip irrigation system to supply with moisture, drip irrigation equipment adopts the anti-aging pipe of 50mm PE to be responsible for as drip irrigation, to be responsible for by greenhouse length to being laid on the outside of rear wall near pavement, hollow billet is selected the flat pressure drip irrigation pipe of 16mmPE internally-inlaid, water dropper flow 2L/h, lay drip irrigation pipe, two water droppers are 35cm apart, spreading in drip irrigation pipe (being that under-film drip irrigation supplies water);
4. field planting
Late October, field planting; By spacing in the rows 40cm, apart from water dropper 3cm position, dig planting pit (diameter is just put peat nutritive cube into, and the degree of depth is advisable lower than ridge face 1cm with block), 2800 strains/667m 2; Grafting field planting, in planting pit, is filled and led up to planting pit with the ridge soil taking out; After field planting, furrow waters, and makes water to both sides, ridge, infiltrate into water suction abundance in nutritive cube;
5. prune, draw climing, except tendril
Female series cucumber be take main climing knot melon as main, extracts all side shoots, draws in time climing lifting rope during climing long 30cm, occurs that tendril extracts in time;
6. dredge melon
Female series cucumber joint position is low, removes the flower below 5 joint positions, be beneficial to regulate to nourish and grow and reproductive growth, in case plant early ageing, high price melon output (after New Year's Day to the Spring Festival,, during two months, autumn cucumber quality better price is high) during assurance two joints;
7. gather with fall climing
Autumn cucumber fruit growth speed is fast, when fruit reaches commodity maturation (the long 14cm of sugar-preserved gourd, weighs 140~160g) time, gathers in time, plucks the seedling that will fall at any time in melon process, keeps rice shoot height consistent;
8. integrated liquid manure management
The moisture of field planting after 1 week is supplied with by drip irrigation system, and the initial stage irrigated once at interval of 3 days, and each 30min topdresses after 5 joint melons are occupied stably, and with dripping irrigation water, with aqueous solution form, by Development of Venturi Fertilizer Applicator, imposes urea 5kg/667m 2with NPK Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium 5kg/667m 2; Cold season, cloudy snow sky, haze sky prolongation interval appropriate minimizing drip irrigation time, to keep ground temperature.Knot melon contain during every 2d drip irrigation 1 time;
The knot melon phase of containing needs purity nitrogen 2.6kg, phosphorus pentoxide 1.5kg, potassium oxide 3.5kg, calcium oxide 2.5kg, magnesium 0.5kg ratio Fertigation by producing 1000kg cucumber.
Processing step of the present invention also comprises sunlight indoor envirobnmental control:
After field planting, start greenhouse by solar heat damage by disease and insect prevention and control system; Dielectric fluke plate, electrostatic insect killing lamp remain on 15~20cm position, plant top, and height should be adjusted in time with plant strain growth; Greenhouse electricity demist disease prevention growth-promoting system adopts stops 30min/ work 30min pattern, prevents the generation of disease;
Temperature and gas delivery: be equipped with greenhouse temperature increasing hot-blast stove (production of BeiJing ZhongKe Rui Tian agrotechnique development corporation, Ltd.) and add gentle flue gas electrodecontamination CO temporarily 2gaseous fertilizer apparatus (production of Liaoning Province Agricultural Mechanization Inst., Dalian City) regulating and controlling temperature and indoor CO 2concentration;
In greenhouse, be equipped with RFL-2 type greenhouse temperature increasing hot-blast stove as provisional warming-up device, run into low temperature and less sunshine, haze, cloudy day, snowfall, the strong wind diastrous weathers such as there's a sudden fall in temperature, temperature is enabled in time hot-blast stove lower than 8 ℃ and is heated, and avoids cucumber plant to be subject to chilling damage.During cucumber growth, 25~32 ℃ of day temperatures, are not less than 10 ℃ night;
Configuration YD-660 type flue gas electrodecontamination CO 2gaseous fertilizer apparatus supplements indoor CO 2gas, can significantly increase plant strain growth gesture and cucumber yield.YD-660 type flue gas electrodecontamination CO 2gaseous fertilizer apparatus: formed by flue gas electrodecontamination main frame, Smoking pipe, snorkel, liquid fertilizer pipe.CO 2gaseous fertilizer apparatus main frame is fixed on the rear wall in the middle of greenhouse, and the soft first end of Smoking pipe and pipe clamp are inserted on the smoke-intake pipe of main frame lower end, and tightens and fix.In flue with coal stove for heating in the insertion greenhouse, one end of stainless-steel pipe (interior with stainless steel wire group), the degree of depth reaches 35mm.Snorkel one end and pipe clamp be inserted on the blast pipe of main frame upper end and tighten and reinforce, another termination threeway makes the CO producing 2along greenhouse length direction, extend to two ends, greenhouse, end sealing, snorkel is erected at 1.2~1.5m place, ground, and on snorkel, punching is for CO 2discharge.Flexible plastic tube is screwed on the flow liquid mouth of main frame bottom, and tight with lesser calorie subcard.After installing, light warming stove, switch on power and can supply CO 2.When liquid fertilizer pipe is full of yellow liquid, can liquid be received and kept with bottle, yellow liquid fertilizer mainly contains a large amount of available nitrogens, sulphur and bicarbonate radical and Trace Potassium, adds clear water can become quick-acting fertilizer use in the ratio of 1:30, and growth-promoting effect is very remarkable.
Flue gas electrodecontamination CO 2when Gaseous fertilizer apparatus newly grows 2 after field planting, now plant 5 joint position flowers form, start startup work.Be that fine day is taken off after curtain 30min and started to stop using gaseous fertilizer to 30min before leaking informaton service time, and do not execute afternoon.
Greenhouse by solar heat ventilation is mainly to discharge indoor harmful gas, supplements CO 2with reduction humidity, adopt under-film drip irrigation Techniques For Reducing humidity effect remarkable.As 32 ℃ of indoor temperatures, CO 2concentration reaches 1500mg/m 3~1800 mg/m 3time photosynthesis the strongest, supplement CO 2, when surpassing 32 ℃, warm indoor temperature ventilates, exhale pernicious gases, and fine day room temperature stops ventilating during lower than 32 ℃ in time, and sealing is put in sealing.When warm indoor temperature is no more than 32 ℃, the 20min~30min that generally ventilates, cloudy 10min.
The intensive integrated day-light greenhouse winter spring stubble autumn cucumber green high-efficient culture technique of the present invention, by increasing the input of greenhouse by solar heat environment conditioning facility and damage by disease and insect prevention and control systems equipment, employing is conducive to the main climing melon climing culture technique that falls at any time that surely saves of staying of female series cucumber growth, build greenhouse by solar heat damage by disease and insect prevention and control system, adopt built-in insect protected guipure, dielectric fluke plate, the pre-preventing disease and pests of equipment such as electrostatic insect killing lamp and greenhouse electricity demist disease prevention growth-promoting system occur, realize fruit without pesticide producing, the bacterial manure made from the edaphon effect of ox horn dress cow dung 180d, there is the organic mineral of acceleration, be beneficial to and activate and discharge nutrient in soil, for cucumber plant growth.Circular diplopore 60g peat nutritive cube is abutted against grows seedlings, and the sowing of anvil fringe survives slow seedling on same nutritive cube after grafting fast, grafting robust growth, and nutritive cube is whole transplants, and there is no seedling-slowing stage, and plant strain growth is fast.Greenhouse electricity demist disease prevention growth-promoting system discharge can generate nitrous acid gas, forms the nitrate nitrogen that can absorb for plant after chance water, plays the effect of fertilising.Utilize flue gas electrodecontamination CO 2gaseous fertilizer apparatus supplements CO 2gas applies fertilizer, and can bring into play to greatest extent the photosynthesis of blade, to fruit, carries product, and output improves.

Claims (3)

1. an intensive integrated day-light greenhouse winter spring stubble autumn cucumber green high-efficient cultivation method, is characterized in that comprising following processing step:
1. build greenhouse by solar heat damage by disease and insect prevention and control system
Greenhouse by solar heat damage by disease and insect prevention and control system is comprised of built-in insect protected guipure, dielectric fluke plate, electrostatic insect killing lamp and greenhouse electricity demist disease prevention growth-promoting system;
Built-in insect protected guipure: at the fly net of each leak informaton 50 orders for place, mesh diameter 0.4mm of greenhouse by solar heat inner side, fly net isolation strip is set, intercepting adult enters, the fly net at front roof ground connection place, greenhouse is real by soil pressure, the place of seam fits together perfectly, greenhouse door is established double-deck fly net, and inner side, the place of opening the door arranges polychrome dielectric fluke plate;
Dielectric fluke plate, electrostatic insect killing lamp, for trapping and killing the adult that slips through the net; Polychrome dielectric fluke plate consists of high voltage source, substrate, dielectric coat, yellow, blue wear-resistant protective layer; Utilize adult love look, adopt colour table to add dielectric adsorption technology the adult of insect is attracted to and on plate, cements and kill; Every 20m in greenhouse 2put a polychrome dielectric fluke plate, polychrome dielectric fluke plate is suspended on to cucumber plant top, bottom exceeds plant l0cm~15cm, and diurnal adult is leaked in trapping; Electrostatic insect killing lamp is partly comprised of insect killing lamp cylindrical shell, pallet, light trap, light-controller, high-field electrode etc.; Every 667m 2the even cloth in greenhouse is hung 3 electrostatic insect killing lamps;
Greenhouse electricity demist disease prevention growth-promoting system diseases prevention: the greenhouse electricity demist disease prevention growth-promoting system of employing, is comprised of main power source, controller, 200m electrode wires, 20 suspension insulator four major parts; Controller and main power source are arranged on operation room wall, and on bow member more than electrode wires antenna height 2.3m, insulator comprises 1 band line insulator, 19 hanging wire insulators; To with line insulator, be fixed on apart from the nearest ceiling girder steel of main power source, other insulators are evenly laid on ceiling girder steel by greenhouse length direction, and electrode wires combines as a whole by the screw of insulator bottom;
2. cucumber cultivation
Soil beneficial microbe bacterial manure preparation: make container with ox horn, fresh cow dung is raw material, and the ox horn of filling fresh cow dung is imbedded to underground 1.5m place, transforms through 180 days edaphons, becomes soil beneficial microbe bacterial manure;
Late September, at warm indoor raising of seedling;
Stock and cucumber seeds sterilization, seed soaking and vernalization: first with 10% trisodium phosphate solution seed soaking 20min, pre-anti-virus, use again 800 times of liquid of 25% metalaxyl wetting powder, seed soaking 20min, prevent fungal disease in seedling stage, finally by 500 times of dilution seed soaking 2h of 100Wan unit's agricultural streptomycin, bacteriological protection venereal disease evil; After each seed soaking sterilization, all with clear water, rinse well, dry in the shade; Seed Seed soaking 6h at the temperature of 25~30 ℃ after sterilization; Before vernalization, seed is pulled out from water, with wet cloth, wrapped, be placed in container, be placed in 25~30 ℃ of indoor vernalization; Every 6h warm water rinsing 1 time, show money or valuables one carries unintentionally to seed;
Sowing: adopting circular diplopore 60g peat nutritive cube is carrier, and diplopore is respectively macropore and aperture; By bottom, seedbed smooth compacting paving layer of polyethylene film, by spacing, 3cm puts nutritive cube; With watering can, from top to bottom to nutritive cube water spray, film has stop-spraying after ponding, after blotting, ponding sprays again, and 6 times repeatedly, until nutritive cube complete expansion; Place after 12h simple grain program request cucumber seeds in aperture, broadcast simple grain fig-leaf gourd seed after 7 days in macropore, seed keeps flat in cave, above covers the vermiculite that 1.5cm is thick;
Grafting: anvil fringe is sowed on same nutritive cube, when scion rough leaf, launch to have half a buck size, fig-leaf gourd cotyledon and while launching completely, start grafting, adopt inarching method grafting, after scion grafting survival, cut off scion cucumber plant, make cucumber seedling separated with self root system, start to utilize allosome fig-leaf gourd Root Absorption moisture and mineral nutrition; Grafting root system is covered with nutritive cube, and tender of white point slightly exposes, and field planting in time, prevents that root system is aging, the experienced seedling of cutting off the water before field planting; Nursery stage temperature treatment: 20 ℃ of 30 ℃ of daytimes in seeding stage, nights, 25~28 ℃ of Seedling Stage daytimes, 13~15 ℃ of nights, humidity 80%~90%;
Apply fertilizer 3. wholely,, do under furrow, spreading, film and lay drip irrigation pipe
In greenhouse, soil is ploughed deeply 30cm, applies 5000kg/ 667m 2decomposed manure, potassium sulfate 10kg/667m 2with diammonium phosphate 20 kg/667m 2make base manure; North-south Da Long, wide 40cm, high 25cm, distance between the ridges 80cm; To imbed the ground ox horn taking-up of the second half year, the cow dung in ox horn has changed into bacterial manure, puts into bucket and adds water, with waddy, repeatedly stirs, until bacterial manure disperses completely, then by atomizers spray, to ridge, carries on the back, and mixes bacterial manure consumption 4kg/667m with rake 2;
Adopt under-film drip irrigation system to supply with moisture, drip irrigation equipment adopts the anti-aging pipe of 50mm PE to be responsible for as drip irrigation, to be responsible for by greenhouse length to being laid on the outside of rear wall near pavement, hollow billet is selected the flat pressure drip irrigation pipe of 16mmPE internally-inlaid, water dropper flow 2L/h, lay drip irrigation pipe, two water droppers are at a distance of 35cm, spreading in drip irrigation pipe;
4. field planting
Late October, field planting; By spacing in the rows 40cm, apart from water dropper 3cm position, dig planting pit, 2800 strains/667m 2; Grafting field planting, in planting pit, is filled and led up to planting pit with the ridge soil taking out; After field planting, furrow waters, and makes water to both sides, ridge, infiltrate into water suction abundance in nutritive cube;
5. prune, draw climing, except tendril
Female series cucumber be take main climing knot melon as main, extracts all side shoots, draws in time climing lifting rope during climing long 30cm, occurs that tendril extracts in time;
6. dredge melon
Female series cucumber joint position is low, removes the flower below 5 joint positions, is beneficial to regulate to nourish and grow and reproductive growth;
7. gather with fall climing
When reaching commodity maturation, fruit gathers in time;
8. integrated liquid manure management
The moisture of field planting after 1 week is supplied with by drip irrigation system, and the initial stage irrigated once at interval of 3 days, knot melon contain during every 2 days drip irrigations 1 time; Each 30min topdresses after 5 joint melons are occupied stably, and with dripping irrigation water, with aqueous solution form, by Development of Venturi Fertilizer Applicator, imposes urea 5kg/667m 2with NPK Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium 5kg/667m 2; The knot melon phase of containing needs purity nitrogen 2.6kg, phosphorus pentoxide 1.5kg, potassium oxide 3.5kg, calcium oxide 2.5kg, magnesium 0.5kg ratio Fertigation by producing 1000kg cucumber.
2. a kind of intensive integrated day-light greenhouse winter spring stubble autumn cucumber green high-efficient cultivation method according to claim 1, characterized by further comprising sunlight indoor envirobnmental control:
After field planting, start greenhouse by solar heat damage by disease and insect prevention and control system; Dielectric fluke plate, electrostatic insect killing lamp remain on 15~20cm position, plant top; Greenhouse electricity demist disease prevention growth-promoting system adopts stops 30min/ work 30min pattern, prevents the generation of disease;
Temperature and gas delivery: be equipped with greenhouse temperature increasing hot-blast stove and add gentle flue gas electrodecontamination CO temporarily 2gaseous fertilizer apparatus regulating and controlling temperature and indoor CO 2concentration;
In greenhouse, be equipped with greenhouse temperature increasing hot-blast stove as provisional warming-up device, temperature is enabled in time hot-blast stove lower than 8 ℃ and is heated, and avoids cucumber plant to be subject to chilling damage; During cucumber growth, 25~32 ℃ of day temperatures, are not less than 10 ℃ night;
Configuration flue gas electrodecontamination CO 2gaseous fertilizer apparatus: formed by flue gas electrodecontamination main frame, Smoking pipe, snorkel, liquid fertilizer pipe;
CO 2gaseous fertilizer apparatus main frame is fixed on the rear wall in the middle of greenhouse, and the soft first end of Smoking pipe and pipe clamp are inserted on the smoke-intake pipe of main frame lower end, and tightens and fix; In flue with coal stove for heating in the insertion greenhouse, one end of stainless-steel pipe, the degree of depth reaches 35mm; Snorkel one end and pipe clamp be inserted on the blast pipe of main frame upper end and tighten and reinforce, another termination threeway makes the CO producing 2along greenhouse length direction, extend to two ends, greenhouse, end sealing, snorkel is erected at 1.2~1.5m place, ground, and on snorkel, punching is for CO 2discharge; Flexible plastic tube is screwed on the flow liquid mouth of main frame bottom, and clamping; After installing, light warming stove, switch on power and can supply CO 2.
3. a kind of intensive integrated day-light greenhouse winter spring stubble autumn cucumber green high-efficient cultivation method according to claim 2, is characterized in that flue gas electrodecontamination CO 2when Gaseous fertilizer apparatus newly grows 2 after field planting, now plant 5 joint position flowers form, start startup work; Be that fine day is taken off after curtain 30min and started to stop using gaseous fertilizer to 30min before leaking informaton service time, and do not execute afternoon.
CN201410418995.3A 2014-08-25 2014-08-25 A kind of intensive integrated day-light greenhouse winter spring stubble autumn cucumber green high-efficient cultivation method Expired - Fee Related CN104186155B (en)

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