CN102301982B - Method for propagating Aphidius gifuensis by pea aphids - Google Patents

Method for propagating Aphidius gifuensis by pea aphids Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102301982B
CN102301982B CN 201110202244 CN201110202244A CN102301982B CN 102301982 B CN102301982 B CN 102301982B CN 201110202244 CN201110202244 CN 201110202244 CN 201110202244 A CN201110202244 A CN 201110202244A CN 102301982 B CN102301982 B CN 102301982B
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aphid
honeybee
beans
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aphidius gifuensis
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CN102301982A (en
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曾嵘
张拯研
吴伟
林选知
浦勇
吴剑
殷寿安
刘芳
冯晓忠
朱元
任翔
王惠
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QUJING CITY CO TOBACCO CO YUNNAN PROV
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QUJING CITY CO TOBACCO CO YUNNAN PROV
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Abstract

The invention provides a method for propagating Aphidius gifuensis by pea aphids. The method provided by the invention utilizes two facilities including a seedling culture big shed and a field small shed and takes broad beans and peas as host plants for propagating aphids; the method takes the pea aphids as host aphids for propagating Aphidius gifuensis and then the propagated Aphidius gifuensis are released to a large-scale tobacco field to kill the aphids on tobacco leaves. The method selects the broad bean seeds and the pea seeds and then tender green bean plants are cultivated in a big greenhouse or the small shed built in the fields; the pea aphids are inoculated on the bean plants and then the pea aphids are propagated; then the Aphidius gifuensis is inoculated on the tender bean plants which is propagated with a lot of pea aphids and then the Aphidius gifuensis is propagated. Then a lot of propagated Aphidius gifuensis are released into the large-scale tobacco field to kill the aphids on tobacco leaves. Finally, the aim of biologically preventing and treating aphids is realized and the pesticide pollution caused by preventing the aphids is avoided.

Description

The method of propagating Aphidius gifuensis by pea aphids
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of method of propagating Aphidius gifuensis by pea aphids, belong to pest biological prevention field, both be applicable to vega control cigarette aphid, also be applicable to the control of aphids of big agriculture crop.
Background technology
Aphidius gifuensis is prevented and treated the middle discovery of applying of cigarette aphid technology, with flue-cured tobacco aphid breeding aphidius gifuensis, easily cause anthropochory's cigarette aphid during the stiff aphid of bulk storage, propagate tobacco virus, breeding aphidius gifuensis efficient is lower, breeding aphidius gifuensis cost is more high, is the middle problem demanding prompt solution of applying of current aphidius gifuensis control cigarette aphid technology.At present in the documents and materials, there is not the parasitic acyrthosiphum pisim of aphidius gifuensis and with the report of propagating Aphidius gifuensis by pea aphids.Find after deliberation, under field conditions (factors), aphidius gifuensis is not liked parasitic acyrthosiphum pisim; But under less space and sealing condition, aphidius gifuensis but can effective parasitic acyrthosiphum pisim.The prerequisite of the aphis propagation viroses of plant is that aphid will be stung the suction host plant, the aphidius gifuensis of breeding out with acyrthosiphum pisim equally can parasitic cigarette aphid, acyrthosiphum pisim is worldwide insect, be distributed widely in all parts of the country, in the parthenogenesis of the annual battalion in south China area, without the phenomenon of obviously surviving the winter, in 20-30 generations, occured in year.This for utilize acyrthosiphum pisim cigarette substitute aphid breeding aphidius gifuensis provide may with more favourable basic condition.
Summary of the invention
Purpose of the present invention is exactly the method for open propagating Aphidius gifuensis by pea aphids, high to solve the cost that exists with cigarette aphid breeding aphidius gifuensis in the prior art, easily propagate the germ of unfavorable cigarette strain growth and the problem of insect pest, the aphidius gifuensis of breeding is used for the tobacco aphid of control harm tobacco leaf healthy growth, avoids or reduces the pesticide pollution that uses the chemical pesticide desinsection to cause.
Concrete scheme is: adopt seedling raising greenhouse and two kinds of facilities of field hut, with broad bean, pea as numerous aphid host plant, with the host aphid of acyrthosiphum pisim as the breeding aphidius gifuensis, through cultivating the beans strain, connect the numerous aphid of aphid, connecing the measure of the numerous beekeeping equipment body technique of honeybee and breed aphidius gifuensis for vega control tobacco leaf aphid.Again the aphidius gifuensis bulk storage of breeding is eliminated the aphid on the tobacco leaf in the vega of large section.
Wherein seedling raising greenhouse breeding aphid cocoon honeybee step is:
Cultivate the beans strain, 1, presses first 1000Kg soil, the proportioning feeding that adds 200Kg well-rotted farmyard manure, 10Kg fused calcium magnesium phosphate, fully mix be mixed even, the heap sealing the fermentation be no less than 30 days, add again 100g carbendazim, 100g chlorophos, mix is even, to the Nutrition Soil pesticide and disinfectant, namely make Nutrition Soil, for subsequent use in the flowerpot that Nutrition Soil is packed into the diameter got ready and height dimension are 25.0cm again; 2, with broad bean, pea as cultivating numerous aphid host plant, choose then that anosis worm, the broad bean of full seed, the pea of results are the beans kind, soaked 1-2 days with clear water, treat the skin of beancurd spalling, sow when exposing plumule; 3, type of seeding is that each flowerpot is broadcast 4 beans kinds, is equally spaced, and the beans kind is pressed in the topsoil, covers the thick Nutrition Soil of 1cm again, in time waters, and makes Nutrition Soil fully moistening, with the seeding method with two broad beans of basin, two peas; 4, flowerpot is put with tight snap rectangle in canopy, leaves the passage of convenient management; 5, temperature control is at 22 ℃ ± 5 ℃ in the canopy between the seeding stage, if temperature of shed is in time aeration-cooling above 30 ℃, the tender seedling of sun burns is avoided in the rear timely sunshade of emerging; 6, water and fertilizer management is when bean seedlings length is high to 3cm, with 100 flowerpots special-purpose N:P of 200g tobacco 2O 5: K 2The mixed liquor that the composite fertilizer of O=1:1:1 and 100g urea are watered 100Kg waters to be executed; Execute afterwards the rich water of said method preparation every 7-10 days once, and cover the straw of cutting short at basin soil, prevent the covering of moisture rapid evaporation.
Connect the numerous aphid of aphid, 1, the beans kind sow after 40-45 days, the beans strain is long to about the 30cm height, when the 4-5 impeller blade is arranged, adopts method, inoculates aphid, i.e. the more beans strain of clip kind aphid will be planted aphid and be shaken off in aphid beans waiting strain, 8-15 kind aphids of every basin inoculation; 2, connect aphid after one week, pat beans strain top with waddy, agitation beans strain top aphid comes off the part bean aphid, makes it get back to voluntarily beans strain lower blade from the pelvic surface of sacrum soil of falling and breeds, and beans strain top and the bottom aphid distributes relatively even; 3, observe beans strain growing state, replenish nitrogenous fertilizer and moisture in good time, keep the light green of beans strain blade, satisfy the tender habit requirement of becoming of bean aphid, guarantee that the bean aphid population quantity constantly increases; 4, temperature, humidity regulation are hung the psychrometer of monitor temperature, humidity in canopy, and cloth sunshade net on ceiling and canopy side opening transom, the canopy, the measure such as water make that temperature, humidity are controlled at 22 ℃ ± 5 ℃, RH70% ± 5% in the canopy; 5, natural enemy control adopts electronic suction buzzer removing or artificial capture method to sneak into the natural enemy of aphid of the interior ladybug of canopy, flower stinkbug, fleahopper, syrphus fly class, guarantees the growth of acyrthosiphum pisim breeding amount.
Connect the numerous honeybee of honeybee, namely inoculate aphidius gifuensis and breeding aphidius gifuensis, inoculate as kind of honeybee with aphidius gifuensis;
1, connect honeybee opportunity and connect the honeybee amount, connect honeybee when the acyrthosiphum pisim amount in the strain of every basin beans reaches 1000, with the honeybee amount: aphid amount=1:100 control connects honeybee quantity; 2, connect the stiff aphid of honeybee method: a and connect the honeybee method: namely the tobacco leaf that a large amount of stiff aphids are arranged or cigarette strain are placed in numerous honeybee canopy, seek voluntarily the acyrthosiphum pisim parasitism after allowing into bee eclosion, b becomes honeybee to connect the honeybee method: be the one-tenth honeybee of collecting with suction buzzer, be released in numerous honeybee canopy, appoint into honeybee and seek voluntarily the acyrthosiphum pisim parasitism; Bee management: temperature, humidity are controlled under 22 ℃ ± 5 ℃, the suitable condition of RH70% ± 5%, through about the 10 days a large amount of stiff aphids of formation, parasitic rate reaches more than 90%, after 10-15 days, collects stiff aphid leaf and becomes honeybee to be put into the cigarette aphid that produces on the tobacco leaf of control land for growing field crops in the cigarette ground.
Wherein the field hut is bred the aphidius gifuensis step:
1, before large tracts of land is planted cigarette 45-50 days, the flue-cured tobacco land for growing field crops of selected contiguous plant was sowed wholely and is cultivated the beans strain.According to the size specification of hut of design, wholely well broad bean, pea are urged tooth by aforesaid method, be sown in the plot in two kinds of alternate mixed seeding modes of beans kind, be interrupted enriching nitrogenous fertilizer, keep the beans strain light green, and allow the breeding of migrating voluntarily of the existing pea aphid in field; 2, on the plot that cultivates the beans strain, build the hut of breeding aphidius gifuensis by the ground block size, treat in the canopy that the beans strain grows when vigorous, from large temperature canopy or nearby, gather pea aphid kind in the farmland, by the method that in booth, connects aphid, with the amount inoculation acyrthosiphum pisim of 15-20 of every strain beans strain inoculations; 3, during the breeding acyrthosiphum pisim, by fertilizer irrigation, make in the canopy soil conservation moistening, the beans strain is stood upright vigorous, and to the acyrthosiphum pisim on the plant by striking the bat mode, make its distributing homogeneity; 4, connect the numerous honeybee of honeybee, the individual plant aphid amount in the beans strain of observing reaches 300 when above, can adopt and connect the identical technology of the numerous honeybee of honeybee with large temperature canopy and finish and connect the operation of the numerous honeybee of honeybee in the hut, from large temperature canopy, gather kind of a honeybee, press aphidius gifuensis: the amount of acyrthosiphum pisim=1:50, aphidius gifuensis is put in the beans strain of covering with aphid, observe stiff aphid and form in a large number, or become honeybee to sprout wings in a large number, in time bulk storage is prevented and treated the tobacco leaf aphid in large stretch of vega.
Do kind of an aphid kind honeybee child care step and be for breeding acyrthosiphum pisim and aphidius gifuensis next year: build large temperature canopy and the equipment that installs an air-conditioner with the PC plate, make environment temperature, humidity be controlled at 22 ℃ ± 5 ℃, RH70% ± 5%, adopt with aforesaid broad bean, pea as numerous aphid host plant, take acyrthosiphum pisim as the host aphid, aphidius gifuensis of breeding aphidius gifuensis as three identical steps of kind of honeybee, child care kind aphid kind honeybee.
Advantage of the present invention is: do not pass aphid and do not pass the main distinction that poison is this breeding bee method and other breeding bee method.Its main feature shows: the one, and the acyrthosiphum pisim flue-cured tobacco of not causing harm is not propagated tobacco virus; The host plant of breeding acyrthosiphum pisim is not propagated tobacco virus yet.The 2nd, numerous honeybee cycle is shorter, approximately 2 months, can utilize the nursery pond of vacating behind the flue-cured tobacco transplanting numerous honeybee of growing seedlings; The 3rd, numerous honeybee efficient is higher, cost is lower, continue honeybee, operational administrative is easy, and numerous honeybee expense saves 1/3 than cigarette strain breeding bee method.
Embodiment
A kind of method with acyrthosiphum pisim cigarette substitute aphid scale breeding aphidius gifuensis, mainly be to exist with flue-cured tobacco and cigarette aphid breeding aphidius gifuensis for present: easily cause anthropochory's cigarette aphid during the stiff aphid of bulk storage, propagate tobacco virus, lower, the numerous honeybee cost of numerous honeybee efficient is higher etc., and problem is studied.Do not pass aphid and pass the main distinction that poison is this breeding bee method and other breeding bee method.Its main feature shows: the one, and the acyrthosiphum pisim flue-cured tobacco of not causing harm is not propagated tobacco virus; The host plant of breeding acyrthosiphum pisim is not propagated tobacco virus yet.The 2nd, numerous honeybee cycle is shorter, approximately 2 months, can utilize the nursery pond of vacating behind the flue-cured tobacco transplanting numerous honeybee of growing seedlings; The 3rd, numerous honeybee efficient is higher, cost is lower.
Like parasitism, be easy to prolific acyrthosiphum pisim cigarette substitute aphid breeding aphidius gifuensis with the flue-cured tobacco of not causing harm, aphidius gifuensis.Take food, be easy to the broad bean, pea of large scale cultivating not propagate tobacco virus, acyrthosiphum pisim hobby as numerous aphid host plant.
One, numerous honeybee in the seedling raising greenhouse
1. cultivate the beans strain
1.1 Nutrition Soil is prepared
Plant cigarette or vegetable plot soil and all can be used for cultivating the beans strain.By every 1000kg soil, add the 200kg heap and seal fertilizer (well-rotted farmyard manure 200kg), the fused calcium magnesium phosphate 10kg of fermentation, fully mix rear heap thoroughly and seal more than the fermentation 30d, add carbendazim 100g, chlorophos 100g, fully mix thoroughly, prevent in spite of illness worm of soil.Seal recycling after the fermentation with the Nutrition Soil of crossing the by above-mentioned fertilizer ratio heap.Be that 25.0cm, high flowerpot for 25.0cm are for subsequent use with the ready Nutrition Soil diameter of packing into.
1.2 sowing broad bean
To the vernalization of beans kind: buy then, anosis worm, full broad bean or pea as the beans kind from market, soaked 1-2 days with clear water, plant skin spalling, plumule and expose and namely can be used for sowing.
Sowing time: since the generation of each cigarette district cigarette aphid with put the honeybee time and be not quite similar, can according to putting the honeybee time by above-mentioned numerous reckoning sowing time in honeybee cycle, to guarantee when the cigarette aphid appears in vega in a large number, breeding a large amount of aphidius gifuensis, let fly away in the vega, kill the cigarette aphid, avoid the cigarette aphid to the damage of tobacco leaf.
Type of seeding: with flowerpot dress soil species beans, broadcast in same flowerpot with 2 broad beans and 2 peas, each flowerpot is broadcast 4 beans kinds, is equally spaced.With beans kind push table soil, cover the approximately thick Nutrition Soil of 1cm, water while sowing, make Nutrition Soil fully moistening.Energy covering table soil can reduce the moisture evaporation after pea was grown up, and also can climb along the bean plant growth, took full advantage of the growing space.
1.3 control measures:
Flowerpot is put: for taking full advantage of the space, flowerpot closely is placed in together, only need reserve management channels and get final product.
Temperature raising and sunshade: for shortening seedling-growing time, take temperature raising, insulation as main, when temperature of shed surpasses 30 ℃, will in time carry out aeration-cooling between the seeding stage.Want timely sunshade after emerging, reduce intensity of illumination and temperature.
Water and fertilizer management: because the tender blade of acyrthosiphum pisim happiness food children, so the beans strain manages to keep that blade is light green, not dehydration is principle.According to the bean seedlings growing way, according to a small amount of principle fertilising repeatedly.Long when high to 3cm when bean seedlings, be watered 100kg water with 100 basins with 200g composite fertilizer and 100g urea and water and execute; Later on according to growing way every fertilising in 7-10 days once.Duty is watered, and keeps ground moistening.For reducing the moisture evaporation, after planting can be at some straw of cutting short of basin soil loam cake.
2. connect the numerous aphid of aphid
Acyrthosiphum pisim all can breed the whole year, and the farrowing amount is more than 2 times of cigarette aphid, and single female farrowing amount reaches as high as 138 under field conditions (factors).20~27 ℃ are suitable for growing of acyrthosiphum pisim most, if surpass 30 ℃, the fecundity of acyrthosiphum pisim obviously descends, and alatae produces in a large number, is unfavorable for the accumulation of acyrthosiphum pisim quantity.Strengthen sunshade and ventilated during a large amount of numerous honeybees, as long as enough beans strains are arranged and plant aphid, at short notice can a large amount of acyrthosiphum pisim of bred.
2.1 connect aphid period
After planting 40-45 days, the beans strain can be grown about 30cm, when 4-5 impeller blade is arranged, can connect aphid.Just connect aphid if the beans strain is little because the growth of the FeedingEffect beans strain of acyrthosiphum pisim, be unfavorable for the later stage acyrthosiphum pisim continue breed, the overall breeding rate of acyrthosiphum pisim is reduced.
2.2 connect the aphid amount
Numerous honeybee as early as possible connects 8-15 in the general every basin of aphid amount, if then can be brought up to 20/basin with connecing the aphid amount.
2.3 connect the aphid method
Employing is shaken off method and is connect aphid.The beans strain that clip kind aphid is more will be planted aphid and be shaken off connecing in the strain of aphid beans.Decline in the beans strain even if plant aphid, ability is strong because acyrthosiphum pisim creeps, and can climb to very soon in the beans strain.
2.4 numerous aphid management
Except carrying out according to the management of cultivating the beans strain, also should manage targetedly according to the characteristics during numerous aphid during numerous aphid.
Regulating aphid distributes: because the acyrthosiphum pisim hobby takes food at the tender position of plant children, aphid is very large on beans strain top and the lobus cardiacus, and is larger to the growth effect of beans strain, is unfavorable for the propagation of aphid.Connect aphid approximately after 1 week with the waddy beans strain top of flapping gently, the agitation acyrthosiphum pisim can make the part acyrthosiphum pisim come off.The acyrthosiphum pisim that comes off can climb back the beans strain very soon, and majority is concentrated on the lower blade and breeds, and the aphid on each plant is distributed unanimously, increases numerous aphid amount.
Strengthen water and fertilizer management: along with the growth of beans strain, its liquid manure demand strengthens, and note the management of liquid manure, guarantees that basin soil is moistening.If liquid manure is not enough, beans strain undergrowth, the wilting shape appears, and acyrthosiphum pisim can be fled from a large number.Acyrthosiphum pisim has the tender property that significantly becomes, and in time replenish nitrogenous fertilizer, makes the beans strain keep light green shape, is very necessary to the growth of acyrthosiphum pisim population quantity.
Temperature, humidity regulation: the envirment factors such as temperature, humidity not only by affecting the beans strain and then affecting acyrthosiphum pisim, also directly affect growing of acyrthosiphum pisim.Hang psychrometer in canopy, the situation of monitoring temp. and humidity by the adjusting of louver(-vre) and sunshade net, remains in the scope that suitable acyrthosiphum pisim grows temperature of shed
(22℃±5℃、)。Owing to often watering for the beans strain, humidity generally can satisfy the needs (RH70% ± 5%) that acyrthosiphum pisim grows in the canopy.When regulating temperature, humidity, also make ventilation and penetrating light in the canopy, normal powdery mildew, the aphid mildew of sending out also had good control action.
Natural enemy control: because personnel often come in and go out, and the multiple natural enemies such as aphid cocoon honeybee, ladybug, flower stinkbug, fleahopper, syrphus fly also invade canopy endoparasitism, predation acyrthosiphum pisim, the growth of acyrthosiphum pisim quantity is affected greatly during numerous aphid.Can not spray insecticide control, available electronic suction buzzer is removed, or artificial capture method.
3. connect the numerous honeybee of honeybee
The key of artificial a large amount of numerous honeybees is that enough host aphids will be arranged.If most of host aphid aphid individualities in 1 age are little, nutrients is few, can not finish behind the aphidius gifuensis parasitism and grow.And the acyrthosiphum pisim individuality is larger, if aphidius gifuensis parasitism aphid in 1 age also can be finished growth, the numerous honeybee of this character pair is very favourable.
3.1 plant honeybee
For preventing that aphidius gifuensis from producing preference to acyrthosiphum pisim, with the numerous honeybee that goes out of cigarette aphid as kind of a honeybee.
3.2 connect honeybee opportunity and connect the honeybee amount
When average aphid amount reaches 1000/basin, connect honeybee in good time.Connect the honeybee amount with honeybee: aphid 1:100 is advisable.Calculate first required kind of honeybee amount of each numerous honeybee canopy when connecing honeybee and be ready to kind of a honeybee.
3.3 connect the honeybee method
Connect the honeybee method and mainly contain 2 kinds, the one, stiff aphid connects the honeybee method, and the 2nd, become honeybee to connect the honeybee method.It is that the tobacco leaf that a large amount of stiff aphids are namely arranged or cigarette strain are placed in numerous honeybee canopy that stiff aphid connects the honeybee method, seeks voluntarily the acyrthosiphum pisim parasitism behind the one-tenth bee eclosion.Becoming honeybee to connect the honeybee method is exactly the one-tenth honeybee that suction buzzer is collected to be released to appoint into honeybee in numerous honeybee canopy and seek voluntarily the acyrthosiphum pisim parasitism.
3.4 bee management
Bee management is carried out with reference to numerous aphid management.Under optimum conditions (22 ℃ ± 5 ℃, RH70% ± 5%) can form a large amount of stiff aphids through 10 days, and parasitic rate reaches more than 90%, can collect stiff aphid leaf after 10-15 days and be gathered into honeybee control land for growing field crops cigarette aphid.
4. plant the child care of aphid kind honeybee
For guaranteeing the needs of a large amount of numerous aphids in the coming year, numerous honeybee, put then the honeybee end-of-job after, need the child care sufficient amount the kind aphid, plant honeybee.The child care time is for then by the end of July at the beginning of 4 months next years, and the child care of plant aphid, planting honeybee relates to equally cultivates host plant, host egg aphid and three steps of breeding aphidius gifuensis, and its child care is with reference to large temperature canopy breeding bee method.Temperature is than under the low environment in the winter time, and its child care work needs to carry out at the large temperature canopy of numerous honeybee of being built by the PC plate, installs an air-conditioner in the large temperature canopy, regulates temperature of shed under low temperature condition, makes it to be fit to the growing environment temperature of aphidius gifuensis and bean aphid.
Two, the numerous honeybee of field hut
Owing to adopting the numerous honeybee of acyrthosiphum pisim, not existing the biography aphid to pass malicious problem; Can start fly net when putting honeybee, appoint into honeybee and spread voluntarily, seek cigarette aphid parasitism, put honeybee and work very easy.So field hut breeding bee method can according to circumstances disperse to build the numerous honeybee of hut, put honeybee at vega, can reduce numerous honeybee cost, improves control efficiency.
1, sowing and management
In flue-cured tobacco contiguous plant land for growing field crops, the specification requirement of pressing field planting broad bean, pea, according to the whole ground of numerous honeybee hut specification, beans kind after the sowing vernalization in 45-50 days before large tracts of land is planted cigarette, broad bean, the alternate mixed seeding of pea.Aphid seldom is convenient to climbing along growth, to improve numerous aphid efficient of pea on the rear lower blade because bean plant is grown up.
After planting carry out the management such as liquid manure and damage by disease and insect by the specification requirement of field production, can suitably increase nitrogen fertilizer amount, to keep the light green of beans strain.When bean seedlings had 2 impeller blade, acyrthosiphum pisim migrated period on the occasion of the field, on the bean seedlings that usually can migrate, should let alone breeding.Ban use of insecticide.
2, build numerous honeybee hut
Use the field hut of the numerous honeybee of conventional cigarette aphid.
3, connect the numerous aphid of aphid and management
3.1 connect the aphid amount
The numerous aphid of aphid that connects of the numerous honeybee of field hut carries out with reference to the specification requirement of the numerous honeybee of large temperature canopy, and its kind aphid is provided by Da Wenpeng, also can gather in the farmland of locality.When large tracts of land cultivation in the first tenday period of a month in May cigarette was finished, numerous honeybee beans strain growth was vigorous, and year aphid ability is strong, is conducive to the growth of acyrthosiphum pisim population quantity.But the field hut is subjected to such environmental effects large, the particularly impact of rainwater and high temperature, and the acyrthosiphum pisim population quantity increases slower.So it meets many that the aphid amount should be than large temperature canopy, average every strain can connect 15-20.
3.2 numerous aphid management
Numerous aphid in the hut of field, water and fertilizer management are very important.Will guarantee ground moistening equally, moisture is sufficient, and plant is stood upright.If weather is arid, in time irrigate.If the wilting shape appears in plant, acyrthosiphum pisim can be fled from.Acyrthosiphum pisim has the tender property that significantly becomes, and has wing or aptery individuality mostly to take food at the tender leaf back side, cigarette strain top.In time replenishing nitrogenous fertilizer, make tobacco leaf keep light green shape, is very favourable to the growth of acyrthosiphum pisim population quantity.According to the distribution situation of aphid, regulate aphid with reference to the numerous aphid method of large temperature canopy and distribute.
4, connect the numerous honeybee of honeybee
The numerous honeybee of honeybee that connects of the numerous honeybee of field hut carries out with reference to the specification requirement of the numerous honeybee of large temperature canopy, when the average aphid amount of beans strain reaches 300 when above, can connect honeybee, and honeybee is provided by Da Wenpeng its kind.Adopt into that honeybee connects the honeybee method or stiff aphid connects the honeybee method, aphidius gifuensis is put into numerous honeybee canopy by the honeybee aphid about than 1:50.As meet continuous rainfall after connecing honeybee, and can cause a large amount of acyrthosiphum pisims not by parasitism, should mend after the rain and connect.Form or become honeybee to sprout wings in a large number when stiff aphid is a large amount of, timely bulk storage.Compare with the numerous honeybee of large temperature canopy, although hut numerous honeybee in field is simple and easy to do, numerous honeybee is subject to weather effect, and effect is unstable to be its deficiency.
Through repeatedly test, acyrthosiphum pisim to be received in the cigarette strain, acyrthosiphum pisim can be fled from rapidly, has not a particle of the sign that will take food the cigarette strain.So, also just do not exist acyrthosiphum pisim to propagate the problem of flue-cured tobacco virus disease.
Broad bean, pea that the acyrthosiphum pisim hobby takes food, cultivation management is easy, the more important thing is and does not propagate tobacco virus.
Because acyrthosiphum pisim is individual large, breeding aphidius gifuensis individuality out is also large, and body length is more than 2 times of cigarette aphid breeding; Egg laying amount high (lay eggs more than 400 for average every, be 2-2.5 times of cigarette aphid breeding).As kind of a honeybee, can effectively avoid aphidius gifuensis that acyrthosiphum pisim breeds out to the acyrthosiphum pisim preference with the aphidius gifuensis of cigarette aphid breeding, keep the parasitic ability to the cigarette aphid.
Because the breeding aphidius gifuensis cycle is short, approximately 2 months, according to flue-cured tobacco seedling-cultivating and breeding aphidius gifuensis time difference of growing seedlings, can utilize the nursery pond sowing of vacating behind the flue-cured tobacco transplanting, Nutrition Soil is mixed with the rear discarded nutrient solution of growing seedlings, not only utilize existing flue-cured tobacco seedling-cultivating facility, also realized twice laid; Without links such as transplanting, cultivation plant, simple and convenient management, required manpower and materials are less.From seeding and seedling raising to becoming honeybee to sprout wings in a large number only February, can breed 1.8 ten thousand of aphidius gifuensis for every square metre, numerous honeybee expense saves 1/3 than cigarette strain breeding bee method.
Near vega the breeding aphidius gifuensis not only have breeding aphidius gifuensis efficient higher, continue the characteristics such as honeybee, operational administrative be easy, and it is convenient to put honeybee, is easy to large scale application.Use propagating Aphidius gifuensis by pea aphids, do not have the problem that aphid passes poison that passes.Disperse the breeding aphidius gifuensis at vega, without removing to lift net, cover net early morning every day, management is got up easy when putting honeybee.Simultaneously, residual acyrthosiphum pisim also can become the host of other natural enemy in the canopy, is conducive to the increase of vega cigarette aphid natural enemy quantity, and the characteristics of field hut breeding aphidius gifuensis have obtained fully playing.
The large temperature canopy of numerous honeybee is with at present the flue-cured tobacco seedling-cultivating booth is basically identical, and its main difference point is that the large temperature canopy of numerous honeybee has between little numerous honeybee that gauze is divided into.The large temperature canopy of numerous honeybee is generally steel frame construction, outer cover fly net and film, and long 32 ~ 50 meters, wide 12~32 meters, 3~3.5 meters of shoulder heights, 4~5 meters of sagitta, 600~1024 square metres of construction areas.Can be according to the selected relative dimensions of actual conditions design.Around the net canopy that is divided into by gauze in the booth and top all adopts 60 * 35 order fly nets to cover.The requirement permeability is good, can prevent effectively that budworm and bud cocoon honeybee from escaping; Net canopy door folding dependable performance, convenient to use.
The little net canopy in the field of numerous honeybee is installed among the field, and requirement should have certain windproof property, is difficult for by easily dismounting carrying.Net canopy skeleton all adopts ∮ 25 * 1.2 galvanizing pipe crimpings to make.Require the anti-corrosion ability good, steel construction piece requires to adopt screw and fastener to connect, and is convenient to install and dismounting, can be repeatedly used, and is easy to transportation; Field little net canopy length 3M, width 3M, height 1.9M, shoulder height 1.3M; Net canopy two ends respectively arranges the net canopy door that one 1.0M is wide, the high both sides of 1.8M are slide fastener.Around the net canopy and top all adopts 60 * 35 order fly nets to cover.The requirement permeability is good, can prevent effectively that budworm and bud cocoon honeybee from escaping; Net canopy door folding dependable performance, convenient to use.

Claims (4)

1. the method for propagating Aphidius gifuensis by pea aphids, it is characterized in that adopting two kinds of facilities of seedling raising greenhouse and field hut, with broad bean, pea as numerous aphid host plant, with acyrthosiphum pisim as breeding aphidius gifuensis host aphid, through cultivating the beans strain, connect the numerous aphid of aphid, connecing the measure of the numerous beekeeping equipment body technique of honeybee and breed aphidius gifuensis for vega control tobacco leaf aphid.
2. the method for propagating Aphidius gifuensis by pea aphids according to claim 1 is characterized in that seedling raising greenhouse breeding aphidius gifuensis step is:
Cultivate the beans strain, 1, presses first 1000Kg soil, the proportioning feeding that adds 200Kg well-rotted farmyard manure, 10Kg fused calcium magnesium phosphate, fully mix be mixed even, the heap sealing the fermentation be no less than 30 days, add again 100g carbendazim, 100g chlorophos, mix is even, to the Nutrition Soil pesticide and disinfectant, make Nutrition Soil, for subsequent use in the flowerpot that Nutrition Soil is packed into the diameter got ready and height dimension are 25.0cm again; 2, with broad bean, pea as cultivating numerous aphid host plant, choose then that anosis worm, the broad bean of full seed, the pea of results are the beans kind, soaked 1-2 days with clear water, treat the skin of beancurd spalling, sow when exposing plumule; 3, type of seeding is that each flowerpot is broadcast 4 beans kinds, is equally spaced, and the beans kind is pressed in the topsoil, covers the thick Nutrition Soil of 1cm again, in time waters, and makes Nutrition Soil fully moistening, with the seeding method with two broad beans of basin, two peas; 4, flowerpot is put with tight snap rectangle in canopy, leaves the passage of convenient management; 5, temperature control is at 22 ℃ ± 5 ℃ in the canopy between the seeding stage, if temperature of shed is in time aeration-cooling above 30 ℃, the tender seedling of sun burns is avoided in the rear timely sunshade of emerging; 6, water and fertilizer management is when bean seedlings length is high to 3cm, with 100 flowerpots special-purpose N:P of 200g tobacco 2O 5: K 2The mixed liquor that the composite fertilizer of O=1:1:1 and 100g urea are watered 100Kg waters to be executed; Execute afterwards the rich water of said method preparation every 7-10 days once, and cover the straw of cutting short at basin soil, prevent the covering of moisture rapid evaporation;
Connect the numerous aphid of aphid, 1, the beans kind sow after 40-45 days, the beans strain is long to about the 30cm height, when the 4-5 impeller blade is arranged, adopts method, inoculates aphid, i.e. the more beans strain of clip kind aphid will be planted aphid and be shaken off in aphid beans waiting strain, 8-15 kind aphids of every basin inoculation; 2, connect aphid after one week, pat beans strain top with waddy, agitation beans strain top aphid comes off the part bean aphid, makes it get back to voluntarily beans strain lower blade from the pelvic surface of sacrum soil of falling and breeds, and beans strain top and the bottom aphid distributes relatively even; 3, observe beans strain growing state, replenish nitrogenous fertilizer and moisture in good time, keep the light green of beans strain blade, satisfy the tender habit requirement of becoming of bean aphid, guarantee that the bean aphid population quantity constantly increases; 4, temperature, humidity regulation are hung the psychrometer of monitor temperature, humidity in canopy, and cloth sunshade net, the measure of watering on ceiling and canopy side opening transom, the canopy make the interior temperature of canopy, humidity be controlled at 22 ℃ ± 5 ℃, RH70% ± 5%; 5, natural enemy control adopts electronic suction buzzer removing or artificial capture method to sneak into the natural enemy of aphid of the interior ladybug of canopy, flower stinkbug, fleahopper, syrphus fly class, guarantees the growth of acyrthosiphum pisim breeding amount;
Connect the numerous honeybee of honeybee, namely inoculate aphidius gifuensis and breeding aphidius gifuensis, inoculate as kind of honeybee with aphidius gifuensis;
1, connect honeybee opportunity and connect the honeybee amount, connect honeybee when the acyrthosiphum pisim amount in the strain of every basin beans reaches 1000, with the honeybee amount: aphid amount=1:100 control connects honeybee quantity; 2, connect the stiff aphid of honeybee method: a and connect the honeybee method: namely the tobacco leaf that a large amount of stiff aphids are arranged or cigarette strain are placed in numerous honeybee canopy, seek voluntarily the acyrthosiphum pisim parasitism after allowing into bee eclosion, b becomes honeybee to connect the honeybee method: be the one-tenth honeybee of collecting with suction buzzer, be released in numerous honeybee canopy, appoint into honeybee and seek voluntarily the acyrthosiphum pisim parasitism; Bee management: temperature, humidity are controlled under 22 ℃ ± 5 ℃, the suitable condition of RH70% ± 5%, form a large amount of stiff aphids through about 10 days, parasitic rate reaches more than 90%, after 10-15 days, collects stiff aphid leaf and becomes honeybee to be put into and prevent and treat land for growing field crops cigarette aphid in the cigarette ground.
3. the method for propagating Aphidius gifuensis by pea aphids according to claim 2, it is characterized in that field hut breeding aphidius gifuensis step: 1, before large tracts of land is planted cigarette 45-50 days, the flue-cured tobacco land for growing field crops of selected contiguous plant, sow wholely and cultivate the beans strain, size specification according to the hut that designs, whole well, broad bean, pea are urged tooth by aforesaid method, be sown in the plot in two kinds of alternate mixed seeding modes of beans kind, be interrupted and enrich nitrogenous fertilizer, keep the beans strain light green, and allow the breeding of migrating voluntarily of the existing pea aphid in field; 2, on the plot that cultivates the beans strain, build the hut of breeding aphidius gifuensis by the ground block size, treat in the canopy that the beans strain grows when vigorous, from large temperature canopy or nearby, gather pea aphid kind in the farmland, by the method that in booth, connects aphid, with the amount inoculation acyrthosiphum pisim of 15-20 of every strain beans strain inoculations; 3, during the breeding acyrthosiphum pisim, by fertilizer irrigation, make in the canopy soil conservation moistening, the beans strain is stood upright vigorous, and to the acyrthosiphum pisim on the plant by striking the bat mode, it is evenly distributed; 4, connect the numerous honeybee of honeybee, the individual plant aphid amount in the beans strain of observing reaches 300 when above, can adopt and connect the identical technology of the numerous honeybee of honeybee with large temperature canopy and finish and connect the operation of the numerous honeybee of honeybee in the hut, from large temperature canopy, gather kind of a honeybee, press aphidius gifuensis: the amount of acyrthosiphum pisim=1:50, aphidius gifuensis is put in the beans strain of covering with aphid, observe stiff aphid and form in a large number, or become honeybee to sprout wings in a large number, timely bulk storage.
4. the method for propagating Aphidius gifuensis by pea aphids according to claim 1 and 2, it is characterized in that for doing kind of an aphid kind honeybee child care step next year being: build large temperature canopy and the equipment that installs an air-conditioner with the PC plate, make environment temperature, humidity be controlled at 22 ℃ ± 5 ℃, RH70% ± 5%, adopt with the strain of aforesaid cultivation beans, connect the numerous aphid of aphid and connect three identical steps of the numerous honeybee aphidius gifuensis of honeybee, child care kind aphid kind honeybee.
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