CN103210764A - Double-cropping greenhouse cultivation method for xiangfei grapes - Google Patents

Double-cropping greenhouse cultivation method for xiangfei grapes Download PDF

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CN103210764A
CN103210764A CN2013101273340A CN201310127334A CN103210764A CN 103210764 A CN103210764 A CN 103210764A CN 2013101273340 A CN2013101273340 A CN 2013101273340A CN 201310127334 A CN201310127334 A CN 201310127334A CN 103210764 A CN103210764 A CN 103210764A
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fruit
season
grape
year
grapes
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CN103210764B (en
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徐海英
张国军
闫爱玲
孙磊
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INSTITUTE OF FORESTRY AND FRUIT BEIJING ACADEMY OF AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY SCIENCES
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INSTITUTE OF FORESTRY AND FRUIT BEIJING ACADEMY OF AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY SCIENCES
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Abstract

The invention discloses a double-cropping greenhouse cultivation method for xiangfei grapes, which is used for cultivating xiangfei grapes in a double-cropping manner by adopting an independent main horizontal vine shaping way in the greenhouse. The double-cropping greenhouse cultivation method for xiangfei grapes specifically comprises the following steps of (1), cultivating first-season grapes, wherein winter pruning is carried out within 20-30 days after harvesting the fruits in the previous year, one fruited cane is selected and remained every 15cm-25cm, and the short cranes with two to three buds are pruned; lime nitrogen is used for accelerating germination after the pruning, the young sprouts are tied vertical to the main vane, the six to eight leaves of the young sprouts are remained and pinched according to the inflorescence before flowering; theone to two leaves of the side sprouts are remained and pinched, one to twoclusters are remained for each sprout, and the clusters are mature in the last ten-day period of June to the first ten-day period of July; and(2), cultivating second-season grapes, wherein summer pruning is carried out at the end of July or at the beginning of August, middle sprouts with four to seven buds are remained for the young sprouts and pinched; the lime nitrogen is used for accelerating germination after the pruning; six clusters are remained per square meter; and the second-season grapes are mature and harvested in the last ten-day period of December. The grapes produced by the double-cropping greenhouse cultivation method for xiangfei grapes are excellent in quality, obvious in anti-season effect, high in sale price, considerable in economic benefits and capable of achieving dependable crop every year.

Description

Fragrant prince wife's grape two crops a year greenhouse culture method
Technical field
The present invention relates to field of plant growing technology, particularly relate to fragrant prince wife's grape two crops a year greenhouse culture method.
Background technology
The price influence that Time To Market is sold grape is bigger, and the grape that anti-season is produced has good economic benefits.In existing 1 year two season wine-growing technology, Zhang Xinhua etc. have realized the not double-cropped outdoor cropping of thunder currant, the first season fruit early July maturation, the second season fruit late October maturation; Liu Jinbiao etc. make kyoto grape fruit first season maturation in July, and the second season, fruit was in the maturation in November; Fan Lihua etc. make kyoto grape fruit first season mid-July ripe, and two seasons, fruit was in the mid or late November maturation.
Above-mentioned 1 year two season of existing grape, all there were two problems in the kind method for planting: 1) two season grape maturation time short at interval, there is not sufficient time accumulative total nutriment, can influence the quality and yield of the grape second season, even can influence the grape quality and the output in the coming year, can't accomplish stable yields every year; 2) the grape fruit that goes on the market when July and October, November is more, can't obtain good anti-season economic benefit.
Summary of the invention
The purpose of this invention is to provide fragrant prince wife's grape two crops a year greenhouse culture method, assurance 1 year two season of grape is stabilization result every year, and widens the double-cropped time interval of grape, improves the ripe amplitude of anti-season, has increased economic benefit.
Fragrant prince wife's grape two crops a year greenhouse culture method of the present invention is cultivated fragrant prince wife's grape for adopting the climing shaping mode of independent trunk level dragon to yield two crops a year in the greenhouse, concrete grammar is as follows:
(1) first season really
Clear immediately garden, sterilization behind the winter the previous year fruit harvesting; 20-30 asparagus fern behind the fruit harvesting is cut, and every 15-25cm 1 bearing basal shoot of selecting and remain, bearing basal shoot stayed the short cane pruning of 2-3 bud when the winter cut; Winter is used calcium cyanamide vernalization after cutting immediately, and the tip is decided in the back bud picking of germinateing; After growing young sprout, young sprout is perpendicular to main climing bondage, before blooming to young sprout by staying 6-8 sheet leaf to carry out pinching more than the inflorescence, the sublateral shoot that begins from base portion on the young sprout all keeps the pinching of 1-2 sheet leaf, the sublateral shoot that top 1-2 bud is sent out after the young sprout pinching stays the pinching of 3-4 leaf; Stay 1-2 fruit ear behind the setting on each young sprout; First season fruit is gathered after late June to early July maturation;
(2) second season really
Clear immediately garden after really gathering the first season; By the end of July or cut early summer in August, remove all growing points on young sprout and the sublateral shoot, and the young sprout of green sprouting is then stayed the middle tip pruning of 4-7 bud; Summer is used calcium cyanamide vernalization after cutting immediately, and irrigating a water after the vernalization increases humidity in the greenhouse, and day temperature is no more than 30 degrees centigrade in the control greenhouse, and after beginning inflorescence to occur, every square meter stays 5-6 fruit ear; Second season fruit in mid or late December maturation gather.
Fragrant prince wife's grape two crops a year greenhouse culture method of the present invention also comprises rich water quality management:
Base manure applies behind the garden clearly for each, and the fertilizer 100kg that becomes thoroughly decomposed is executed in each every strain, and ditch spread or face are executed, and ditch depth 30-40cm during ditch spread waters permeable behind each basal dressing;
Topdress to really spreading fertilizer over the fields composite fertilizer per season 1 time, 100-150g is executed in every strain, topdresses after fruit is occupied stably, and waters permeable after topdressing.
Wherein, the climing shaping mode of independent trunk level dragon for main climing on every 15-25cm 1 bearing basal shoot of selecting and remain, bearing basal shoot stays the short cane pruning of 2-3 bud, young sprout is perpendicular to main climing bondage, bloom before to young sprout by staying 6-8 sheet leaf to carry out pinching more than the inflorescence, the sublateral shoot that begins from base portion on the young sprout all keeps the pinching of 1-2 sheet leaf; The sublateral shoot that top 1-2 bud is sent out after the young sprout pinching stays the pinching of 3-4 leaf.
Wherein, the spacing in the rows of described fragrant prince wife's grape is 2-3m.
Wherein, described clear garden is remaining fruit of cleaning and dead-arm leaf.
Wherein, described sterilization is sprayed plant for the penta sodium pentachlorophenate aqueous solution and 5 Baume Lime Sulphur with mass percent 0.3%.
Wherein, described calcium cyanamide vernalization stirs evenly and leaves standstill 5 hours for calcium cyanamide is joined in 40 degrees centigrade of warm water of 4-5 times of volume, and the use supernatant is smeared the hibernaculum on the bearing basal shoot.
Wherein, the tip is decided in described bud picking, divides and carries out for 3 times, the 1st time indefinite bud, 1~2 weak bud of bearing basal shoot base portion erased, the 2nd time the accessory bud and the extremely strong prosperous tip erased, after occupying stably fruit, overstocked, excessive growth, the bad branch of bearing fruit are cut for the 3rd time, and branch evenly tied up, guarantee frame face ventilation and penetrating light.
Wherein, the fruit ear of described reservation need be plucked excessive long secondary fringe and fork shoulder, pinches the fringe point that removes full fringe 1/5~1/4, and needs fruit ear is made into cylindrical when fruit soya bean size, dredges fruitlet, malformed fruit, and every fringe stays 40~50 of fruits.
The present invention also comprises the application of described fragrant prince wife's grape two crops a year greenhouse culture method in viticulture.
The present invention utilizes the season of growth in greenhouse to prolong and the second fruiting technology, realizes grape twice production in 1 year, and its advantage is:
1, the ripe Time To Market of first season fruit is mid or late June, and soluble solid content is more than 18%, and the second season ripe listing phase of fruit, fruit quality was excellent in mid or late December, two season the grape fresh fruit all can satisfy the urbanite demand is plucked in the sightseeing of high-quality grape.
2, the grape variety of mid or late June and mid or late December listing is few, and the anti-season effect is obvious, the selling price height, and economic benefit is very considerable.
3, the first season and the second season grape maturation time 6 months at interval, sufficient accumulated time nutrient is arranged, promptly guaranteed the quality and yield of each grape in season, more can not influence the grape production in the coming year.
Embodiment
Embodiment 1:
2009-2012, greenhouse by solar heat is tested in Inst. of Forestry ﹠ Fruit Tree, Beijing City Academy of Agricultural ﹠. Forestry, the long 70m of greenhouse by solar heat, span is 8m, experimental subjects be 2005 at one of greenhouse south positions field planting prince wife's grape (public grape variety of holding or participate in a prayer service at a temple, cottage propagation), 2.5 meters of spacing in the rows, shaping mode are the climing shaping of independent trunk level dragon, short cane pruning, main climing along the north-south growth, young sprout is perpendicular to main climing bondage.Offer a ventilation strip at the top, greenhouse and be convenient to control temp. and humidity in the greenhouse.
1. really manage the first season:
1) prunes
Clear immediately garden, sterilization behind the winter fruit harvesting.
Clear garden: remaining fruit of cleaning and deadwood, the residual shoot blight leaf on ground is cleaned out, concentrate and burn.
Sterilization: the penta sodium pentachlorophenate aqueous solution (the penta sodium pentachlorophenate powder is available from Beijing Bo Aoke skill Development Co., Ltd) and 5 Baume Lime Sulphur (lime sulfur is available from the many nations in Beijing bio tech ltd) sprinkling plant with mass percent 0.3% are eliminated the germ that survives the winter, and reduce disease and take place.
Carried out the winter in 20-30 behind the fruit harvesting days and cut, when the winter cuts every 15-25cm, 1 bearing basal shoot of selecting and remain, bearing basal shoot stays the short cane pruning of 2-3 bud.
2) vernalization
Winter cut after vernalization immediately: calcium cyanamide (benefiting agricultural Science and Technology Ltd. available from sky, Beijing) is added in the warm water of 4-5 times of volume, about 40 degrees centigrade of water temperature after fully stirring, leaves standstill more than 5 hours, use then on the bearing basal shoot hibernaculum after supernatant is smeared pruning, early Febuary germinates.
3) tip is decided in bud picking
Divide and to carry out for 3 times: the 1st time indefinite bud, 1~2 weak bud of bearing basal shoot base portion erased; The 2nd time the accessory bud and the extremely strong prosperous tip erased; After occupying stably fruit, as early as possible overstocked, excessive growth, the bad branch of bearing fruit are cut for the 3rd time, and branch is evenly tied up, guarantee frame face ventilation and penetrating light.
4) pinching and sublateral shoot management
Before blooming to young sprout by staying the pinching of 6-8 sheet leaf more than the inflorescence,, the sublateral shoot that begins from base portion on each young sprout all keeps the pinching of 1-2 sheet leaf; The sublateral shoot that top 1-2 bud is sent out after the leading shoot pinching stays the pinching of 3-4 leaf.
5) flower and fruit management
Stay 1-2 fringe fruit on each young sprout, and pluck excessive long secondary fringe and fork shoulder, pinch the fringe point of full fringe 1/5~1/4 again.Occupy stably back when size (soya bean) at fruit and carry out fruit thinning, fruit ear is made into cylindrical, dredge fruitlet, malformed fruit, every fringe stays 40~50 of fruits to get final product.
6) rich water quality management (per season really)
Base manure: the 100kg fertilizer (available from Gaocheng, Hebei happiness star fertilizer Co., Ltd) that becomes thoroughly decomposed is executed in every strain, ditch spread, and ditch depth 30-40cm applies after fruit picking, waters permeable after the fertilising.
Topdress: (available from gold soil, Beijing composite fertilizer Co., Ltd, brand: Bao Nongbao) 1 time, 100-150g is executed in each every strain, waters permeable after topdressing to spread fertilizer over the fields composite fertilizer after fruit is occupied stably.
7) extermination of disease and insect pest
Based on lime sulfur.Want clear garden thorough when cutting, all residual bodies of grape branches and tendrils are comprised that full scale clearances such as tendril (on ground, the frame), deadwood, fallen leaves are clean, clean ground in the whole greenhouse with whisk broom in the winter.After cleaning out, medicine is sprayed in full garden, and seals ground with useless canopy film.Before intensification, divest Lao Pi, and burn, use lime sulfur (available from the many nations in Beijing bio tech ltd) the brushing plant (except the eye) of high concentration subsequently, use the full garden spray cloth of lime sulfur (available from the many nations in Beijing bio tech ltd) again in the rudiment initial stage (sprout reveals green).Rudiment can be hung yellow plate early stage under grape trellis, force down the quantity of the leafhopper that survives the winter.
8) gather
First season fruit late June to the early July maturation, gather.
2. really manage the second season:
1) prunes
After really gathering the first season, clear immediately garden.By the end of July or carry out the summer at the beginning of 8 months and cut, remove all growing points on young sprout and the sublateral shoot when summer cuts, according to concrete tree vigo(u)r situation, the young sprout of green sprouting then adopts and stays the middle tip of 4-7 bud to prune, the suitable bud that stays of Qiang Wangshu more.
2) vernalization
Calcium cyanamide (benefiting agricultural Science and Technology Ltd. available from sky, Beijing) is added in the warm water of 4-5 times of volume, about 40 degrees centigrade of water temperature after fully stirring, leaves standstill more than 5 hours, uses first bud of top after supernatant is smeared pruning then.Irrigate water after the vernalization one time, improve air humidity in the greenhouse, day temperature is no more than 30 degrees centigrade in the control greenhouse, begins rudiment after handling a week, and after beginning inflorescence to occur, every square meter stays 6 fruit ears, after this other control measures with the first season really.
The first season in 2010, average simple grain weighed 6.8g really in maturation on June 20, the heavy 562g of average single fringe, solid content 19.2%.Whole greenhouse first season about 1050 kilograms of fruit output, 30 yuan/jin of selling prices, the second season, fruit was in maturation on December 5, the heavy 5.1g of average simple grain, the heavy 392g of average single fringe, solid content 17.8%, whole greenhouse second season about 550 kilograms of fruit output, 30 yuan/jin of selling prices.
The first season in 2011, average simple grain weighed 6.6g really in maturation on June 29, the heavy 486g of average single fringe, solid content 18.6%.Whole greenhouse first season about 980 kilograms of fruit output, the second season fruit in maturation on December 10, the heavy 5g of average simple grain, the heavy 380g of average single fringe, solid content 17.5%, about 500 kilograms of whole greenhouse fruit second season output.
The first season in 2012, average simple grain weighed 7.1g, the heavy solid content 18.2% of average single fringe really in maturation on July 1.Whole greenhouse first season about 900 kilograms of fruit output, the second season fruit in maturation on December 15, the heavy 4.8g of average simple grain, the heavy 352g of average single fringe, solid content 16.8%, about 550 kilograms of whole greenhouse fruit second season output.
This shows that method of the present invention can make grape yield two crops a year, stable yields, and fruit quality every year is excellent, and the anti-season effect is obvious, the selling price height.
Explanation is at last, above embodiment is only unrestricted in order to technical scheme of the present invention to be described, although the present invention is had been described in detail with reference to preferred embodiment, those of ordinary skill in the art is to be understood that, can carry out the modification in the parameter area or be equal to replacement technical scheme of the present invention, and not breaking away from the aim and the scope of technical solution of the present invention, it all should be encompassed in the middle of the claim scope of the present invention.

Claims (9)

1. fragrant prince wife's grape two crops a year greenhouse culture method is cultivated fragrant prince wife's grape for adopting the climing shaping mode of independent trunk level dragon to yield two crops a year in the greenhouse, concrete grammar is as follows:
1) first season really
Clear immediately garden, sterilization behind the winter the previous year fruit harvesting; 20-30 asparagus fern behind the fruit harvesting is cut, and every 15-25cm 1 bearing basal shoot of selecting and remain, bearing basal shoot stayed the short cane pruning of 2-3 bud when the winter cut; Winter is used calcium cyanamide vernalization after cutting immediately, and the tip is decided in the back bud picking of germinateing; After growing young sprout, young sprout is perpendicular to main climing bondage, before blooming to young sprout by staying 6-8 sheet leaf to carry out pinching more than the inflorescence, the sublateral shoot that begins from base portion on the young sprout all keeps the pinching of 1-2 sheet leaf, the sublateral shoot that top 1-2 bud is sent out after the young sprout pinching stays the pinching of 3-4 leaf; Stay 1-2 fruit ear behind the setting on each young sprout; First season fruit is gathered after late June to early July maturation;
2) second season really
Clear immediately garden after really gathering the first season; By the end of July or cut early summer in August, remove all growing points on young sprout and the sublateral shoot, and the young sprout of green sprouting is then stayed the middle tip pruning of 4-7 bud; Summer is used calcium cyanamide vernalization after cutting immediately, and irrigating a water after the vernalization increases humidity in the greenhouse, and day temperature is no more than 30 degrees centigrade in the control greenhouse, and after beginning inflorescence to occur, every square meter stays 5-6 fruit ear; Second season fruit in mid or late December maturation gather.
2. fragrant prince wife's grape two crops a year greenhouse culture method according to claim 1 also comprises rich water quality management:
Base manure applies behind the garden clearly for each, and the fertilizer 100kg that becomes thoroughly decomposed is executed in each every strain, and ditch spread or face are executed, and ditch depth 30-40cm during ditch spread waters permeable behind each basal dressing;
Topdress to really spreading fertilizer over the fields composite fertilizer per season 1 time, 100-150g is executed in every strain, topdresses after fruit is occupied stably, and waters permeable after topdressing.
3. fragrant prince wife's grape two crops a year greenhouse culture method according to claim 1 is characterized in that the spacing in the rows of described fragrant prince wife's grape is 2-3m.
4. fragrant prince wife's grape two crops a year greenhouse culture method according to claim 1 is characterized in that, described clear garden is remaining fruit of cleaning and dead-arm leaf.
5. fragrant prince wife's grape two crops a year greenhouse culture method according to claim 1 is characterized in that, described sterilization is sprayed plant for the penta sodium pentachlorophenate aqueous solution and 5 Baume Lime Sulphur with mass percent 0.3%.
6. fragrant prince wife's grape two crops a year greenhouse culture method according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, described calcium cyanamide vernalization stirs evenly and leaves standstill 5 hours for calcium cyanamide is joined in 40 degrees centigrade of warm water of 4-5 times of volume, and the use supernatant is smeared the hibernaculum on the bearing basal shoot.
7. fragrant prince wife's grape two crops a year greenhouse culture method according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, the tip is decided in described bud picking, divide and carry out for 3 times, the 1st time indefinite bud, 1~2 weak bud of bearing basal shoot base portion erased, the 2nd time the accessory bud and the extremely strong prosperous tip erased, after occupying stably fruit, overstocked, excessive growth, the bad branch of bearing fruit are cut for the 3rd time, and branch evenly tied up, guarantee frame face ventilation and penetrating light.
8. fragrant prince wife's grape two crops a year greenhouse culture method according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, the fruit ear of described reservation, need pluck excessive long secondary fringe and fork shoulder, pinch the fringe point that removes full fringe 1/5~1/4, and need fruit ear is made into cylindrical in fruit soya bean when size, dredge fruitlet, malformed fruit, every fringe stays 40~50 of fruits.
9. each described fragrant prince wife's grape two crops a year greenhouse culture method application in viticulture of claim 1-8.
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CN103444452A (en) * 2013-09-09 2013-12-18 镇江万山红遍农业园 Method for promoting grape fruitage and parent branch sprouting orderliness
CN103766189A (en) * 2014-01-17 2014-05-07 贵州亿众生物柴油开发有限公司 Viticulture method with efficient and circulating fruiting
CN104082083A (en) * 2014-07-03 2014-10-08 青岛曹村草莓专业合作社 Double-cropping cultivating technology for grapes in solar greenhouse in north with flower and fruit non-overlapping
CN104126478A (en) * 2014-02-14 2014-11-05 白先进 Grape double cropping cultivation method
CN104488650A (en) * 2014-12-12 2015-04-08 湖南富利园生态农业科技有限公司 Management method for second-season fruits of grape vines
CN104969826A (en) * 2015-06-17 2015-10-14 柳州市盛鑫隆花卉种植专业合作社 Planting method for promoting grapes to yield two crops a year
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CN105724166A (en) * 2016-02-29 2016-07-06 刘冠义 Greenhouse grape single-mother-vine fruiting successive-year double-cropping cultivation method
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CN109089717A (en) * 2018-08-27 2018-12-28 镇江万山红遍农业园 A kind of cultural method improving the grape abloom rate to yield two crops a year
CN110521486A (en) * 2019-10-15 2019-12-03 石河子农业科学研究院 Vinegrowing technology under the conditions of the two-film-layer of northern cold area
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CN103444452A (en) * 2013-09-09 2013-12-18 镇江万山红遍农业园 Method for promoting grape fruitage and parent branch sprouting orderliness
CN103766189A (en) * 2014-01-17 2014-05-07 贵州亿众生物柴油开发有限公司 Viticulture method with efficient and circulating fruiting
CN103766189B (en) * 2014-01-17 2015-08-19 贵州亿众生物柴油开发有限公司 A kind of grape cultivation method of efficient circulation result
CN104126478A (en) * 2014-02-14 2014-11-05 白先进 Grape double cropping cultivation method
CN104126478B (en) * 2014-02-14 2016-06-22 白先进 Cultural method received by a kind of Fructus Vitis viniferae 1 year two
CN104082083A (en) * 2014-07-03 2014-10-08 青岛曹村草莓专业合作社 Double-cropping cultivating technology for grapes in solar greenhouse in north with flower and fruit non-overlapping
CN105359926A (en) * 2014-09-01 2016-03-02 肖卷忠 Planting method for grape
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