CN106416919B - Greenhouse selenium-rich grape 1 year is double ripe to abound with implantation methods - Google Patents

Greenhouse selenium-rich grape 1 year is double ripe to abound with implantation methods Download PDF

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CN106416919B
CN106416919B CN201610597915.4A CN201610597915A CN106416919B CN 106416919 B CN106416919 B CN 106416919B CN 201610597915 A CN201610597915 A CN 201610597915A CN 106416919 B CN106416919 B CN 106416919B
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bud
grape
branch
year
watering
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CN106416919A (en
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刘宗坤
刘志
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/02Cultivation of hops or vines

Abstract

The invention belongs to vinegrowing technical fields, and in particular to a kind of greenhouse selenium-rich grape 1 year is double ripe to abound with implantation methods, comprising the following steps: whole soil, fertilising in canopy;Trench digging is standby to plant;It is steady and sure to plant seedling;Watering, overburden soil epiphragma;Select bud support;Branch is tied up in bud picking;Fertilizing, watering;Spray bactericide;Remove canopy film;Dormant pruning;Temperature raising is broken to sleep, waters;Apply fertilizer temperature control;Long hair is pinched in bud picking;Florescence temperature control;Fertilising sterilization;Young fruit period and fruit growth period;Picking fruit;Restore tree vigo(u)r;Trimming updates;Pinching promotees differentiation;The fruit branch growing season management of two seasons;Florescence temperature control;Fertilising sterilization;Young fruit period and fruit growth period;Fructescence;Update circulation.The invention has the advantages that: 1 year double seasons maturations, improve yield;Selenium-rich quality is good;Health, it is nuisanceless;It is at low cost, saving of labor's high financial profit.

Description

Greenhouse selenium-rich grape 1 year is double ripe to abound with implantation methods
Technical field
The invention belongs to vinegrowing technical fields, and in particular to a kind of greenhouse selenium-rich grape 1 year is double ripe to abound with plantation side Method.
Background technique
Grape is one of the Main Cultivation fruit tree in China, has more than 2000 years cultivation histories in China.Its fruits nutrition Value is high, and fresh fruit sugar content is that 10-30% is favored by people containing there are many minerals and vitamins beneficial to human body.
It is also the development course for having had decades that grape is planted in greenhouse, either outdoor or greenhouse planting patterns, Original cropping pattern a: Nian Dingzhi is mostly used greatly, and 2 years strong sprouts get bumper crops, decline phase, a year's harvest are entered after 7 or eight years for 3 years A ripe season.It is just still also such mode in greenhouse, 1 year season is mature.Greenhouse facility and soil are not only wasted in this way Efficient resource, nor better economic benefit can be reached.In addition, the maturity period Relatively centralized of grape, causes to produce prosperous Season supply is excessive, production dull season, supply falls short of demand, and selenium-rich grape just not fresh especially during the Spring Festival in winter can be picked, sternly Economic benefit is affected again.Therefore, off-season production is carried out to grape, effectively control accomplishes that the phase in the Spring Festival lists.To raising grape The red-letter day life of economic benefit, abundant people starts the precedent of grape-picking during the Spring Festival in winter, accelerates greenhouse and greenhouse selenium-rich The development of grape industry has particularly important meaning.
Summary of the invention
The present invention is mentioned above in order to solve the problems, such as, provides a kind of Cold region apple, the mode of uniline hedge frame, single plant, list The management implantation methods of branch, single fringe, to realize that grown grape is rich in selenium element, 1 year double season is mature, best in quality, Yield is high.
The present invention is achieved through the following technical solutions:
Greenhouse selenium-rich grape 1 year is double ripe to abound with implantation methods, comprising the following steps:
(1) it whole soil, fertilising in canopy: in early April, plans that soil in canopy, entirety use sufficient base fertilizer, compound fertilizer: imposing sufficiently Decomposed farmyard manure, the side 5-8 per acre, then apply the compound fertilizer of Trace selenium, deep ploughing is raked;
(2) trench digging is for cultivation: planning that good field planting is gone by line-spacing, trench digging groove width depth 50X50cm, standby cultivation;
(3) it is steady and sure to plant seedling: grape seedlings plant, 0.25-0.30 meters of spacing in the rows, is arrived field planting by planned spacing in the rows by 1 meter of line-spacing In groove, steady and sure soil prevents soil after watering from root system portion falling sky dead seedling;
(4) watering, earthing epiphragma: after sprinkling profoundly water, waiting soil surface to do thoroughly, can be after operation, then earthing epiphragma;
(5) select bud to determine branch: the management of budding period will select and remain two strong buds, remaining bud is all smeared after grape issues bud It removes;Put up the bracket of grape;Temperature of shed is controlled at 23-27 DEG C;
(6) branch is tied up in bud picking: after shoot length reaches 50cm, bud picking to pinch tendril, and tie up a restocking in mid-May;
(7) fertilizing, watering: branch process is determined in rudiment, and according to soil regime and seedling bud growing state, nitrogen fertilizer application is once same weekly When watering it is primary, it is ensured that strong tree growth promotes bud differentiation, lays foundation for grape in next year result;
(8) spray bactericide: after nursery stock restocking, per half a month makes a call to a bactericide, with the generation of pre- preventing disease and pest;
(9) remove canopy film: September part the first tenday period of a month mid-August-remove canopy film, promote grape branch further mature, promote grape into Enter dormant period;
(10) dormant pruning: mid-September, by straight snips at single 80 centimeters of single plant;
(11) temperature raising is broken sleeps, waters: new canopy film is built by the end of November, beginning temperature raising is broken at the beginning of 12 months sleeps, and after grape issues rudiment, First 5 days control temperature are incremented by for latter 5 days at 10-15 DEG C, are no more than 25 DEG C daytime, night is not less than 10 DEG C;It sprinkles profoundly water, waits soil Ground surface is done thoroughly, can be after operation, then earthing epiphragma;
(12) branch is tied up in bud picking: grape bud at the beginning of second year 1 month starts to sprout fringe, gradually spit leaf, it is longer to 3-4 piece leaf, Substantially see clearly whether there is or not flower spike, branch is tied up in timely bud picking at this time, selects and remain the bud of one big flower spike, and other buds are erased entirely, then ties up branch Restocking;
(13) apply fertilizer temperature control;Florescence starts watering, fertilizing after tying up branch, imposes nitrogenous fertilizer, and temperature was controlled 25-30 DEG C of daytime, Night is maintained at 15 DEG C;
(14) long hair is pinched in bud picking: flower prophase management selects and remain the bud of one big flower spike when branch amount grows into 6-7 piece leaf, Yu Quan is pinched, is smeared leaf bud, pinches tendril, and branch is tied up in restocking;
(15) florescence temperature control: 28-30 DEG C of temperature of shed daytime, night are not less than 15 DEG C;
(16) fertilising sterilization: come into bloom blade face spray boron fertilizer add 0.3% urea, mixing sprinkling bactericide, prevent mildew and The generation of other diseases;
(17) young fruit period and fruit growth period: according to soil regime and seedling bud growing state, watering, fertilizing improves temperature, 30-35 DEG C of daytime, night are kept for 15 DEG C or more;Young fruit period, stone phase and coloring phase difference complete stool sprays selenium fertilizer are primary;
(18) picking fruit: adjustment day and night temperature improves grape quality, mature picking at the beginning of 5 months;
(19) restore tree vigo(u)r: application in time is watered after grape harvesting, restores tree vigo(u)r;
(20) trimming updates: the fruitful branch in the current year all being cut, and cleans out canopy;Watering, and control temperature and exist It 28-32 DEG C, after 10-20 days, after hibernaculum starts sprouting on female branch, stays and selects a strong bud, remaining is erased, and ties up a restocking, smears Leaf bud pinches tendril, the pinching when increasing newly to 10 leaves, watering, fertilizing;
(21) pinching promotees differentiation: promoting following bud differentiation, flower bud germination result after pinching;
The fruit branch growing season management of (22) two seasons: every plant is reserved two shoots, and each fruit branch only stays an inflorescence, stays on inflorescence 2-4 piece leaf pinching;It smears summer bud and pinches palpus, tie up branch;
(23) florescence temperature control: 28-30 DEG C of temperature of shed daytime, night are not less than 15 DEG C;
(24) fertilising sterilization: come into bloom blade face spray boron fertilizer add 0.3% urea, mixing sprinkling bactericide, prevent mildew and The generation of other diseases;
(25) young fruit period and fruit growth period: according to soil regime and seedling bud growing state, watering, fertilizing improves temperature, 30-35 DEG C of daytime, night are kept for 25 DEG C or more;Young fruit period, stone phase and coloring phase difference complete stool sprays selenium fertilizer are primary;
(24) fructescence: mature picking at the beginning of 1 month third year;Grape enters dormant period;
(25) update circulation: after having harvested, the conventional production management that dormancy enters next season is broken in timely watering, fertilizing, trimming.
The step (5) selects bud to build in frame, and the bracket that support plays grape draws iron wire and rope framework by ceiling bracket It forms, simple and practical, small investment saves labor and the invention method of an innovation.
The invention has the advantages that:
1 year double season is mature, improves quality and yield: carrying out forcing culture and yields two crops a year to cultivate to grape, can effectively mention High grape yield per unit area, has adjusted the grape supply phase, and the economic benefit for significantly improving wine-growing increases substantially The utilization rate of greenhouse facility and soil, to increase planting benefit at double.
Selenium-rich quality is good, and nutrition health care again: general planting grape is small in berry expansion period day and night temperature, is unfavorable for photosynthetic production The conversion of object, the grape that the present invention plants, due to having adjusted fruit growth and maturity period using two crops a year cultural method, Young fruit period and fruit growth period day and night temperature are big, are conducive to the conversion of photoassimilates, so that quality will greatly improve;In addition fruit Grow directly from seeds long Spraying Se-fertilizer, it is ensured that plant absorption is transformed into fruit, it is ensured that contain the selenium element of needed by human body in fruit, improve Nutrition and health care values.
Health, nuisanceless: the grape that the present invention plants has adjusted fruit growth due to using two crops a year cultural method And the maturity period, most of insect pest enters dormancy period at this time, does not have to agricultural chemical insecticide, so as to the real nuisanceless water of output Fruit.
It is at low cost, saving of labor: implantation methods of the invention, using Cold region apple, the mode of uniline hedge frame, single plant, Dan Zhi, list The management implantation methods of fringe correspond, easy to operate, avoid traditional plant and disorderly climb, arrange cumbersome situation;Meanwhile Due to using two crops a year cultural method, fruit growth and maturity period are had adjusted, is staggered with the agriculture time in busy farming season, labour fills It is abundant, and labor cost is low, so not only saving of labor, but also farming will not be delayed.
High financial profit: due to using two crops a year cultural method, fruit growth and maturity period are had adjusted, object is with dilute Expensive, when the grape of the method plantation lists, when precisely grape is rare on the market, the not anxious pin of high price is increased economic efficiency.
Specific embodiment
A kind of specific embodiment below.
Greenhouse selenium-rich grape 1 year is double ripe to abound with implantation methods, comprising the following steps:
(1) it whole soil, fertilising in canopy: in early April, plans that soil in canopy, entirety use sufficient base fertilizer, compound fertilizer: imposing sufficiently Decomposed farmyard manure, the side 5-8 per acre, then apply the compound fertilizer of Trace selenium, deep ploughing is raked;
(2) trench digging is for cultivation: planning that good field planting is gone by line-spacing, trench digging groove width depth 50X50cm, standby cultivation;
(3) it is steady and sure to plant seedling: grape seedlings plant, 0.25-0.30 meters of spacing in the rows, is arrived field planting by planned spacing in the rows by 1 meter of line-spacing In groove, steady and sure soil prevents soil after watering from root system portion falling sky dead seedling;
(4) watering, earthing epiphragma: after sprinkling profoundly water, waiting soil surface to do thoroughly, can be after operation, then earthing epiphragma;
(5) select bud to determine branch: the management of budding period will select and remain two strong buds, remaining bud is all smeared after grape issues bud It removes;Put up the bracket of grape;Temperature of shed is controlled at 23-27 DEG C;
(6) branch is tied up in bud picking: after shoot length reaches 50cm, bud picking to pinch tendril, and tie up a restocking in mid-May;
(7) fertilizing, watering: branch process is determined in rudiment, and according to soil regime and seedling bud growing state, nitrogen fertilizer application is once same weekly When watering it is primary, it is ensured that strong tree growth promotes bud differentiation, lays foundation for grape in next year result;
(8) spray bactericide: after nursery stock restocking, per half a month makes a call to a bactericide, with the generation of pre- preventing disease and pest;
(9) remove canopy film: September part the first tenday period of a month mid-August-remove canopy film, promote grape branch further mature, promote grape into Enter dormant period;
(10) dormant pruning: mid-September, by straight snips at single 80 centimeters of single plant;
(11) temperature raising is broken sleeps, waters: new canopy film is built by the end of November, beginning temperature raising is broken at the beginning of 12 months sleeps, and after grape issues rudiment, First 5 days control temperature are incremented by for latter 5 days at 10-15 DEG C, are no more than 25 DEG C daytime, night is not less than 10 DEG C;It sprinkles profoundly water, waits soil Ground surface is done thoroughly, can be after operation, then earthing epiphragma;
(12) branch is tied up in bud picking: grape bud at the beginning of second year 1 month starts to sprout fringe, gradually spit leaf, it is longer to 3-4 piece leaf, Substantially see clearly whether there is or not flower spike, branch is tied up in timely bud picking at this time, selects and remain the bud of one big flower spike, and other buds are erased entirely, then ties up branch Restocking;
(13) apply fertilizer temperature control;Florescence starts watering, fertilizing after tying up branch, imposes nitrogenous fertilizer, and temperature was controlled 25-30 DEG C of daytime, Night is maintained at 15 DEG C;
(14) long hair is pinched in bud picking: flower prophase management selects and remain the bud of one big flower spike when branch amount grows into 6-7 piece leaf, Yu Quan is pinched, is smeared leaf bud, pinches tendril, and branch is tied up in restocking;
(15) florescence temperature control: 28-30 DEG C of temperature of shed daytime, night are not less than 15 DEG C;
(16) fertilising sterilization: come into bloom blade face spray boron fertilizer add 0.3% urea, mixing sprinkling bactericide, prevent mildew and The generation of other diseases;
(17) young fruit period and fruit growth period: according to soil regime and seedling bud growing state, watering, fertilizing improves temperature, 30-35 DEG C of daytime, night are kept for 15 DEG C or more;Young fruit period, stone phase and coloring phase difference complete stool sprays selenium fertilizer are primary;
(18) picking fruit: adjustment day and night temperature improves grape quality, mature picking at the beginning of 5 months;
(19) restore tree vigo(u)r: application in time is watered after grape harvesting, restores tree vigo(u)r;
(20) trimming updates: the fruitful branch in the current year all being cut, and cleans out canopy;Watering, and control temperature and exist It 28-32 DEG C, after 10-20 days, after hibernaculum starts sprouting on female branch, stays and selects a strong bud, remaining is erased, and ties up a restocking, smears Leaf bud pinches tendril, the pinching when increasing newly to 10 leaves, watering, fertilizing;
(21) pinching promotees differentiation: promoting following bud differentiation, flower bud germination result after pinching;
The fruit branch growing season management of (22) two seasons: every plant is reserved two shoots, and each fruit branch only stays an inflorescence, stays on inflorescence 2-4 piece leaf pinching;It smears summer bud and pinches palpus, tie up branch;
(23) florescence temperature control: 28-30 DEG C of temperature of shed daytime, night are not less than 15 DEG C;
(24) fertilising sterilization: come into bloom blade face spray boron fertilizer add 0.3% urea, mixing sprinkling bactericide, prevent mildew and The generation of other diseases;
(25) young fruit period and fruit growth period: according to soil regime and seedling bud growing state, watering, fertilizing improves temperature, 30-35 DEG C of daytime, night are kept for 25 DEG C or more;Young fruit period, stone phase and coloring phase difference complete stool sprays selenium fertilizer are primary;
(24) fructescence: mature picking at the beginning of 1 month third year;Grape enters dormant period;
(25) update circulation: after having harvested, the conventional production management that dormancy enters next season is broken in timely watering, fertilizing, trimming.
The grape produced using above-mentioned complex art is had following excellent out compared with the grape that conventional method plants Gesture:
It is obvious to a person skilled in the art that invention is not limited to the details of the above exemplary embodiments, Er Qie In the case where without departing substantially from spirit or essential attributes of the invention, the present invention can be realized in other specific forms.Therefore, no matter From the point of view of which point, the present embodiments are to be considered as illustrative and not restrictive, and the scope of the present invention is by appended power Benefit requires rather than above description limits, it is intended that all by what is fallen within the meaning and scope of the equivalent elements of the claims Variation is included within the present invention.

Claims (7)

1. greenhouse selenium-rich grape 1 year is double ripe to abound with implantation methods, comprising the following steps:
(1) it whole soil, fertilising in canopy: in early April, plans that soil in canopy, entirety use sufficient base fertilizer, compound fertilizer: imposing sufficiently decomposed Farmyard manure, the side 5-8 per acre, then apply the compound fertilizer of Trace selenium, deep ploughing is raked;
(2) it ditches for planting: planning that good field planting is gone by line-spacing, open channels, standby cultivation;
(3) it is steady and sure to plant seedling: planned spacing in the rows, by grape seedlings plant to the groove of field planting, steady and sure soil prevents soil after watering Earth falls sky dead seedling in root system portion;
(4) watering, earthing epiphragma: after sprinkling profoundly water, waiting soil surface to do thoroughly, can be after operation, then earthing epiphragma;
(5) select bud to determine branch: the management of budding period will select and remain two strong buds, remaining bud is all erased after grape issues bud;It takes Build up the bracket of grape;Temperature of shed is controlled at 23-27 DEG C;
(6) branch is tied up in bud picking: after shoot length reaches 50cm, bud picking to pinch tendril, and tie up a restocking in mid-May;
(7) fertilizing, watering: branch process is determined in rudiment, and according to soil regime and seedling bud growing state, nitrogen fertilizer application once pours simultaneously weekly Water is primary, it is ensured that strong tree growth promotes bud differentiation, lays foundation for grape in next year result;
(8) spray bactericide: after nursery stock restocking, per half a month makes a call to a bactericide, to prevent the generation of mildew insect pest;
(9) remove canopy film: September part the first tenday period of a month mid-August-remove canopy film, promote grape branch further mature, promote grape to enter and stop The dormancy phase;
(10) dormant pruning: mid-September, by straight snips at single 80 centimeters of single plant;
(11) temperature raising is broken sleeps, waters: building new canopy film by the end of November, beginning temperature raising is broken at the beginning of 12 months sleeps;It sprinkles profoundly water, waits soil surface It is thoroughly dry, can be after operation, then earthing epiphragma;
(12) branch is tied up in bud picking: grape bud at the beginning of second year 1 month starts to sprout fringe, gradually spit leaf, it is longer to 3-4 piece leaf, substantially See clearly whether there is or not flower spike, branch is tied up in timely bud picking at this time, selects and remain the bud of one big flower spike, and other buds are erased entirely, then tied up on branch Frame;
(13) apply fertilizer temperature control;Florescence starts watering, fertilizing after tying up branch, imposes nitrogenous fertilizer, and temperature controlled at 25-30 DEG C of daytime, night It is maintained at 15 DEG C or more;
(14) long hair is pinched in bud picking: flower prophase management selects and remain the bud of one big flower spike when branch amount grows into 6-7 piece leaf, remaining is complete It pinches, smear leaf bud, pinch tendril, branch is tied up in restocking;
(15) florescence temperature control: 28-30 DEG C of temperature of shed daytime, night are not less than 15 DEG C;
(16) fertilising sterilization: come into bloom foliage spray fertilizer, and mixing sprinkling bactericide prevents the hair of mildew He other diseases It is raw;
(17) young fruit period and fruit growth period: according to soil regime and seedling bud growing state, watering, fertilizing improves temperature, daytime 30-35 DEG C, night is kept for 15 DEG C or more;
(18) picking fruit: adjustment day and night temperature improves grape quality, mature picking at the beginning of 5 months;
(19) restore tree vigo(u)r: application in time is watered after grape harvesting, restores tree vigo(u)r;
(20) trimming updates: the fruitful branch in the current year all being cut, and cleans out canopy;Watering, and temperature is controlled in 28-32 DEG C, it after 10-20 days, after hibernaculum starts sprouting on female branch, stays and selects a strong bud, remaining is erased, and a restocking is tied up, and smears leaf bud and pinches Tendril, the pinching when increasing newly to 10 leaves, watering, fertilizing;
(21) pinching promotees differentiation: promoting following bud differentiation, flower bud germination result after pinching;
The fruit branch growing season management of (22) two seasons: every plant is reserved two shoots, and each fruit branch only stays an inflorescence, stays 2-4 on inflorescence Piece leaf pinching;It smears summer bud and pinches palpus, tie up branch;
(23) florescence temperature control: 28-30 DEG C of temperature of shed daytime, night are not less than 15 DEG C;
(24) fertilising sterilization: come into bloom foliage spray fertilizer, and mixing sprinkling bactericide prevents the hair of mildew He other diseases It is raw;
(25) young fruit period and fruit growth period: according to soil regime and seedling bud growing state, watering, fertilizing improves temperature, daytime 30-35 DEG C, night is kept for 25 DEG C or more;
(24) fructescence: mature picking at the beginning of 1 month third year;Grape enters dormant period;
(25) update circulation: after having harvested, the conventional production management that dormancy enters next season is broken in timely watering, fertilizing, trimming.
2. greenhouse selenium-rich grape according to claim 11 year is double ripe to abound with implantation methods, it is characterised in that: the step (2) in the standby cultivation of trench digging, after planning good field planting row by line-spacing, trench digging groove width depth is 50X50cm.
3. greenhouse selenium-rich grape according to claim 11 year is double ripe to abound with implantation methods, it is characterised in that: the step (3) it plants in seedling having peace of mind, is according to plan 1 meter of line-spacing, 0.25-0.30 meters of spacing in the rows.
4. greenhouse selenium-rich grape according to claim 11 year is double ripe to abound with implantation methods, it is characterised in that: the step (17) and step (25) young fruit period and fruit growth it is interim, young fruit period, stone phase and coloring phase difference complete stool sprays selenium fertilizer are primary.
5. greenhouse selenium-rich grape according to claim 11 year is double ripe to abound with implantation methods, it is characterised in that: the step (16) and in step (24) fertilising sterilization, the blade face spray boron fertilizer that comes into bloom adds 0.3% urea.
6. greenhouse selenium-rich grape according to claim 11 year is double ripe to abound with implantation methods, it is characterised in that: the step (11) temperature raising is broken sleeps, in watering, starts that temperature raising is broken to sleep at the beginning of 12 months, after grape issues rudiment first 5 days control temperature at 10-15 DEG C, It is incremented by within 5 days afterwards, is no more than 25 DEG C daytime, night is not less than 10 DEG C.
7. greenhouse selenium-rich grape according to claim 11 year is double ripe to abound with implantation methods, it is characterised in that: the step (5) bud is selected to determine in branch, the bracket that support plays grape draws iron wire by ceiling bracket and rope framework forms.
CN201610597915.4A 2016-07-27 2016-07-27 Greenhouse selenium-rich grape 1 year is double ripe to abound with implantation methods Active CN106416919B (en)

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CN107750807A (en) * 2017-10-16 2018-03-06 杨向光 A kind of high-quality greenhouse vine implantation methods
CN108522110A (en) * 2018-01-30 2018-09-14 广西宜州天源绿佳农业科技有限公司 A kind of implantation methods of selenium-rich grape
CN109673373A (en) * 2019-02-18 2019-04-26 甘肃省农业科学院林果花卉研究所 A kind of implantation methods delaying heliogreenhouse grape tree body aging
CN114097523B (en) * 2021-10-29 2023-10-17 黄冈市黄州区嘉裕葡萄种植专业合作社 Golden-fragrance first grape planting method suitable for clay soil

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