CN111279997A - Large-scale high-yield high-efficiency cultivation mode for scallop and pumpkin in northern protected area - Google Patents

Large-scale high-yield high-efficiency cultivation mode for scallop and pumpkin in northern protected area Download PDF

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CN111279997A
CN111279997A CN202010270617.0A CN202010270617A CN111279997A CN 111279997 A CN111279997 A CN 111279997A CN 202010270617 A CN202010270617 A CN 202010270617A CN 111279997 A CN111279997 A CN 111279997A
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vines
fertilizer
soil
pumpkin
yield
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李建斌
熊卫华
刘歆
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Shichuang Technology Qingdao Co ltd
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Shichuang Technology Qingdao Co ltd
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for
    • A01G22/05Fruit crops, e.g. strawberries, tomatoes or cucumbers
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C21/00Methods of fertilizing, sowing or planting
    • A01C21/005Following a specific plan, e.g. pattern
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G13/00Protecting plants
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G25/00Watering gardens, fields, sports grounds or the like
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/10Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in agriculture
    • Y02A40/22Improving land use; Improving water use or availability; Controlling erosion

Abstract

The invention discloses a large-scale high-yield and high-efficiency cultivation mode for scallop pumpkin in a northern protected area, which comprises the following steps: (1) the facility conditions are sunlight greenhouse, plastic greenhouse and mulching film heat preservation; (2) applying enough base fertilizer, deeply ploughing and preparing the soil; (3) preparing soil, ridging and laying a drip irrigation tape film; (4) planting; (5) management of the season of the vines: a. pruning double vines; b. pest control; c. hanging vines; d. fertilizing on leaf surfaces; e. managing fertilizer and water; (6) and (3) flowering and fruit setting management: a. pest control; b. pollinating; c. trimming vines; d. controlling moisture; (7) managing the fruit expanding period; (8) harvesting; (9) pulling or dropping the seedlings. The method solves the problem that the root growth of the plant is inhibited due to low ridge, especially furrow cultivation, through high ridge cultivation, effectively reduces the planting difficulty, ensures that the fruit ripening is relatively centralized, has good commodity performance, greatly increases the productivity per unit area due to high planting density, has higher economic benefit, and is suitable for large-area popularization.

Description

Large-scale high-yield high-efficiency cultivation mode for scallop and pumpkin in northern protected area
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of agricultural planting, and particularly relates to a large-scale high-yield high-efficiency cultivation mode for a scallop pumpkin in a northern protected area.
Technical Field
The Beibei pumpkin is a small pumpkin variety introduced from Japan, New Zealand and the like, has higher nutrient content, is deeply loved by consumers due to the characteristics of thin skin, glutinous rice, small size and suitability for family miniaturization, is more advocated as a net red variety in recent years, and has good market prospect. The scallop pumpkin is introduced into China and occupies a high-end pumpkin market for a long time, and the price of the scallop pumpkin in the market is about 8-10 yuan/jin at present and is more than one time higher than that of the common pumpkin. The variety of the scallop pumpkin has the characteristics of early ripening, cold resistance, heat resistance, strong fruit setting capability and the like, and meanwhile, the scallop pumpkin has the advantages of super-long shelf life, excellent quality and rich nutrition and is suitable for various crowds to eat, so that the scallop pumpkin has high planting benefit and is deeply favored by broad growers.
The scallop pumpkin can be cultivated in the open field in a sloping field with less rainwater, labor is saved when the scallop pumpkin is put into cultivation, but the fruit maturity is inconsistent, the commodity is poor, and the quality cannot be guaranteed. The scallop pumpkin leaves have medium size, high growth speed and high economic benefit, and are also suitable for being planted in various protected lands.
According to the climate characteristics of various regions and facility conditions of protected areas, the planting time of the shellfish pumpkin can be divided into spring planting and autumn planting. In the northern protected area, seedling is grown from 12 months to 3 months in spring crops, and the seedlings are harvested from 4 months to 6 months; the autumn crops are used for growing seedlings from the bottom of 6 months to 7 months, and the crops are harvested from 9 months to 11 months.
At present, the scallop pumpkin is cultivated in a northern protected area, the cultivation density is low, generally 500 plus 700 plants/mu, and a low-ridge or furrow cultivation mode is adopted, the characteristics of the scallop pumpkin variety are not considered, the field humidity is high, the temperature in early spring is low, the root growth of the plant is inhibited, the field management difficulty is increased, and the yield is finally influenced. CN 103477834A discloses a mini pumpkin cultivation technique among the prior patent, and its planting mode is comparatively extensive, and big liquid manure, plant protection laxative are comparatively frequent, and manufacturing cost is high, and the difficult assurance of agricultural product quality safety. The prior art cannot achieve the aims of reducing cost, improving quality and improving efficiency, and further limits the large-scale production of the scallop pumpkin.
Disclosure of Invention
Aiming at the problems of low yield, poor quality, difficult guarantee of food safety, high production cost, unsuitability for large-scale production and the like in the prior art, the invention aims to provide a large-scale high-yield and high-efficiency cultivation mode for scallop and pumpkin in a northern protected area, so as to solve the technical problems of weak growth, more plant diseases and insect pests, reduced yield and quality, high production cost, large labor amount, unsuitability for large-scale production and the like caused by over-high or over-low cultivation density, low ridge or furrow cultivation.
The invention realizes the technical effects through the following technical scheme:
a large-scale high-yield and high-efficiency cultivation mode for scallop and pumpkin in a northern protected area comprises the following steps:
(1) conditions of facilities
A sunlight greenhouse or a plastic greenhouse with good heat preservation performance and good lighting is selected, and a black mulching film is covered to control grass and improve the ground temperature;
(2) applying enough base fertilizer and deeply ploughing and preparing the soil
After the production in the previous season is finished and the garden is cleaned, applying enough base fertilizer, and deeply ploughing and preparing the soil; the plastic greenhouse cultivation of the crops in early spring in the north can be watered thoroughly before freezing so as to improve the soil structure and eliminate the plant diseases and insect pests;
(3) soil preparation, ridging and drip irrigation tape mulching
The greenhouse cultivation adopts a plastic greenhouse ridging mode with 8.5 m span in northern areas, and the direction of ridges is vertical to the direction of a greenhouse, namely the north-south direction; ridging cultivation is carried out, and drip irrigation belts are laid under mulching films;
(4) planting
a. Strong seedling standard: three leaves and one heart, two cotyledons are healthy, and the true leaves are dark green and thick; the root lumps are formed, the root system is developed, and capillary roots are fresh and dense; no quarantine pest, no spot and no insect pest;
b. planting density: 1000-1200 plants/mu, the plant spacing is 0.52m, two rows are fixedly planted on each ridge, and the spacing between two rows is 0.5 m;
c. the technical points are as follows: adding 25Kg of Shaoxing 20ml + 10ml of Amixida water before planting, and dipping 2000 roots; drip irrigation is carried out on the planting water in time after planting, and the planting water is thoroughly watered at one time;
(5) management of the season of staling
a. Pruning double vines: pinching and heading the seedlings at 5 leaves, timely performing according to weather conditions, and forbidding operation in rainy days; after the subsidiary vines grow out, selecting two strong subsidiary vines which have equivalent growth vigor and are provided with five leaves to be reserved as the fruiting vines, removing all the other subsidiary vines and the sun vines, and wiping off all axillary buds on the two fruiting vines;
b. and (3) pest control: the medicine is applied once after pruning;
c. hanging vines: hanging the vines before the two melon vines grow to 10 leaves;
d. and (3) fertilizing on leaf surfaces: spraying the melon growth promoting agent after the vines are hung, and simultaneously, timely pruning and branching, wherein the pruning and branching are performed once every two days;
e. and (3) fertilizer and water management: drip irrigation is carried out in time according to the soil condition and the plant condition, a small amount of drip irrigation is carried out for multiple times to meet the requirement of rapid growth of plants, the field soil water capacity is kept at about 60%, and meanwhile, the nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium compound fertilizer is supplemented through drip irrigation according to the growth condition of the plants in the field;
(6) flowering and fruit setting management
a. And (3) pest control: applying the pesticide once after blooming;
b. pollination: in the flowering period, after about five days of drug application, the pollination of the bear peaks is started, and then the artificial supplementary pollination is carried out according to the actual condition, or the supplementary pollination is carried out by using a plant growth regulator;
c. and (3) vine straightening: timely pruning and branching the vines of the melons, and removing lateral buds and lateral branches; the fruit is remained from 12 nodes later, and 3-5 fruits are continuously set on each vine;
d. controlling soil moisture, and controlling the water holding capacity of field soil to be 50%;
(7) management of fruit enlargement period
a. Thinning fruits: the fruits are fruits which are grown in walnut size and begin to be thinned, and deformed fruits with spots and insect pests are removed;
b. and (3) pest control: applying the pesticide for 1-2 times according to the plant disease and insect pest condition; the foliar fertilizer twelve elements and the foliar fertilizer monopotassium phosphate are applied once respectively; the first pesticide application and fertilizer application can be carried out in a combined manner;
c. branching: timely pruning and branching, and removing lateral buds and lateral branches;
d. and (3) water and fertilizer management: drip irrigation is carried out according to the soil condition and the plant condition to supplement the soil moisture, the water holding capacity of the field soil is preferably 60 percent, and meanwhile, the drip irrigation is carried out according to the growth condition of the field plants to supplement the potash fertilizer, so that the moisture and the nutrients required by fruit expansion are ensured; watering is forbidden 7-10 days before harvesting;
(8) harvesting
When the appearance color of the fruits is completely changed into dark green, the fruits are properly harvested after 5 days after the peels begin to harden, so that the yield and the products can be guaranteed;
(9) pulling or dropping seedlings
After the first batch of melons are harvested, the seedlings can be pulled to clean the garden or the second batch of melons and the third batch of melons can be produced according to the growth vigor of the plants; when seedlings fall, the seed vines of the first batch of squash are timely fallen down, and the old leaves at the lower part are cut off, so that the second batch of squash vines have a proper height to facilitate squash setting;
further, the base fertilizer in the step (2) is mainly an organic fertilizer, 500Kg of organic fertilizer is added per mu, 30Kg of nitrogen phosphorus potassium compound fertilizer is added, and the base fertilizer is uniformly spread and then deeply turned for one time and is 30cm deep;
further, in the step (3), the ridge forming mode parameters are as follows: the width of the ridge bottom is 1m, the width of the ridge surface is 0.7m, the width of the ditch is 1-1.15m, the height of the ridge is 25-30cm, and 52.5-75cm is reserved on each side of the plastic greenhouse; 2 drip irrigation tapes are laid in each ridge in parallel 15cm away from the edge of the ridge surface;
further, the pesticide application adopts 3000 times of 25% amizida suspending agent or 1500 times of amikazao 750-;
further, the diseases are powdery mildew and anthracnose;
further, the zengguling in the step (5) is a macroelement water-soluble fertilizer, and 45-60g of zengguling is mixed with 15kg of water and sprayed on the leaf surfaces of plants per mu;
further, the twelve elements of the foliar fertilizer in the step (7) are foliar fertilizers consisting of 12 nutrient elements of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, amino acid, calcium, magnesium, zinc, boron, iron, manganese, copper and cobalt, and 500-fold liquid is adopted for uniformly spraying;
further, the foliar fertilizer monopotassium phosphate in the step (7) is a high-concentration high-quality chlorine-free phosphorus-potassium fertilizer, and the spraying concentration is 0.1-0.3%.
The invention provides a large-scale high-yield and high-efficiency cultivation mode for a Beibei pumpkin in a northern protected area, which aims at the technical requirements of large-scale production of the Beibei pumpkin on low cost, low labor and high benefit (high yield and high quality), selects a good new variety suitable for large-scale production, adopts large-scale production facilities (larger operation space, convenience for mechanization, reduction of labor consumption and improvement of working efficiency), and designs an advanced water and fertilizer integrated irrigation system (water and fertilizer conservation, reduction of humidity in a greenhouse and no breeding of plant diseases and insect pests); proper close planting, double-vine pruning and continuous fruit setting can realize multi-crop production, thereby ensuring the maximization of unit area yield and economic benefit; and (4) ridge cultivation, drip irrigation, mulching, heat preservation and moisture preservation, and plant growth promotion.
The invention achieves the remarkable technical effects that: by forming high ridges to 25-30cm, the problems of high humidity of plant roots, low temperature of the roots in early spring and inhibition of plant root growth caused by low ridge, especially furrow cultivation are solved, the planting difficulty is effectively reduced, and the yield is improved; the planting density is improved to 1000-1200 plants/mu, the waste of effective light and area due to too low planting density is avoided, the productivity of unit area is increased, and the problems of poor ventilation and light transmittance, high humidity, weak growth, more plant diseases and insect pests, reduced yield and quality and the like possibly caused by too high planting density are solved.
Compared with the traditional cultivation mode, the technology of the invention saves the water and fertilizer dosage by more than 50 percent, controls the pesticide application within 4 times, and reduces the plant protection dosage by more than 50 percent; the fruit consistency is good, the mature period is relatively concentrated, the management is convenient, and the labor consumption is reduced by more than 50%; the yield per mu of single-crop cultivation can reach more than 2500kg, and the yield is increased by 150-; the method has the advantages of proper climate and facility conditions, capability of performing subsequent second-crop and third-crop cultivation, improved quality, high yield and efficiency, higher economic benefit and easy acceptance and popularization.
Description of the drawings:
FIG. 1: the northern area spans 8.5 meters of a plastic greenhouse ridging pattern diagram.
Detailed Description
The following examples serve to illustrate the invention.
Example 1:
a large-scale high-yield and high-efficiency cultivation mode for scallop and pumpkin in a northern protected area comprises the following steps:
(1) variety selection: a mini-type Beibei pumpkin new variety 'Beibei No. two' is selected, and the variety is a mini-extremely early maturing pumpkin new variety which is developed by Shichu science and technology (Qingdao) limited company aiming at the problems of 'non-sweet face, low yield, unsatisfactory palatability' and the like of the mainstream mini pumpkin variety in the current market. The variety has strong growth vigor, the plant leaves have medium size, and are more resistant to virus diseases and easy to bear fruits, each plant can bear 8-10 fruits, the weight of a single fruit is about 300 plus one gram, the peel is dark green, the pulp is dark yellow, the meat is sweet and fine, the variety is mellow and delicious, and is beautiful and table, not only can be steamed, but also can be cooked in a pot, and also can be juiced to be used as complementary food for infants, so that the variety has rich nutrition and is suitable for people of all ages;
(2) facility conditions: a multi-span plastic greenhouse with a single body area of 50 mu is selected, the arch span is 8.5 meters, the arch height is 4.1 meters, the height of the operation space can reach 1.8 meters, and the operation in the greenhouse is facilitated;
(3) applying enough base fertilizer, deeply ploughing and preparing soil: after the production in the previous season is finished and the garden is cleared, sufficient base fertilizer is applied, 500Kg of organic fertilizer is applied per mu, and 30Kg of nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer is added; after uniformly spreading the base fertilizer, deeply turning for one time, wherein the depth is 30 cm; watering and permeating water once before freezing in a plastic greenhouse for crops in early spring in the north, improving the soil structure by using soil freezing, and eliminating soil-borne diseases and insect pests;
(4) soil preparation ridging, laying drip irrigation zone tectorial membrane: the width of the ridge bottom is 1m, the width of the ridge surface is 0.7m, the width of the furrow is 1.15m, the height of the ridge is 30cm, and 52.5cm is reserved on each side of the plastic greenhouse; 2 drip irrigation tapes are laid in each ridge in parallel 15cm away from the edge of the ridge surface; the machine can complete ridging, pipe laying and film laying work at one time, greatly reduces the labor consumption and improves the efficiency;
(5) planting: selecting strong seedlings for field planting, wherein two rows of field planting are carried out on each ridge, the spacing between the two rows is 0.5m, the planting distance is 0.52m, and the field planting density is 1200 plants/mu; adding 20ml of Sharp Sheng and 10ml of Amixida into 25Kg of water before planting, and dipping 2000 roots to prevent diseases in seedling stage; drip irrigation is carried out on the planting water in time after planting, and the planting water is thoroughly watered at one time;
(6) management of the season of staling
a. Timely pinching, pruning double vines: pinching and heading the seedlings at 5 leaves, timely performing according to weather conditions, and forbidding operation in rainy days; after the subsidiary vines grow out, selecting two strong subsidiary vines which have equivalent growth vigor and are provided with five leaves to be reserved as the fruiting vines, removing all the other subsidiary vines and the sun vines, and wiping off all axillary buds on the two fruiting vines;
b. and (3) pest control: the pesticide is applied once after pruning, and 3000 times of 25 percent amisida suspending agent is used for preventing diseases such as powdery mildew, anthrax and the like;
c. hanging vines: hanging the vines before the two melon vines grow to 10 leaves;
d. fertilizing on leaf surfaces and pruning and branching: spraying the zengguling after hanging tendrilled vines, and spraying 45-60g of the zengguling and 15kg of water to leaf surfaces of plants per mu; meanwhile, timely pruning and branching, and patrolling once every two days;
e. and (3) fertilizer and water management: drip irrigation is carried out in time according to the soil condition and the plant condition, a small amount of drip irrigation is carried out for multiple times to meet the requirement of rapid growth of plants, the field soil water capacity is kept at about 60%, and meanwhile, the nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium compound fertilizer is supplemented through drip irrigation according to the growth condition of the plants in the field;
(7) flowering and fruit setting management
a. And (3) pest control: applying the pesticide once after blooming;
b. pollination: in the flowering period, after about five days of drug application, the pollination of the bear peaks is started, and then the artificial supplementary pollination is carried out according to the actual condition, or the supplementary pollination is carried out by using a plant growth regulator;
c. and (3) vine straightening: timely pruning and branching the vines of the melons, and removing lateral buds and lateral branches; the fruit is remained from 12 nodes later, and 3-5 fruits are continuously set on each vine;
d. controlling soil moisture, and controlling the water holding capacity of field soil to be 50%;
(8) management of fruit enlargement period
a. Thinning fruits: the fruits are fruits which are grown in walnut size and begin to be thinned, and deformed fruits with spots and insect pests are removed; each fruiting vine can continuously bear fruits about 3-5, and one plant can bear fruits about 6-10;
b. and (3) pest control: applying the pesticide for 1-2 times according to the plant disease and insect pest condition; uniformly spraying the twelve elements of the foliar fertilizer by using 1000 times of liquid, wherein the spraying concentration of the monopotassium phosphate of the foliar fertilizer is 0.3 percent, and the twelve elements of the foliar fertilizer and the monopotassium phosphate of the foliar fertilizer are respectively applied once; the first pesticide application and fertilizer application can be carried out in a combined manner;
c. branching: timely pruning and branching, and removing lateral buds and lateral branches;
d. and (3) water and fertilizer management: drip irrigation is carried out according to the soil condition and the plant condition to supplement the soil moisture, the water holding capacity of the field soil is preferably 60 percent, and meanwhile, the drip irrigation is carried out according to the growth condition of the field plants to supplement the potash fertilizer, so that the moisture and the nutrients required by fruit expansion are ensured; watering is forbidden 7-10 days before harvesting;
(9) harvesting: when the appearance color of the fruits is completely changed into dark green, the fruits are properly harvested after 5 days after the peels begin to harden, so that the yield and the products can be guaranteed;
(10): after the first batch of melons are harvested, seedling falling is carried out to produce second batch of melons; when seedlings fall, the seed vines of the first batch of squash are timely fallen down, and the old leaves at the lower part are cut off, so that the second batch of squash vines have a proper height to facilitate squash setting; in the production of second-crop melons, 20kg of compound fertilizer is additionally applied through a drip pipe system according to the growth vigor of plants, and the prevention and treatment of virus diseases are paid attention to; and after the second batch of melons are produced, timely pulling seedlings and cleaning the garden.
Table 1 comparison of planting efficiency in example 1
Example 2
A large-scale high-yield and high-efficiency cultivation mode for scallop and pumpkin in a northern protected area comprises the following steps:
(1) variety selection: selecting a new zealand scallop pumpkin, wherein the shape of a fruit is a disc, the appearance of the fruit is dark green and bright, and the weight of a single fruit is about 500g or more; golden pulp, fine and smooth meat quality, dry noodles, sweet taste, strong flavor of Chinese chestnut and long shelf life; the plant growth potential is strong, the fruit setting is good, and 8-10 fruits can be set on a single plant under normal conditions;
(2) facility conditions: a sunlight greenhouse with good heat preservation performance and good lighting is selected, and a black mulching film is covered to control grass and improve the ground temperature;
(3) applying enough base fertilizer, deeply ploughing and preparing soil: after the production in the previous season is finished and the garden is cleaned, applying enough base fertilizer, wherein 500Kg of organic fertilizer is applied per mu; then 30Kg of nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer is added; and after uniformly spreading the base fertilizer, deeply turning for one time by 30 cm. Watering and permeating water once before freezing in the plastic greenhouse for early spring crops in the north so as to improve the soil structure and eliminate plant diseases and insect pests;
(4) soil preparation ridging, laying drip irrigation zone tectorial membrane: the direction of the ridge is vertical to the direction of the greenhouse, namely the north and south directions; the ridging mode parameters are as follows: the width of the ridge bottom is 1m, the width of the ridge surface is 0.7m, the width of the furrow is 1.15m, the height of the ridge is 30cm, and 2 drip irrigation belts are laid in parallel at a distance of 15cm from the edge of the ridge surface respectively.
(5) Planting
Selecting strong seedlings for field planting at 1200 plants/mu, wherein the plant spacing is 0.52m, two rows are field-planted in each ridge, and the spacing between two rows is 0.5 m; adding 25Kg of Shaoxing 20ml + 10ml of Amixida water before planting, and dipping 2000 roots; drip irrigation is carried out on the planting water in time after planting, and the planting water is thoroughly watered at one time;
(6) management of the season of staling
a. Pruning double vines: pinching and heading the seedlings at 5 leaves, timely performing according to weather conditions, and forbidding operation in rainy days; after the subsidiary vines grow out, selecting two strong subsidiary vines which have equivalent growth vigor and are provided with five leaves to be reserved as the fruiting vines, removing all the other subsidiary vines and the sun vines, and wiping off all axillary buds on the two fruiting vines;
b. and (3) pest control: the pesticide is applied once after pruning, and 3000 times of 25 percent amisida suspending agent is used for preventing diseases such as powdery mildew, anthrax and the like;
c. hanging vines: hanging the vines before the two melon vines grow to 10 leaves;
d. and (3) fertilizing on leaf surfaces: spraying the zengguling after hanging tendrilled vines, and spraying 45-60g of the zengguling and 15kg of water to leaf surfaces of plants per mu; meanwhile, timely pruning and branching, and patrolling once every two days;
e. and (3) fertilizer and water management: drip irrigation is carried out in time according to the soil condition and the plant condition, a small amount of drip irrigation is carried out for multiple times to meet the requirement of rapid growth of plants, the field soil water capacity is kept at about 60%, and meanwhile, the nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium compound fertilizer is supplemented through drip irrigation according to the growth condition of the plants in the field;
(7) flowering and fruit setting management
a. And (3) pest control: spraying amiloride once after blooming to prevent and control diseases such as powdery mildew and anthrax;
b. pollination: in the flowering period, after about five days of drug application, the pollination of the bear peaks is started, and then the artificial supplementary pollination is carried out according to the actual condition;
c. and (3) vine straightening: timely pruning and branching the vines of the melons, and removing lateral buds and lateral branches; the fruit is remained from 12 nodes later, and 3-5 fruits are continuously set on each vine;
d. controlling soil moisture, and controlling the water holding capacity of field soil to be 50%;
(8) management of fruit enlargement period
a. Thinning fruits: the fruits are fruits which are grown in walnut size and begin to be thinned, and deformed fruits with spots and insect pests are removed; each fruiting vine can continuously bear fruits about 3-5, and one plant can bear fruits about 6-10;
b. and (3) pest control: applying the pesticide for 1-2 times according to the plant disease and insect pest condition; uniformly spraying the twelve elements of the foliar fertilizer by using 1000 times of liquid, wherein the spraying concentration of the monopotassium phosphate of the foliar fertilizer is 0.3 percent, and the twelve elements of the foliar fertilizer and the monopotassium phosphate of the foliar fertilizer are respectively applied once; the first pesticide application and fertilizer application can be carried out in a combined manner;
c. branching: timely pruning and branching, and removing lateral buds and lateral branches;
d. and (3) water and fertilizer management: drip irrigation is carried out according to the soil condition and the plant condition to supplement the soil moisture, the water holding capacity of the field soil is preferably 60 percent, and meanwhile, the drip irrigation is carried out according to the growth condition of the field plants to supplement the potash fertilizer, so that the moisture and the nutrients required by fruit expansion are ensured; watering is forbidden 7-10 days before harvesting;
(9) harvesting
When the appearance color of the fruits is completely changed into dark green, the fruits are properly harvested after 5 days after the peels begin to harden, so that the yield and the products can be guaranteed;
(10) seedling pulling: and after the first batch of melons are harvested, timely pulling seedlings and clearing the garden.
Table 2 comparison table of planting efficiency in example 2
The above embodiments are only used for illustrating the technical solution of the present invention, and not for limiting the same; although the invention has been described in detail with reference to the foregoing embodiments, it will be apparent to those skilled in the art that various changes may be made and equivalents may be substituted for elements thereof; such modifications and substitutions do not depart from the spirit and scope of the present invention as set forth in the appended claims.

Claims (7)

1. A large-scale high-yield and high-efficiency cultivation mode for scallop and pumpkin in a northern protected area is characterized by comprising the following steps:
conditions of facilities
Selecting a sunlight greenhouse and a plastic greenhouse with good heat preservation performance and good lighting, and covering a black mulching film to control grass and improve the ground temperature;
(2) applying enough base fertilizer and deeply ploughing and preparing the soil
After the production in the previous season is finished and the garden is cleaned, applying enough base fertilizer, and deeply ploughing and preparing the soil; the plastic greenhouse cultivation of the crops in early spring in the north can be watered thoroughly before freezing so as to improve the soil structure and eliminate the plant diseases and insect pests;
(3) soil preparation, ridging and drip irrigation tape mulching
The greenhouse cultivation adopts a plastic greenhouse ridging mode with 8.5 m span in northern areas, and the direction of ridges is vertical to the direction of a greenhouse, namely the north-south direction; ridging cultivation is carried out, and drip irrigation belts are laid under mulching films;
(4) planting
a. Strong seedling standard: three leaves and one heart, two cotyledons are healthy, and the true leaves are dark green and thick; the root lumps are formed, the root system is developed, and capillary roots are fresh and dense; no quarantine pest, no spot and no insect pest;
b. planting density: 1000-1200 plants/mu, the plant spacing is 0.52m, two rows are fixedly planted on each ridge, and the spacing between two rows is 0.5 m;
c. the technical points are as follows: adding 25Kg of Shaoxing 20ml + 10ml of Amixida water before planting, and dipping 2000 roots; drip irrigation is carried out on the planting water in time after planting, and the planting water is thoroughly watered at one time;
(5) management of the season of staling
a. Pruning double vines: pinching and heading the seedlings at 5 leaves, timely performing according to weather conditions, and forbidding operation in rainy days; after the subsidiary vines grow out, selecting two strong subsidiary vines which have equivalent growth vigor and are provided with five leaves to be reserved as the fruiting vines, removing all the other subsidiary vines and the sun vines, and wiping off all axillary buds on the two fruiting vines;
b. and (3) pest control: the medicine is applied once after pruning;
c. hanging vines: hanging the vines before the two melon vines grow to 10 leaves;
d. and (3) fertilizing on leaf surfaces: spraying the melon growth promoting agent after the vines are hung, and simultaneously, timely pruning and branching, wherein the pruning and branching are performed once every two days;
e. and (3) fertilizer and water management: drip irrigation is carried out in time according to the soil condition and the plant condition, a small amount of drip irrigation is carried out for multiple times to meet the requirement of rapid growth of plants, the field soil water capacity is kept at 60%, and meanwhile, the nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium compound fertilizer is supplemented through drip irrigation according to the growth condition of the plants in the field;
(6) flowering and fruit setting management
a. And (3) pest control: applying the pesticide once after blooming;
b. pollination: five days after the application of the drug in the flowering period, the pollination of the bear peak is started, and then the artificial supplementary pollination is carried out according to the actual condition, or the supplementary pollination is carried out by using a plant growth regulator;
c. and (3) vine straightening: timely pruning and branching the vines of the melons, and removing lateral buds and lateral branches; the fruit is remained from 12 nodes later, and 3-5 fruits are continuously set on each vine;
d. controlling soil moisture, and controlling the water holding capacity of field soil to be 50%;
(7) management of fruit enlargement period
a. Thinning fruits: the fruits are fruits which are grown in walnut size and begin to be thinned, and deformed fruits with spots and insect pests are removed;
b. and (3) pest control: applying the pesticide for 1-2 times according to the plant disease and insect pest condition; the foliar fertilizer twelve elements and the foliar fertilizer monopotassium phosphate are applied once respectively; the first pesticide application and fertilizer application can be carried out in a combined manner;
c. branching: timely pruning and branching, and removing lateral buds and lateral branches;
d. and (3) water and fertilizer management: drip irrigation is carried out according to the soil condition and the plant condition to supplement the soil moisture, the water holding capacity of the field soil is preferably 60 percent, and meanwhile, the drip irrigation is carried out according to the growth condition of the field plants to supplement the potash fertilizer, so that the moisture and the nutrients required by fruit expansion are ensured; watering is forbidden 7-10 days before harvesting;
(8) harvesting
When the appearance color of the fruits is completely changed into dark green, the fruits are properly harvested after 5 days after the peels begin to harden, so that the yield and the products can be guaranteed;
(9) pulling or dropping seedlings
After the first batch of melons are harvested, the seedlings can be pulled to clean the garden or the second batch of melons and the third batch of melons can be produced according to the growth vigor of the plants; when seedlings fall, the seed vines of the first batch of melons are timely fallen down, and the old leaves at the lower parts are cut off, so that the second batch of melon vines have a proper height to facilitate the melon setting.
2. The large-scale high-yield and high-efficiency cultivation mode of the Beibei pumpkin in the northern protected area according to claim 1, characterized in that: in the step (2), the base fertilizer is mainly organic fertilizer, 500Kg of organic fertilizer is added per mu of 400 plus one, 30Kg of nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer is added, and the base fertilizer is uniformly spread and then deeply turned once by 30 cm.
3. The large-scale high-yield and high-efficiency cultivation mode of the Beibei pumpkin in the northern protected area according to claim 1, characterized in that: the ridging mode parameters in the step (3) are as follows: the width of the ridge bottom is 1m, the width of the ridge surface is 0.7m, the width of the ditch is 1-1.15m, the height of the ridge is 25-30cm, and 52.5-75cm are reserved on each side of the plastic greenhouse; 2 drip irrigation tapes are laid in each ridge in parallel 15cm away from the edge of the ridge surface.
4. The large-scale high-yield and high-efficiency cultivation mode of the Beibei pumpkin in the northern protected area according to claim 1, characterized in that: the pesticide application adopts 3000 times of 25% amizida suspending agent or 1500 times of Amimizafit 750-fold liquid to prevent diseases.
5. The large-scale high-yield and high-efficiency cultivation mode of the Beibei pumpkin in the northern protected area according to claim 1, characterized in that: in the step (5), the zengguling is a macroelement water-soluble fertilizer, and 45-60g of zengguling is mixed with 15kg of water and sprayed on the leaf surfaces of plants per mu.
6. The large-scale high-yield and high-efficiency cultivation mode of the Beibei pumpkin in the northern protected area according to claim 1, characterized in that: and (4) in the step (7), the twelve elements of the foliar fertilizer are foliar fertilizers consisting of 12 nutrient elements of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, amino acid, calcium, magnesium, zinc, boron, iron, manganese, copper and cobalt, and 500-fold liquid is adopted for uniform spraying.
7. The large-scale high-yield and high-efficiency cultivation mode of the Beibei pumpkin in the northern protected area according to claim 1, characterized in that: in the step (7), the foliar fertilizer monopotassium phosphate is a high-concentration high-quality chlorine-free phosphorus-potassium fertilizer, and the spraying concentration is 0.1-0.3%.
CN202010270617.0A 2020-04-08 2020-04-08 Large-scale high-yield high-efficiency cultivation mode for scallop and pumpkin in northern protected area Pending CN111279997A (en)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN102919009A (en) * 2012-05-22 2013-02-13 刘明明 Technology for culturing chestnut pumpkin
CN106665065A (en) * 2016-12-07 2017-05-17 江苏省农业科学院 Method for improving mini-pumpkin fruiting rate and commodity rate
CN109328907A (en) * 2018-11-20 2019-02-15 上海市金山区农业技术推广中心 A kind of high yield cultivating method of muskmelon

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN102919009A (en) * 2012-05-22 2013-02-13 刘明明 Technology for culturing chestnut pumpkin
CN106665065A (en) * 2016-12-07 2017-05-17 江苏省农业科学院 Method for improving mini-pumpkin fruiting rate and commodity rate
CN109328907A (en) * 2018-11-20 2019-02-15 上海市金山区农业技术推广中心 A kind of high yield cultivating method of muskmelon

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