CN105248242B - A kind of breeding method of early-ripening grape - Google Patents

A kind of breeding method of early-ripening grape Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105248242B
CN105248242B CN201510808118.1A CN201510808118A CN105248242B CN 105248242 B CN105248242 B CN 105248242B CN 201510808118 A CN201510808118 A CN 201510808118A CN 105248242 B CN105248242 B CN 105248242B
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China
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grape
greenhouse
fertilizer
ridge
breeding
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CN201510808118.1A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN105248242A (en
Inventor
王伟
左继龙
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大理时代农业科技发展有限公司
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/02Cultivation of hops or vines
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C21/00Methods of fertilizing, sowing or planting
    • A01C21/005Following a specific plan, e.g. pattern

Abstract

A kind of breeding method of early-ripening grape of the present invention, the breeding method is chosen and is arranged by planting site, and greenhouse is built, plantation, temperature controls, trimming and water and fertilizer management are preferably 23 26 DEG C by temperature control in greenhouse between 20 30 DEG C, it can promote the growth of grape, while the not underproduction, the maturation time of grape, the grape cultivated than conventional method do sth. in advance 2 months or so maturations ahead of time.In water and fertilizer management mainly based on farm organic fertilizer, waste resource is effectively utilized, improves hardening soil situation, the incidence of grape rust is reduced, improves grape quality, protect environment.

Description

A kind of breeding method of early-ripening grape

Technical field

The present invention relates to vinegrowing, and in particular to a kind of breeding method of early-ripening grape.

Background technology

Growing and scientific and technical with agriculture cultivation technology is advanced by leaps and bounds, and the level of vinegrowing technology is also got over Come higher.Grape hibernaculum has prematureness, it, which is stimulated, can promote hibernaculum to sprout in advance, yield positive results.Grape because kind is different, Morning and evening, quantity, the bud quality and the germination rate of bud differentiation have difference.The traditional outdoor vinegrowing production in China, is adopted mostly With scaffolding structure and hedge frame tactic pattern, with the development of production, small hedge frame and pony set cultivation pattern gradually appear. In outdoor cultivation, the form culture pattern of grape is built according to the growth potential index of grape;With booth vegetable production Rise, greenhouse is gradually applied to vinegrowing by people, occur single armed pergola cultivation in greenhouse or The few main stem form culture pattern of person's T-shaped hedge frame single-trunk, the seeding row spacing 1 × 1 or 1 × 0.6 of the mode cultivation grape, mu plant 666 Or 1111 plants, frame is 1.8~2 meters high.During the cultivation of the pattern is implemented, grape " single " fruit habit and grape shallow root are also had ignored Property feature, people still according to traditional habit by grape growing way is prosperous, shoot growth amount regards greatly the Main Factors that can not regulate and control as, Often to it mostly using passive adaptable measure, and it can not realize that result mother is climing and update every year so that pruning rate is big, nutrient consumption Excessively, the waste of nutriment is caused.

The content of the invention

The present invention proposes a kind of breeding method of early-ripening grape, and the breeding method is according to the growth characteristics of grape, control The growth time of grape can reduce the utilization of fertilizer, promote grape seat flower fruit setting, promote the quality of grape, make it than general Eary maturity of grape two months or so.

To achieve these goals, the present invention is achieved through the following technical solutions:

A kind of breeding method of early-ripening grape, the method are the strong early-ripening grape kinds of selection adaptation, in the greenhouse It cultivates, temperature control in greenhouse is between 20-30 DEG C;And cooperation trimming, it irrigates, the comprehensive management technology for process of applying fertilizer, it is specific Breeding method comprises the following steps:

(1), planting site is chosen and is arranged:Choose that physical features is open, the sunny, place that has good water source, soil property thicker As growing area, making ridge, ridge width is 0.5-0.8 meters, and ridge spacing is 1.8-2.4 meters, 10-15 centimetres of ridge depth;

(2), greenhouse is built:Greenhouse is dome-shaped greenhouse, and width is 5-8 meters, the length of greenhouse according to actual conditions into Row adjustment, greenhouse periphery plastic covering film, greenhouse surrounding and ceiling are laid with the sunshade net that two layers of light transmittance is 30%;

(3), plant:By the generation seedling of selected grape variety, select to transplant in the January to plantation in greenhouse into ridge, A line is planted per ridge, sets spacing in the rows as 0.7-0.9 meters;

(4), temperature controls:At 20-30 DEG C, night is not less than 15 DEG C for day temperature control in greenhouse;

(5), trim:Start to trim in November then, when nursery stock is 1 meter high, take the lead for the first time, carry out leading shoot and pluck The heart and sublateral shoot trimming make nutrition flow back, and by trimming a major branch are made to become 4-6 root accessory branches, accessory branch uniformly scatters as surrounding, shape Into uniform radian;Bud picking processing is carried out at the same time, each accessory branch jag hair 7-8 buds is controlled, then carries out defloration processing, it is ensured that grape The fruiting at the 3rd and the 4th bud;And carry out flower and fruit thinning;

(6), water and fertilizer management:Before plantation 20-30 days or autumn adopt after base manure application made with decomposed farm organic fertilizer In soil, progress top dressing of pouring water is combined within more than ten days before spending, based on quick action fertilizer;Fruit expanding period top dressing 1 time, with organic Based on potash fertilizer;Best fruiting period applications of farmyard manure, sowing amount are 800-1000kg/ mus;Trickle irrigation is used in entire growth cycle simultaneously The mode of water spray waters in time to grape.

Further, the grape variety carries for no seed is black.

Further, the plastic film covered in step (2) outside greenhouse is bilayer,

Further, at 23-26 DEG C, nocturnal temperature is controlled at 16-18 DEG C for greenhouse temperature control on daytime in step (4).

Further, farm organic fertilizer described in step (6) is one or more of following substance mixture:Chicken manure, The nutrient of sheep manure and peat composed of rotten mosses, chicken manure and sheep manure is relatively abundant, containing higher organic matter, can activating soil, promote european grape root Absorption of the portion to nutrient, existing easy decomposition can be absorbed by crops the available nutrient utilized, and have the slow effect nutrient being not easily decomposed, It is the fertilizer that fertilizer efficiency speed is combined.

Further, the quick action fertilizer described in step (6) is mainly with the decomposed poultry-dung material of decomposed night soil sum;Institute Organic potassic fertilizer is stated as plant ash or decomposed tobacco leaf.

A kind of breeding method of early-ripening grape of the present invention, its advantage are:

1st, cultivate in the greenhouse, temperature control in greenhouse is preferably 23-26 DEG C, this temperature is fitted for grape between 20-30 DEG C Temperature is closed, the growth of grape can be promoted, while the not underproduction, the maturation time of grape, is cultivated than conventional method ahead of time Grape does sth. in advance 2 months or so maturations.

2nd, reduce the use of chemical fertilizer as base manure and top dressing using farm organic fertilizer, avoid the excessive practicality of chemical fertilizer It is hardened caused by soil, while the organic matter in soil and microorganism can be improved, the permeability of soil is improved, improves Portugal Grape root improves the quality of grape, is effectively utilized waste resource, protect environment to the absorbability of nutritional ingredient.

3rd, in trimming, by developing into more accessory branches by single of grape, and the arcuation that surrounding is scattered is trimmed to, Rainwater can fall rapidly during rainy season, prevent the grape rust caused by excessive rainfall, will lack incidence, improved grape Quality, improve the yield and quality of grape;The tree-shaped that arcuation scatters can facilitate the trimming to branch and bud, improve work effect Rate.

4th, by trimming, each accessory branch jag hair 7-8 buds is controlled, then carry out defloration processing, it is ensured that grape is the 3rd and the 4th Fruiting at bud is conducive to grape and receives uniform illumination, promote the synthesis of nutriment in grape fruit, improves sugar content; Simultaneously because uniform illumination and abundance, are conducive to grape uniform coloring, color is beautiful, improves yield.

Specific embodiment

Embodiment 1

A kind of breeding method of early-ripening grape, the strong early-ripening grape kind of selection adaptation, selection is without seed in the present embodiment It is black to carry as kind is cultivated, it cultivates in the greenhouse, temperature control in greenhouse is between 20-30 DEG C;And cooperation trimming, it irrigates, fertilising The comprehensive management technology of process, specific breeding method comprise the following steps:

(1), planting site is chosen and is arranged:Choose that physical features is open, the sunny, place that has good water source, soil property thicker As growing area, making ridge, ridge width is 0.8 meter, and ridge spacing is 1.8 meters, and ridge is 10 centimetres deep;

(2), greenhouse is built:Greenhouse is dome-shaped greenhouse, and width is 5 meters, and the length of greenhouse is carried out according to actual conditions Adjustment, greenhouse periphery covering double-plastic, greenhouse surrounding and ceiling are laid with the sunshade net that two layers of light transmittance is 30%;

(3), plant:By the generation seedling of selected grape variety, select to transplant in the January to plantation in greenhouse into ridge, A line is planted per ridge, sets spacing in the rows as 0.8 meter;

(4), temperature controls:At 23-26 DEG C, nocturnal temperature is controlled at 18 DEG C for day temperature control in greenhouse;

(5), trim:Start to trim in November then, when nursery stock is 1 meter high, take the lead for the first time, carry out leading shoot and pluck The heart and sublateral shoot trimming make nutrition flow back, and by trimming a major branch are made to become 4-6 root accessory branches, accessory branch uniformly scatters as surrounding, shape Into uniform radian;Bud picking processing is carried out at the same time, each accessory branch jag hair 7-8 buds is controlled, then carries out defloration processing, it is ensured that grape The fruiting at the bud of the 3rd, the 4th and the 5th;And carry out flower and fruit thinning;

(6), water and fertilizer management:Before plantation 20-30 days or autumn adopt after with decomposed farm organic fertilizer such as chicken manure, sheep manure Or peat composed of rotten mosses, in base manure is manured into soil, sowing amount is 100kg-150kg/ mus, combines progress top dressing of pouring water within more than ten days before spending, with Based on quick action fertilizer, sowing amount is 150kg-200kg/ mus;Fruit expanding period top dressing 1 time, with organic potassic fertilizer such as plant ash or Based on decomposed tobacco leaf;Best fruiting period applications of farmyard manure, sowing amount are 800-1000kg/ mus;It is used simultaneously in entire growth cycle The mode of trickle irrigation water spray waters in time to grape.

Table 1 cultivates each index comparison for black carry of no seed using conventional method and the present invention

Number Project Conventional method The method of the present invention 1 Maturity period On June 15 or so On April 20 or so 2 Yield 1.5-2.0kg/ mu 2.3-2.5kg/ mu 3 Fertilizer amount 100-120 kgs/acre 30-50 kgs/acre 4 Fruit size phase rate 8%-12% 2%-4%

Table 1

Claims (2)

1. a kind of breeding method of early-ripening grape, it is characterised in that:The method is the strong early-ripening grape kind of selection adaptation, It cultivates in the greenhouse, temperature control in greenhouse is between 20-30 DEG C;And cooperation trimming, it irrigates, the integrated management skill for process of applying fertilizer Art, specific breeding method comprise the following steps:
(1), planting site is chosen and is arranged:Choose that physical features is open, sunny, the local conduct that has good water source, soil property thicker Growing area, making ridge, ridge width are 0.5-0.8 meters, and ridge spacing is 1.8-2.4 meters, 10-15 centimetres of ridge depth;
(2), greenhouse is built:Greenhouse is dome-shaped greenhouse, and width is 5-8 meters, and the length of greenhouse is adjusted according to actual conditions Whole, greenhouse periphery plastic covering film, greenhouse surrounding and ceiling are laid with the sunshade net that two layers of light transmittance is 30%;
(3), plant:By the generation seedling of selected grape variety, select to be transplanted in the January to plantation in greenhouse into ridge, per ridge A line is planted, sets spacing in the rows as 0.7-0.9 meters;
(4), temperature controls:At 23-26 DEG C, nocturnal temperature is controlled at 16-18 DEG C for canopy temperature control on daytime;
(5), trim:Start to trim in November then, when nursery stock is 1 meter high, carry out for the first time take the lead, carry out leading shoot pinching and Sublateral shoot trimming makes nutrition flow back, and by trimming a major branch is made to become 4-6 root accessory branches, and accessory branch uniformly disperses around, and is formed equal Even radian;Bud picking processing is carried out at the same time, each accessory branch jag hair 7-8 buds is controlled, then carries out defloration processing, it is ensured that grape is the Fruiting at 3 and the 4th bud;And carry out flower and fruit thinning;
(6), water and fertilizer management:Before plantation 20-30 days or autumn adopt after be manured into soil with decomposed farm organic fertilizer as base manure In, progress top dressing of pouring water is combined within more than ten days before spending, based on quick action fertilizer;Fruit expanding period top dressing 1 time, with organic potassic fertilizer Based on;Best fruiting period applications of farmyard manure, sowing amount are 800kg-1000kg/ mus;It is sprayed simultaneously in entire growth cycle using trickle irrigation The mode of water waters in time to grape.
2. the breeding method of early-ripening grape according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:The grape variety is black for no seed It carries.
CN201510808118.1A 2015-11-20 2015-11-20 A kind of breeding method of early-ripening grape CN105248242B (en)

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CN105541494A (en) * 2016-01-31 2016-05-04 周紫阳 Organic fertilizer used for greenhouse strawberries
CN105565996A (en) * 2016-01-31 2016-05-11 周紫阳 Environmentally-friendly organic fertilizer
CN105693421A (en) * 2016-01-31 2016-06-22 周紫阳 Pollution-free strawberry fertilizer and preparation method thereof
CN105777410A (en) * 2016-01-31 2016-07-20 周紫阳 Synergistic pest-expelling organic fertilizer special for strawberries
CN105565995A (en) * 2016-01-31 2016-05-11 周紫阳 Nutritional fertilizer for improving quality of strawberries and preparation method thereof
CN105541495A (en) * 2016-01-31 2016-05-04 周紫阳 Strawberry cultivating fertilizer and preparation method thereof
CN106258316A (en) * 2016-07-29 2017-01-04 成都科比亚生物科技有限公司 A kind of grape planting process that can increase Fructus Vitis viniferae sucrose accumulation
CN106234142A (en) * 2016-08-23 2016-12-21 铜仁市万山区米贡山高效农业科技有限公司 A kind of implantation methods of grape high-yield
CN109380053A (en) * 2017-08-11 2019-02-26 镇江市彩林生态农业观光有限公司 A kind of breeding method of ecological organic grape
CN107711248A (en) * 2017-10-30 2018-02-23 金寨县绿丰园葡萄种植专业合作社 A kind of implantation methods of green Organic grape
CN108901580A (en) * 2018-07-25 2018-11-30 河南科技大学 A method of promoting eary maturity of grape

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CN102150594B (en) * 2011-03-07 2012-09-05 浙江省农业科学院 Middle-early grape culturing method for ensuring extremely early maturity, high quality and disaster avoidance
CN102197777A (en) * 2011-05-12 2011-09-28 中国农业科学院果树研究所 Dormancy control method for promoting early maturing of grapes under protected cultivation
CN103636454B (en) * 2013-12-10 2015-06-10 任学平 Double-cropping cultivation method of grapes
CN104221807A (en) * 2014-09-24 2014-12-24 宾川县金牛镇农业综合服务中心 Grape cultivating method for reducing density, improving quality and promoting early maturing through single connected tent
CN104584976A (en) * 2015-02-02 2015-05-06 重庆市綦江区宝子寺养鱼场 Grape planting method
CN104798654B (en) * 2015-04-15 2017-02-22 山东农业大学 Greenhouse grape dense-planting and high-yield early maturing cultivating method

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