CN102783369B - Grafting and breeding method of Prunus cistena in arid area - Google Patents

Grafting and breeding method of Prunus cistena in arid area Download PDF

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CN102783369B
CN102783369B CN 201210304633 CN201210304633A CN102783369B CN 102783369 B CN102783369 B CN 102783369B CN 201210304633 CN201210304633 CN 201210304633 CN 201210304633 A CN201210304633 A CN 201210304633A CN 102783369 B CN102783369 B CN 102783369B
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water
grafting
seedling
scion
mid
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CN102783369A (en
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马力
占玉芳
段玉忠
苗银
赵典普
张永霞
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ZHANGYE FORESTRY SCIENCE RESEARCH INSTITUTE
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Abstract

The invention discloses a seedling technology of Prunus cistena. The seedling technology is characterized in that the technology takes Siberian Apricot as stock and adopts whole-ear sealing wax seedling, wherein the special breeding method is as follows: a, breeding the stock; b, breeding grafted seedling; and c, breeding the seedling by bed changing. The seedling technology of Prunus cistena provided by the invention comprises the steps of 1, breeding the Siberian Apricot stock; 2, cutting cion and sealing wax; selecting lignified Prunus cistena branches, wherein the cion branch must be soft and has no dried condition and full bud, performing sealing wax for the whole ears; 3, selecting 1-year-old Siberian Apricot seedling; horizontally cutting the Siberian Apricot seedling in place with distance of 4-5cm above the ground to graft; 4, using the cleft grafting or cut-grafting method to graft in the second half of April; 5, after grafting, strengthening management of soil, fertilizer and water. The method improves grafting survival rate of Prunus cistena, develops large-scale breeding of the nursery stock and provides seedling guarantee for widely applying colorful leaf plants in arid area, improving urban ecological environment and improving city landscape value.

Description

The short cherry grafting and breeding method of the purple leaf of arid biogeographic zone
Technical field
The present invention relates to field of plant growing technology, particularly the plants in arid region graft technology is the short cherry grafting and breeding method of the purple leaf of a kind of arid biogeographic zone specifically.
Background technology
Color leaf seeds enjoy attention in recent years because of its unique leaf look in afforestation, use more and more widely.Color leaf tree kind in afforestation to improving urban ecological environment, improving urban look and be worth and have great importance.According to the preliminary investigation in 1993-1997, the color leaf plant of China reached kind more than 400, belongs to 62 sections, 108 genus respectively, but with abroad compare, utilization and the breed breeding of the color leaf seeds of China still are in the stage, and therefore, color leaf seeds have vast potential for future development.The short cherry of purple leaf ( Pruns* Cistena) be aubergine at whole growth its blade in season, beautiful uniqueness, tree-like compactness, blade is dense, and appreciation effect is good, and growth is fast, easy, the anti-pruning of breeding, and adaptability is strong, is the good color leaf configuration seeds of urban landscaping.Blade face redness or purple, back side color is redder, the light violet look in young leaves top.The light violet redness of timber, the leaf redness is beautiful, is aubergine from rudiment entirely to fallen leaves, is world-renowned ornamental tree species.The purple short cherry of leaf and unique performance are called the bright spot in the greening seedling, are subjected to extensive concern.The short cherry cuttage of purple leaf, grafting, sowing, group training all can be bred, but because its generation kind property variation after planting is bigger, so when a large amount of breeding, do not adopt.
Summary of the invention
It is stock with the ansu apricot that technical problem to be solved by this invention provides a kind of employing, the short cherry grafting and breeding method of the purple leaf of the arid biogeographic zone of full fringe sealing wax graft seedling growth.
The technical solution adopted for the present invention to solve the technical problems is:
The short cherry seedling growing process of a kind of purple leaf is characterized in that with ansu apricot be stock, adopts full fringe sealing wax graft seedling growth, and concrete breeding method is as follows:
A, stock are cultivated
A.1 the deep ploughing of site preparation and fertilization nursery lot is 20 centimetres, and the cleaning leveling is used fertilizer 4 sides of becoming thoroughly decomposed for every mu, and mu is executed N, P, K composite fertilizer 20-25 kilogram, and every mu applies 500 gram pcnb and 1-2 kilogram thimets;
A.2 seed treatment adopts autumn sowing, and the ansu apricot seed was soaked 24-48 hour with clear water, soaks 1-2 hour sterilizing with copper sulphate again, pulls out and cleans the back sowing;
A.3 sow physical purity of seed and germination rate more than 95%, seeding quantity is 40 kilograms/mu, in mid or late November, adopts duplicate rows one band trench digging drilling, 30 centimetres of line-spacings, band are sowed 4-5 centimetre of ditch depth apart from 60 centimetres, thickness of earth covering is 4-5 centimetre, broadcasts the back suppression, and irritates sufficient water;
A.4 tending management is in time abolished and is hardened after next year, thawed spring, treat 80% come up after, begin to water water the 1st time, the reinforcement of mid-June to late July is watered, and waters once in every 13-15 days, after late August, control is poured water, promote the nursery stock lignification, pour water 5-6 the whole year, imposes 2 times instant nitrogenousfertilizer during the seedling growth in June-July, every mu of each 8-12 kilogram in time weeds with a hoe after pouring water;
B, grafting are cultivated
B.1 gather that scion selection in January kind is pure, robust growth, no damage by disease and insect, sprout living branch clip scion in full 1 year, the thick 0.5-0.8 of scion centimetre, long 5-8 centimetre, clip is flat mouthful up and down;
B.2 scion sealing wax and storage are inserted scion in 95-100 ℃ the wax liquid, take out rapidly in 1 second, after putting into cold water and being cooled to room temperature, and per 100 plastic sacks of packing into, sealing is preserved;
B.3 grafting in mid or late April carries out grafting, scion is being whittled into two horse ear shape bevels straightly from 3-4 centimeters both sides, lower end, make scion be timber wedge shape, stock is cut off at liftoff 5 centimeters places, clip is rived stock from the centre, insert scion, the scion wound exposes 0.5 centimetre interface, and wound is tightened Bao Yan;
B.4 in time pour water after the grafting management grafting, control is poured water after late August, and pour water 5-6 the whole year; Apply fertilizer in conjunction with pouring water, impose instant nitrogenousfertilizer 2 times late June, mid-July, each 10 kilograms every mu; In time weed with a hoe, weed with a hoe 4-5 the whole year, respectively in late May, mid-June, early July, late July, mid-August;
C, change a bed seedling and cultivate
C.1 the sandy soil that selection geology is smooth with growing seedlings, illumination is good, fertile or sandy loam, slight clay, the good ground of growing seedlings of irrigation condition;
C.2 wholely after, transplanting is leveled land, plough deeply, use fertilizer 4 sides of becoming thoroughly decomposed for every mu, mu is executed N, P, K composite fertilizer 20-25 kilogram, determines the seedling planting point then, with 30 * 30 centimetres seeding row spacing fixed point, transplant mid-April, preferably plant in lifting limit in limit, if can not in time plant, nursery stock must be heeled in.Nursery stock is put into the cave will make root system unfold, and adopts the method for " three bury two step on carry " to carry out field planting, guarantees that root contacts closely with soil, is advisable to bury the native trace of shoot root.
C.3 in time irritate sufficient water behind the tending management Nursery stock transplanting, pour water with the backsight soil moisture content, control is poured water after late August, and pour water 5-6 the whole year, respectively in mid-May, early June, late June, mid-July, early August; Apply fertilizer in conjunction with pouring water, impose instant nitrogenousfertilizer 2 times late June, mid-July, each 10 kilograms every mu; In time weed with a hoe, weed with a hoe 4-5 the whole year, respectively in mid-May, early June, late June, mid-July, early August;
C.4 overwinter management is irritated foot winter water mid-November, improves cold hardiness.
Step b.2 described wax liquid adopts iron pan or aluminum pot to boil in the ratio of rosin: paraffin=1:10, puts into paraffin earlier, and enduring back adds rosin, treats to seal when temperature reaches 95-100 ℃ fringe.
The step c 2 described cave specifications of digging of fixing a point with 30 * 30 centimetres seeding row spacing are 30 * 30 * 40 centimetres.
The short grafting and breeding method of the purple leaf of arid biogeographic zone of the present invention at first is to cultivate the ansu apricot stock; Next is that the scion system of cutting and sealing wax are handled, and selects the short cherry branch of lignified purple leaf for use, requires scion branch softness simultaneously, not withered phenomenon, and the full and full fringe of sprout is sealed with wax; The 3rd, select 1 year living ansu apricot tree seedling for use, in the 4-5 centimeters straight snips ansu apricot seedling grafting of distance ground; The 4th, select mid or late April to adopt cleft grafting or cut-grafting method to carry out grafting; The 5th, should strengthen soil, fertilizer, water management after the grafting.Having realized improving the short cherry graft survival rate of purple leaf, carried out the nursery stock scale breeding, is the color leaf plant of arid biogeographic zone extensive use, improves urban ecological environment, improves urban look and be worth the seedling guarantee is provided.Method of the present invention reaches more than 85% the short cherry graft survival rate of purple leaf, breeding nursery stock 100,000 strains now, in Zhangye, ground such as Jiuquan, the Jiayu Pass and Inner Mongol Ah 's flag, Wuhai applies, and obtained good social ecological benefits and economic benefit.
Embodiment
Embodiment 1
1, stock is cultivated
(1) site preparation and fertilization selects that physical features is smooth, the nursery lot of fertile soil, deep plough 20 centimetres, chooses removal of impurities grass roots, stone etc., and rake a kind of farm tools flattens.Use fertilizer 4 sides of becoming thoroughly decomposed for every mu, mu is executed 20 kilograms of N, P, K composite fertilizers, is prevention and elimination of disease and pests, and every mu applies 500 gram pcnb and 1 kilogram of thimet.
(2) seed treatment adopts autumn sowing, an amount of ansu apricot seed is removed damage by worms, breakage and impurity, soaked 24 hours with clear water, again with copper sulphate soak 1 hour sterilizing pull out clean after, can sow.
(3) sowing physical purity of seed and germination rate are more than 95%, and seeding quantity is 40 kilograms/mu.In mid or late November, adopt duplicate rows one band trench digging drilling, 30 centimetres of line-spacings, 60 centimetres of band distances, 4 centimetres of sowing ditch depths, thickness of earth covering is 4 centimetres, suppression slightly after broadcasting.And irritate sufficient water.
(4) tending management is in time abolished when soil moisture content is suitable and is hardened after next year, thawed spring, is beneficial to come up.Treat 80% come up after, begin to water water the 1st time, will in time water according to soil moisture content during the seedling growth, mid-June to late July will be strengthened watering, and waters once in every 13-15 days, promote its growth, after late August, control and pour water, promote the nursery stock lignification, pour water the whole year 5 times, respectively in mid-May, early June, late June, mid-July, early August.Impose 2 times instant nitrogenousfertilizer during the seedling growth in June-July, every mu each 8 kilograms.In time weed with a hoe after pouring water, accomplish " except early, except little, except ", be that growth of seedling is created good condition.
2, grafting is cultivated
(1) gather that scion selection in January kind is pure, robust growth, no damage by disease and insect, sprout livings branch clip scion in full 1 year, thick 0.5 centimetre of scion, long 5 centimetres, require up and down that clip is flat mouth, smooth.
(2) the wax formula of liquid is got 3000 gram paraffin, 300 gram rosin with boiling, and adopts iron pan or aluminum pot to boil, and puts into paraffin earlier, and adding rosin in enduring back is treated can seal fringe when temperature reaches 95-100 ℃.
(3) scion sealing wax and storage are clamped scion with 2 bamboo chopsticks, insert rapidly in 95 ℃ the wax liquid, and the time can not surpass 1 second, takes out rapidly, put into the cold water cooling after, per 100 plastic sacks of packing into, sealing preservation.The faster the better to dip in the wax time, otherwise scald the fringe bar, influences graft survival rate, puts into the place of cooling after the fringe bar sealing of handling well and keep in Dark Place.
(4) grafting in mid or late April carries out grafting, scion is in that 3 centimeters both sides are whittled into two horse ear shape bevels from the lower end straightly, make scion be timber wedge shape, stock is cut off at liftoff about 5 centimeters places, once cut flat, stock is rived from the centre with pruner at clip, insert scion, note having one side both sides to form layer, alignment from top to down, the scion wound exposes 0.5 centimetre interface, with plastic strip wound is tightened Bao Yan.
(5) in time pour water after the grafting management grafting, pour water with the backsight soil moisture content, control is poured water after late August, is beneficial to the abundant lignification of nursery stock, pours water the whole year 5 times, respectively in mid-May, early June, late June, mid-July, early August; Apply fertilizer in conjunction with pouring water, impose instant nitrogenousfertilizer 2 times late June, mid-July, each 10 kilograms every mu; In time weed with a hoe, accomplish " except early, except little, except ", weed with a hoe the whole year 4 times, be that growth of seedling is created good condition.Bud picking in time is to guarantee the grafting normal growth.
3, changing a seedling cultivates
(1) select to select with growing seedlings geology is smooth, illumination is good, fertile sandy soil or sandy loam, slight clay, irrigation condition good grow seedlings ground.
(2) wholely, transplant smooth good soil after, plough deeply, it is thin to rake, and uses fertilizer 4 sides of becoming thoroughly decomposed for every mu, mu executes 25 kilograms of N, P, K composite fertilizers.The unwrapping wire fixed point is determined the seedling planting point then, with 30 * 30 centimetres seeding row spacing fixed point.Digging the cave specification is 30 * 30 * 40 centimetres, transplants mid-April, and preferably plant in lifting limit in limit, if can not in time plant, nursery stock must be heeled in.Nursery stock is put into the cave will make root system unfold, and adopts the method for " three bury two step on carry " to carry out field planting, guarantees that root contacts closely with soil, is advisable to bury the native trace of shoot root.
(3) to strengthen intertillage, weeding behind the tending management Nursery stock transplanting, pour water, management work such as fertilising.Transplant the back and in time irritate sufficient water, pour water with the backsight soil moisture content, control is poured water after late August, is beneficial to the abundant lignification of nursery stock, pours water the whole year 6 times, respectively in the first tenday period of a month in May, late May, mid-June, early July, late July, mid-August; Apply fertilizer in conjunction with pouring water, impose instant nitrogenousfertilizer 2 times late June, mid-July, each 10 kilograms every mu; In time weed with a hoe, accomplish " except early, except little, except ", weed with a hoe the whole year 4 times, be that growth of seedling is created good condition.Bud picking in time is to guarantee the grafting normal growth.
(4) overwinter management is irritated foot winter water mid-November, improves cold hardiness.
Embodiment 2
1, stock is cultivated
(1) site preparation and fertilization selects that physical features is smooth, the nursery lot of fertile soil, deep plough 20 centimetres, chooses removal of impurities grass roots, stone etc., and rake a kind of farm tools flattens.Use fertilizer 4 sides of becoming thoroughly decomposed for every mu, mu is executed 25 kilograms of N, P, K composite fertilizers, is prevention and elimination of disease and pests, and every mu applies 500 gram pcnb and 2 kilograms of thimets.
(2) seed treatment adopts autumn sowing, an amount of ansu apricot seed is removed damage by worms, breakage and impurity, soaked 48 hours with clear water, again with copper sulphate soak 2 hours sterilizings pull out clean after, can sow.
(3) sowing physical purity of seed and germination rate are more than 95%, and seeding quantity is 40 kilograms/mu.In mid or late November, adopt duplicate rows one band trench digging drilling, 30 centimetres of line-spacings, 60 centimetres of band distances, 5 centimetres of sowing ditch depths, thickness of earth covering is 5 centimetres, suppression slightly after broadcasting.And irritate sufficient water.
(4) tending management is in time abolished when soil moisture content is suitable and is hardened after next year, thawed spring, is beneficial to come up.Treat 80% come up after, begin to water water the 1st time, in time water according to soil moisture content during the seedling growth, mid-June to late July will be strengthened watering, and promotes its growth, after late August, control and pour water, and promotes the nursery stock lignification, pours water the whole year 6 times.Impose 2 times instant nitrogenousfertilizer during the seedling growth in June-July, every mu each 12 kilograms.In time weed with a hoe after pouring water, accomplish " except early, except little, except ", be that growth of seedling is created good condition.
2, grafting is cultivated
(1) gather that scion selection in January kind is pure, robust growth, no damage by disease and insect, sprout livings branch clip scion in full 1 year, thick 0.8 centimetre of scion, long 8 centimetres, require up and down that clip is flat mouth, smooth.
(2) the wax formula of liquid with boil by rosin: paraffin=1:10, get paraffin 3000 gram, rosin 300 grams, adopt iron pan or aluminum pot to boil, put into paraffin earlier, adding rosin in enduring back is treated can seal fringe when temperature reaches 95-100 ℃.
(3) scion sealing wax and storage are clamped scion with 2 bamboo chopsticks, insert rapidly in 100 ℃ the wax liquid, and the time can not surpass 1 second, takes out rapidly, put into the cold water cooling after, per 100 plastic sacks of packing into, sealing preservation.The faster the better to dip in the wax time, otherwise scald the fringe bar, influences graft survival rate, puts into the place of cooling after the fringe bar sealing of handling well and keep in Dark Place.
(4) grafting in mid or late April carries out grafting, scion is in that 4 centimeters both sides are whittled into two horse ear shape bevels from the lower end straightly, make scion be timber wedge shape, stock is cut off at liftoff about 5 centimeters places, once cut flat, stock is rived from the centre with pruner at clip, insert scion, note having one side both sides to form layer, alignment from top to down, the scion wound exposes 0.5 centimetre interface, with plastic strip wound is tightened Bao Yan.
(5) in time pour water after the grafting management grafting, pour water with the backsight soil moisture content, control is poured water after late August, is beneficial to the abundant lignification of nursery stock, pour water the whole year 6 times, respectively in the first tenday period of a month in May, late May, mid-June, early July, late July, mid-August; Apply fertilizer in conjunction with pouring water, impose instant nitrogenousfertilizer 2 times late June, mid-July, each 10 kilograms every mu; In time weed with a hoe, accomplish " except early, except little, except ", weed with a hoe the whole year 5 times, be that growth of seedling is created good condition.Bud picking in time is to guarantee the grafting normal growth.
3, changing a seedling cultivates
(1) select to select with growing seedlings geology is smooth, illumination is good, fertile sandy soil or sandy loam, slight clay, irrigation condition good grow seedlings ground.
(2) wholely, transplant smooth good soil after, plough deeply, it is thin to rake, and uses fertilizer 4 sides of becoming thoroughly decomposed for every mu, mu executes 20 kilograms of N, P, K composite fertilizers.The unwrapping wire fixed point is determined the seedling planting point then, with 30 * 30 centimetres seeding row spacing fixed point.Digging the cave specification is 30 * 30 * 40 centimetres, transplants mid-April, and preferably plant in lifting limit in limit, if can not in time plant, nursery stock must be heeled in.Nursery stock is put into the cave will make root system unfold, and adopts the method for " three bury two step on carry " to carry out field planting, guarantees that root contacts closely with soil, is advisable to bury the native trace of shoot root.
(3) to strengthen intertillage, weeding behind the tending management Nursery stock transplanting, pour water, management work such as fertilising.Transplant the back and in time irritate sufficient water, pour water with the backsight soil moisture content, control is poured water after late August, is beneficial to the abundant lignification of nursery stock, pours water the whole year 5 times, respectively in mid-May, early June, late June, mid-July, early August; Apply fertilizer in conjunction with pouring water, impose instant nitrogenousfertilizer 2 times late June, mid-July, each 10 kilograms every mu; In time weed with a hoe, accomplish " except early, except little, except ", weed with a hoe the whole year 5 times, be that growth of seedling is created good condition.Bud picking in time is to guarantee the grafting normal growth.
(4) overwinter management is irritated foot winter water mid-November, improves cold hardiness.

Claims (3)

1. the short cherry grafting and breeding method of the purple leaf of arid biogeographic zone is characterized in that with ansu apricot be stock, adopts full fringe sealing wax graft seedling growth, and concrete breeding method is as follows:
A, stock are cultivated
A.1 the deep ploughing of site preparation and fertilization nursery lot is 20 centimetres, and the cleaning leveling is used fertilizer 4 sides of becoming thoroughly decomposed for every mu, and mu is executed N, P, K composite fertilizer 20-25 kilogram, and every mu applies 500 gram pcnb and 1-2 kilogram thimets;
A.2 seed treatment adopts autumn sowing, and the ansu apricot seed was soaked 24-48 hour with clear water, soaks 1-2 hour sterilizing with copper sulphate again, pulls out and cleans the back sowing;
A.3 sow physical purity of seed and germination rate more than 95%, seeding quantity is 40 kilograms/mu, in mid or late November, adopts duplicate rows one band trench digging drilling, 30 centimetres of line-spacings, band are sowed 4-5 centimetre of ditch depth apart from 60 centimetres, thickness of earth covering is 4-5 centimetre, broadcasts the back suppression, and irritates sufficient water;
A.4 tending management is in time abolished and is hardened after next year, thawed spring, treat 80% come up after, begin to water water the 1st time, the reinforcement of mid-June to late July is watered, and waters once in every 13-15 days, after late August, control is poured water, promote the nursery stock lignification, pour water 5-6 the whole year, imposes 2 times instant nitrogenousfertilizer during the seedling growth in June-July, every mu of each 8-12 kilogram in time weeds with a hoe after pouring water;
B, grafting are cultivated
B.1 gather that scion selection in January kind is pure, robust growth, no damage by disease and insect, sprout living branch clip scion in full 1 year, the thick 0.5-0.8 of scion centimetre, long 5-8 centimetre, clip is flat mouthful up and down;
B.2 scion sealing wax and storage are inserted scion in 95-100 ℃ the wax liquid, take out rapidly in 1 second, after putting into cold water and being cooled to room temperature, and per 100 plastic sacks of packing into, sealing is preserved;
B.3 grafting in mid or late April carries out grafting, scion is being whittled into two horse ear shape bevels straightly from 3-4 centimeters both sides, lower end, make scion be timber wedge shape, stock is cut off in liftoff 5 centimeters, clip is rived stock from the centre, insert scion, the scion wound exposes 0.5 centimetre interface, and wound is tightened Bao Yan;
B.4 in time pour water after the grafting management grafting, control is poured water after late August, and pour water 5-6 the whole year; Apply fertilizer in conjunction with pouring water, impose instant nitrogenousfertilizer 2 times late June, mid-July, each 10 kilograms every mu; In time weed with a hoe, weed with a hoe 4-5 the whole year;
C, change a bed seedling and cultivate
C.1 the sandy soil that selection geology is smooth with growing seedlings, illumination is good, fertile or sandy loam, slight clay, the good ground of growing seedlings of irrigation condition;
C.2 wholely after, transplanting is leveled land, plough deeply, use fertilizer 4 sides of becoming thoroughly decomposed for every mu, mu is executed N, P, K composite fertilizer 20-25 kilogram, determine the seedling planting point then, with 30 * 30 centimetres seeding row spacings fixed point, transplant mid-April, adopt the method for " three bury two step on carry " to carry out field planting;
C.3 in time irritate sufficient water behind the tending management Nursery stock transplanting, pour water with the backsight soil moisture content, control is poured water after late August, and pour water 5-6 the whole year; Apply fertilizer in conjunction with pouring water, impose instant nitrogenousfertilizer 2 times late June, mid-July, each 10 kilograms every mu; In time weed with a hoe, weed with a hoe 4-5 the whole year;
C.4 overwinter management is irritated foot winter water mid-November, improves cold hardiness.
2. the short cherry grafting and breeding method of the purple leaf of arid biogeographic zone according to claim 1, b.2 described wax liquid is in the ratio of rosin: paraffin=1:10 to it is characterized in that step, and employing iron pan or aluminum pot boil, and put into paraffin earlier, enduring back adds rosin, treats to seal when temperature reaches 95-100 ℃ fringe.
3. the short cherry grafting and breeding method of the purple leaf of arid biogeographic zone according to claim 1 is characterized in that the step c 2 described cave specifications of digging of fixing a point with 30 * 30 centimetres seeding row spacing are 30 * 30 * 40 centimetres.
CN 201210304633 2012-08-24 2012-08-24 Grafting and breeding method of Prunus cistena in arid area Expired - Fee Related CN102783369B (en)

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