CN102408273B - Capsicum soil-less cultivation substrate and its preparation method - Google Patents

Capsicum soil-less cultivation substrate and its preparation method Download PDF

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CN102408273B
CN102408273B CN2010102876939A CN201010287693A CN102408273B CN 102408273 B CN102408273 B CN 102408273B CN 2010102876939 A CN2010102876939 A CN 2010102876939A CN 201010287693 A CN201010287693 A CN 201010287693A CN 102408273 B CN102408273 B CN 102408273B
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fermentation
completed
fully
cultivation bed
capsicum
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CN102408273A (en
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郁继华
颉建明
张国斌
冯致
陈佰鸿
李雯琳
秦舒浩
巩芳娥
李彬
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甘肃农业大学
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Abstract

The invention discloses a capsicum soil-less cultivation substrate and its preparation method, the capsicum soil-less cultivation substrate comprises raw materials and an additives, the types and the ratio of the raw materials are: fermented corn straw: fermented cow dung: fermented mushroom slag: desert sand is 4.0V: 2.0V: 2.5V: 1.5V, the types and ratio of additives added in 1m<3> raw materials are: 0.5g lime nitrogen, 1.0kg Bio-organic fertilizer, 20.0g trichlorfon stock solution and 20.0g 50% of carbendazim wettable powder. The capsicum soil-less cultivation substrate of the invention has the advantages of scientific formula and simple technology, can substantially reduce the production cost of the cultivation substrate after using, and is capable of raising the output and quality of capsicum, increasing peasant income, accelerating the popularization and application of organic ecotype soil-less culture technology.

Description

A kind of capsicum soilless culture substrate and preparation method thereof
Technical field
The present invention relates to soilless culture substrate and preparation method thereof, particularly, relate to a kind of capsicum soilless culture substrate and preparation method thereof.
Background technology
The DESERTIFICATION IN CHINA land area is 264km approximately 2Account for 27.4% of area, at Desert Regions development desert type heliogreenhouse, carry out organic ecological soilless culture, both can effectively alleviate the contradiction that vegetables and grain, herbage strive ground, overcome the present situation of soil decentralized management and the contradiction between the greenhouse intensive management, can take full advantage of again the agricultural wastes such as maize straw, reach the purpose of resource circulation utilization.But lack at present physico-chemical property is good, cost is low cultivation matrix and its preparation method, especially the cultivation matrix for capsicum has no report.
Summary of the invention
The object of the invention is to, for the problems referred to above, propose a kind of capsicum soilless culture substrate, with the advantage that realizes gathering materials on the spot, with low cost, physico-chemical property is good, effect of increasing production and product quality obviously improve.
For achieving the above object, the technical solution used in the present invention is:
A kind of capsicum soilless culture substrate comprises: raw material and additive:
The kind of raw material and proportioning are: the corn stalk of fermentative processing: the cow dung of fermentative processing: the mushroom slag of fermentative processing: LATERAL EYES OF PHRYNOCEPHALUSE=4.0V: 2.0V: 2.5V: 1.5V.
1m 3The additive types of adding in raw material and proportioning are: lime nitrogen 0.5kg, " Bio " biological organic fertilizer 1kg, Trichlorphon stoste 20.0g, 50% carbendazol wettable powder 20.0g.
Further, the mushroom slag fermentation step is as follows, a, first the bacterium rod is crushed to 2.0~3.0mm, every m 3Add calcium superphosphate 3.0kg, mediation pH value to 6~7; B, mushroom slag water is fully soaked (RH 55%~60%), bottom paving plastics are isolated with soil; C, stockpile is become the high buttress of 1.2~1.5m, upper cover canopy film ferments, every 7~10d stirring 1 time, and keep the skin wet (RH 55%~60%) according to doing wet degree, when material fully attenuated free from extraneous odour, fermentation was completed, whole process need 30~40d.
Further, the corn stalk fermentation step is as follows, a, at first cornstalk is cut into 0.8~1.5cm length and cuts; B, use water-soaked (RH 55%~60%) rick; C, stockpile is become the high buttress of 1.2~1.5m, upper cover canopy film ferments, every 7~10d stirring 1 time, and keep the skin wet (RH 55%~60%) according to doing wet degree, when cornstalk had one fragrant, fermentation was completed, whole process need 45~60d.
Further, the fermentation step of cow dung is as follows, a, first cow dung is smashed, and sieves, and the screen cloth eye is 4.0~6.0mm, adds the corn stalk of cow dung volume 2% to regulate carbon-nitrogen ratio, and is evenly mixed; B, the cow dung water is fully soaked (RH 55%~60%), bottom paving plastics are isolated with soil; C, stockpile is become the high buttress of 1.2~1.5m, upper cover canopy film ferments, every 7~10d stirring 1 time, and keep the skin wet (RH 55%~60%) according to doing wet degree, when material fully attenuated free from extraneous odour, fermentation was completed, whole process need 40~50d.
Further, the LATERAL EYES OF PHRYNOCEPHALUSE treatment step is as follows, and desert sand is sieved, and the screen cloth eye is 2.0~3.0mm, bottom paving plastics and soil isolation.
Another object of the present invention has been to provide capsicum soilless culture substrate and preparation method thereof, to realize craft science, the advantage that circulation ratio is high.
Capsicum soilless culture substrate and preparation method thereof, step is as follows:
(1) the front 5~7d of charging, the raw material that fermentation is completed is fully evenly mixed in proportion, 1m 3Add again lime nitrogen 0.5kg in raw material, Trichlorphon stoste 20.0g, 50% carbendazol wettable powder 20.0g fully covers sterilization and disinfestation with the canopy film after mixing; Add again " Bio " biological organic fertilizer 1.0kg, fully mixing after 5~7d.
(2) first rough coal slag 3.0~5.0cm of paving diameter 1.0~2.0cm set " U " type cultivation bed in, then spread the woven bag isolation thereon, the material of then fermentation being completed is filled cultivation bed, and water irrigates, and flattens.
Further, described cultivation bed is ground type cultivation bed or underground type cultivation bed, described ground type cultivation bed: groove internal diameter * groove depth * flute length=48cm * 24cm * 750cm; North and South direction extends, and high south, north is low, gradient 1/100; Open a wide 20cm in the middle of bottom land, " U " type groove of dark 10cm digs the pitting of a dark 30cm, diameter 30cm, in order to getting rid of too much ponding between every two grooves in the south between groove; The double-plastic that bottom land and wall paving 0.1mm are thick and soil isolation after groove is built up, require groove face to keep smooth;
Described underground type cultivation bed: with the greenhouse rear leveling of watering, by the specification trench digging, specification is groove internal diameter * groove depth * flute length=60cm * 25cm * 750cm on ground, and bottom treatment is identical with ground type, and after bottom land and wall were completed film, both sides pressure one deck brick got final product.
Further, described cultivation bed is supporting is provided with drip irrigation system.
Beneficial effect:
The present invention is a kind of capsicum soilless culture substrate and preparation method thereof, the Different Stroma of especially suitable Desert Regions heliogreenhouse pepper cultivation, the present invention suits measures to local conditions, gather materials on the spot, be to reduce production costs, produce the effective way of cheap and good-quality localization environmental protection soilless culture organic substrate.Present domestic organic ecological soilless culture substrate, organic substrate adopts maize straw, mushroom slag, the peat composed of rotten mosses, cow dung, chicken manure etc. more, inorganic matrix adopts vermiculite, perlite, slag etc. more, carry out organic ecological soilless culture at the Desert Regions heliogreenhouse, replace the inorganic matrixes such as slag with LATERAL EYES OF PHRYNOCEPHALUSE, can significantly reduce production costs, improve the yield and quality, increase farmers' income, accelerate applying of organic ecological soilless culture.
Description of drawings
Accompanying drawing is used to provide a further understanding of the present invention, and consists of the part of specification sheets, is used for together with embodiments of the present invention explaining the present invention, is not construed as limiting the invention.In the accompanying drawings:
Fig. 1 is that the different substrates proportioning is to Pepper Leaves superoxide-dismutase (SOD) activity influence;
Fig. 2 is that the different substrates proportioning is on the active impact of Pepper Leaves peroxidase (POD);
Fig. 3 is that the different substrates proportioning is on the impact of Pepper Leaves Proline (Pro) content.
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing, the preferred embodiments of the present invention are described, should be appreciated that preferred embodiment described herein only is used for description and interpretation the present invention, is not intended to limit the present invention.
At first, raw material is carried out pre-treatment:
The mushroom slag fermentation step is as follows, a, first the bacterium rod is crushed to 2.5mm, every m 3Add calcium superphosphate 3.0kg, mediation pH value to 6.5; B, mushroom slag water is fully soaked, bottom paving plastics are isolated with soil; C, stockpile is become the high buttress of 1.5m, upper cover canopy film ferments, every 10d stirring 1 time, and keep the skin wet according to doing wet degree, when material fully attenuated free from extraneous odour, fermentation was completed, whole process need 35d.
The corn stalk fermentation step is as follows, a, at first cornstalk is cut into 1.0cm length and cuts; B, use water-soaked, rick; C, stockpile is become the high buttress of 1.5m, upper cover canopy film ferments, every 7d stirring 1 time, and keep the skin wet according to doing wet degree, when cornstalk had one fragrant, fermentation was completed, whole process need 50d.
The fermentation step of cow dung is as follows, a, first cow dung is smashed, and sieves, and the screen cloth eye is 5.0mm, adds the corn stalk of cow dung volume 2%, and is evenly mixed; B, the cow dung water is fully soaked, bottom paving plastics are isolated with soil; C, stockpile is become the high buttress of 1.5m, upper cover canopy film ferments, every 7d stirring 1 time, and keep the skin wet according to doing wet degree, when material fully attenuated free from extraneous odour, fermentation was completed, whole process need 45d.
The LATERAL EYES OF PHRYNOCEPHALUSE treatment step is as follows, and LATERAL EYES OF PHRYNOCEPHALUSE is sieved, and the screen cloth eye is 3.0mm, bottom paving plastics and soil isolation.
One, test design (substrate formula)
The different substrates mix proportion scheme
7d before charging is with the material that ferments abundant mixing in proportion, every m 3Add lime nitrogen 0.5kg, Trichlorphon stoste 20.0g, 50% carbendazol wettable powder 20.0g fully covers sterilization and disinfestation with the canopy film after mixing; After 7d, every m 3Add again " Bio " biological organic fertilizer 1.0kg, fully mixing.
The rough coal slag 3.0cm of paving diameter 1.0~2.0cm in set " U " type cultivation bed, then spread the woven bag isolation thereon, the material of then fermentation being completed is filled cultivation bed, and water irrigates, leveling.
Select the ground type cultivation bed: framework is selected the standard common brick of 24cm * 12cm * 6cm, and the groove internal diameter is 48cm, groove depth 24cm (4 layers of brick of code on ground), flute length 7.5m, separation 60cm.North and South direction extends, and high south, north is low, gradient 1/100.Open a wide 20cm in the middle of bottom land, " U " type groove of dark 10cm digs the pitting of a dark 30cm, diameter 30cm between every two grooves in the south between groove.The bilayer film that bottom land and wall paving 0.1mm are thick and soil isolation after groove is built up, require groove face to keep smooth.
The drip irrigation system that cultivation bed adopts comprises: water reservoir, water pump, water meter, gate valve, flow and pressure-regulator, fertilizer blending bin, fertilizer injector, dropper band etc.Water reservoir is cement pit, and is highly parallel to the ground, and capacity is 15m 3, adopt micro pump to draw water.
Arm is selected Φ 60mm polyethylene black flexible pipe, and 200 purpose gauze strainers are installed on arm, in case iron rust and silt stop up.The two upward hole flexible pipes of Φ 40mm polyethylene black are adopted in the drip irrigation zone.
Arm is arranged in the north side in greenhouse, and north and south, drip irrigation zone double-division type is arranged.The method of attachment of drip irrigation zone and arm is: punching at a certain distance on arm, hole be from the about 10cm of cultivation bed North and South direction internal diameter, and aperture 15mm fills in the hole after bypass is put the drip irrigation zone, and the other end of drip irrigation zone is with rope knotting sealing.
Randomized complete-block design, totally 7 processing are adopted in test.Every 3 cultivation beds are 1 and process the residential quarter, and the residential quarter area is 7.5m * 3.9m, and each is processed residential quarter random district group in heliogreenhouse and arranges, and each embodiment repeats for 3 times.Capsicum variety is Longjiao No.2, adopts duplicate rows, two strain to plant, and spacing in the rows is 42cm, and line-spacing is 65cm.
Two, interpretation of result
1, the different substrates proportioning is on capsicum plant height, impact that stem is thick
As shown in Table 1, each process the capsicum plant height before field planting 100d without significant difference, but the speed of growth is very fast, in 80d, the plant height increasing amount is generally between 47.7~50.8cm, possible cause is to be in initial bloom stage and result early stage this phase, and still centered by nourishing and growing, plant height increases very fast plant.After 100d, between processing, the capsicum plant height begins to occur significant difference, and embodiment 6 plant heights are significantly higher than contrast, increases by 9.2% than contrast during 140d, other embodiment plant height and contrast indifference; And this phase height growth speed is slowed down, and in 40d, generally between 10.4~15.8cm, possible cause is that this phase chili growth enters the result Sheng phase to the plant height increasing amount, and nourishing and growing begins to advance side by side with reproductive growth, and the plant height increasing amount descends.
The impact of table 1 different substrates proportioning on the capsicum plant height
Annotate: adopt duncan's new multiple range method, lowercase represents 5% conspicuous level.Lower same
As shown in Table 2, each process stem of Bush Redpepper slightly when field planting 20d without significant difference, begin to occur significant difference during 40d, embodiment 3,6 stem of Bush Redpepper slightly are significantly higher than contrast, during to 140d, embodiment 3,6 stem rough segmentations increase by 8.1% and 14.0% than contrast, and other embodiment and contrast are without significant difference.
Table 2 different substrates proportioning is on the thick impact of stem of Bush Redpepper
2, the impact of different substrates proportioning on the pepper plant dry weight
As shown in Table 3, each is processed the pepper plant dry weight and occur significant difference during 30d after field planting, and embodiment 3,6 pepper plant dry weight are significantly higher than contrast, during to 120d, embodiment 3,6 dry weights increase by 15.0% and 15.9% than contrast respectively, and other embodiment and contrast are without significant difference.
The impact of table 3 different substrates proportioning on the pepper plant dry weight
3, the different substrates proportioning is on the active impact of Pepper Leaves superoxide dismutase (SOD)
As shown in Figure 1, each processes Pepper Leaves SOD enzymic activity with the propelling of breeding time, generally be to continue the trend that reduces, but the SOD enzymic activity of embodiment 6 and contrast Pepper Leaves maintains on higher level, and fall is lower, and it is lower and decline by a big margin that other processes the SOD enzymic activity.
4, the different substrates proportioning is on the active impact of Pepper Leaves peroxidase (POD)
As shown in Figure 2, each processes Pepper Leaves POD enzymic activity with the propelling of breeding time, generally be to continue the trend that raises, but the POD enzymic activity increasing degree of embodiment 6 Pepper Leaves is maximum, is in highest level during 140d to the field planting, is remarkable difference with contrast.
5, the impact of different substrates proportioning on Pepper Leaves Proline (Pro) content
As shown in Figure 3, each processes Pepper Leaves Proline (Pro) content with the propelling of breeding time, generally be to continue the trend that raises, but the Pro content increasing degree of embodiment 3,6 Pepper Leaves is larger, be in highest level during 140d to the field planting, be remarkable difference with contrast.
6, the impact of different substrates proportioning on capsicum door green pepper quantity, door green pepper single fruit weight
The impact of table 4 different substrates proportioning on capsicum door green pepper quantity and single fruit weight
As shown in Table 4, each processes capsicum door green pepper quantity and single fruit weight is significant difference, embodiment 3,6 door green pepper quantity and single fruit weight are significantly higher than contrast, door green pepper quantity increases by 64.7% and 82.4% than contrast respectively, door green pepper single fruit weight increases by 18.1% and 19.9% than contrast respectively, and other embodiment and contrast are without significant difference.
7, the impact of different substrates proportioning on yield of hot pepper
The comparison of yield of hot pepper between table 5 different substrates proportioning is processed
As shown in Table 5, each processes the capsicum per mu yield all higher than contrast, and wherein embodiment 3 output are significantly higher than contrast, and the contrast volume increase 7.69%, and the capsicum per mu yield utmost point of embodiment 6 is significantly higher than contrast, and the contrast volume increase reaches 9.07%.
8, the impact of different substrates proportioning on Quality of Capsicum
As shown in Table 6, Vc content, soluble sugar content, soluble solid content and the dry matter content of embodiment 6 pepper fruits increases by 21.7%, 7.8%, 6.3% and 5.0% than contrast respectively, all be remarkable difference with contrast, and nitrate content reduces by 8.9% than contrast, is remarkable difference with contrast.
The impact of table 6 different substrates proportioning on Quality of Capsicum
Three, conclusion
These results suggest that, embodiment 6 for the plant height of capsicum, stem is thick and the plant dry weight has obviously, promoter action chronically, is beneficial to pepper plant and sets up powerful assimilation system, photosynthesis is vigorous, the assimilate resultant quantity is larger, thereby is conducive to the raising of yield of hot pepper.Simultaneously; enzyme system activity and the Osmotic Adjustment Substances of embodiment 6 pepper plants all maintain on higher level; plant strain growth later stage particularly; along with the plant senesecence free radical increases; high enzymic activity and Osmotic Adjustment Substances are conducive to plant and in time remove too much free radical in body, and plant is encroached in protection.
Therefore, embodiment 6 is best during all are processed, and is easy to use and promote.
It should be noted that at last: the above only is the preferred embodiments of the present invention, be not limited to the present invention, although with reference to previous embodiment, the present invention is had been described in detail, for a person skilled in the art, it still can be modified to the technical scheme that aforementioned each embodiment puts down in writing, and perhaps part technical characterictic wherein is equal to replacement.Within the spirit and principles in the present invention all, any modification of doing, be equal to replacement, improvement etc., within all should being included in protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (4)

1. a capsicum soilless culture substrate, comprise raw material and additive, it is characterized in that,
The kind of raw material and proportioning are: the corn stalk of fermentative processing: the cow dung of fermentative processing: the mushroom slag of fermentative processing: LATERAL EYES OF PHRYNOCEPHALUSE=4.0V: 2.0V: 2.5V: 1.5V;
1m 3The additive types of adding in raw material and proportioning are: lime nitrogen 0.5kg, " Bio " biological organic fertilizer 1.0kg, Trichlorphon stoste 20.0g, 50% carbendazol wettable powder 20.0g;
Wherein, the mushroom slag fermentation step is as follows, a, first the bacterium rod is crushed to 2.0~3.0mm, every m 3Add calcium superphosphate 3.0kg, mediation pH value to 6~7; B, mushroom slag water is fully soaked RH 55%~60%, bottom paving plastics are isolated with soil; C, stockpile is become the high buttress of 1.2~1.5m, upper cover canopy film ferments, every 7~10d stirring 1 time, and according to doing the wet degree RH 55%~60% that keeps the skin wet, when material fully attenuated free from extraneous odour, fermentation was completed, whole process need 30~40d;
Wherein, the corn stalk fermentation step is as follows, a, at first cornstalk is cut into 0.8~1.5cm length and cuts; B, use water-soaked RH55%~60% rick; C, stockpile is become the high buttress of 1.2~1.5m, upper cover canopy film ferments, every 7~10d stirring 1 time, and according to doing wet degree RH55%~60% that keeps the skin wet, when cornstalk had one fragrant, fermentation was completed, whole process need 45~60d;
Wherein, the fermentation step of cow dung is as follows, a, first cow dung is smashed, and sieves, and the screen cloth eye is 4.0~6.0mm, adds the corn stalk of cow dung volume 2% to regulate carbon-nitrogen ratio, and is evenly mixed; B, the cow dung water is fully soaked RH 55%~60%, bottom paving plastics are isolated with soil; C, stockpile is become the high buttress of 1.2~1.5m, upper cover canopy film ferments, every 7~10d stirring 1 time, and according to doing the wet degree RH 55%~60% that keeps the skin wet, when material fully attenuated free from extraneous odour, fermentation was completed, whole process need 40~50d;
Wherein, the LATERAL EYES OF PHRYNOCEPHALUSE treatment step is as follows, and LATERAL EYES OF PHRYNOCEPHALUSE is sieved, and the screen cloth eye is 2.0~3.0mm, bottom paving plastics and soil isolation;
Wherein, described capsicum soilless culture substrate is completed by following preparation method:
(1) the front 5~7d of charging, the raw material that fermentation is completed is fully evenly mixed in proportion, 1m 3Add again lime nitrogen 0.5kg in raw material, Trichlorphon stoste 20.0g, 50% carbendazol wettable powder 20.0g fully covers sterilization and disinfestation with the canopy film after mixing; Add again " Bio " biological organic fertilizer 1.0kg, fully mixing after 5~7d;
(2) first rough coal slag 3.0~5.0cm of paving diameter 1.0~2.0cm set " U " type cultivation bed in, then spread the woven bag isolation thereon, the material of then fermentation being completed is filled cultivation bed, and water irrigates, and flattens.
2. the preparation method of the described capsicum soilless culture substrate of claim 1, is characterized in that, step is as follows:
(1) the front 5~7d of charging, the raw material that fermentation is completed is fully evenly mixed in proportion, 1m 3Add again lime nitrogen 0.5kg in raw material, Trichlorphon stoste 20.0g, 50% carbendazol wettable powder 20.0g fully covers sterilization and disinfestation with the canopy film after mixing; Add again " Bio " biological organic fertilizer 1.0kg, fully mixing after 5~7d;
(2) first rough coal slag 3.0~5.0cm of paving diameter 1.0~2.0cm set " U " type cultivation bed in, then spread the woven bag isolation thereon, the material of then fermentation being completed is filled cultivation bed, and water irrigates, and flattens.
3. the preparation method of 2 described capsicum soilless culture substrates as requested, is characterized in that described cultivation
Groove is ground type cultivation bed or underground type cultivation bed, described ground type cultivation bed: groove internal diameter * groove depth * flute length=48cm * 24cm * 750cm; North and South direction extends, and high south, north is low, gradient 1/100; Open a wide 20cm in the middle of bottom land, " U " type groove of dark 10cm arranges the pitting of a dark 30cm, diameter 30cm, in order to getting rid of too much ponding between every two grooves in the south between groove; The double-plastic that bottom land and wall paving 0.1mm are thick and soil isolation after groove is built up, require groove face to keep smooth;
Described underground type cultivation bed: with the greenhouse rear leveling of watering, by the specification trench digging, specification is groove internal diameter * groove depth * flute length=60cm * 25cm * 750cm on ground, and bottom treatment is identical with ground type, and after bottom land and wall were completed film, both sides pressure one deck brick got final product.
4. the preparation method of 3 described capsicum soilless culture substrates as requested, is characterized in that, described cultivation bed is supporting is provided with drip irrigation system.
CN2010102876939A 2010-09-20 2010-09-20 Capsicum soil-less cultivation substrate and its preparation method CN102408273B (en)

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