CN105265292A - Preparation of tomato soilless culture substrate by using cattle and sheep manure - Google Patents

Preparation of tomato soilless culture substrate by using cattle and sheep manure Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105265292A
CN105265292A CN201510738722.1A CN201510738722A CN105265292A CN 105265292 A CN105265292 A CN 105265292A CN 201510738722 A CN201510738722 A CN 201510738722A CN 105265292 A CN105265292 A CN 105265292A
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culture substrate
sheep excrement
soilless culture
fermentation
tomato
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CN201510738722.1A
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李孝虎
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李孝虎
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G24/00Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P60/00Technologies relating to agriculture, livestock or agroalimentary industries
    • Y02P60/20Reduction of greenhouse gas [GHG] emissions in agriculture, e.g. CO2
    • Y02P60/21Dinitrogen oxide [N2O], e.g. using aquaponics, hydroponics or efficiency measures

Abstract

The present invention discloses a tomato soilless culture substrate and a preparation method thereof. The tomato soilless culture substrate comprises raw materials and additives. The type and ratio of the raw materials are cow dung, sheep manure, cotton stalks, mushroom residue, peat, vermiculite and sand with the ratio of 1.5 to 1 to 2 to 1 to 1 to 1 to 2.5. The additives comprise 2.5kg of microbial agents, 3.0kg of straw fermentation agents, 0.5kg of 'jia jia fei' bio-organic fertilizer, and 20.0 kg of 75% chlorothalonil wetable powders of 500 times. The tomato soilless culture substrate has the advantages of scientific prescription and simple process, the cattle and sheep manure are fully utilized, the culture substrate production cost can be reduced significantly after the implementation, the tomato yield and quality are improved, the income of farmers is increased, and the promotion and application of the organic ecotype soilless cultivation technology are accelerated.

Description

Cattle and sheep excrement is utilized to prepare tomato soilless culture substrate
Technical field
The invention belongs to soilless culture substrate and preparation thereof and cultivation method, relate to one particularly and utilize cattle and sheep excrement to prepare tomato soilless culture substrate.
Background technology
Organic ecological soilless culture, both the contradiction that vegetables and grain, herbage strive ground can effectively have been alleviated, overcome the contradiction between the present situation of soil decentralized management and greenhouse intensive management, the animal wastes such as cattle and sheep excrement can be made full use of again, reach the object of resource circulation utilization.With facility organic soilless cultivation vegetables in the whole nation extensive development gradually, the research in Vegetable culture medium more and more pay attention to by researcher, cultivation matrix high-quality whether to the growth of vegetables, grow and have material impact.Organic culture substrate is that stable a, buffer capacity is relatively strong and can provide the system of good root growth environment, because it contains more trace element, therefore does not usually add.Macroelement, when composite interstitial substance makes, can add as required and make base manure.But lack physicochemical property is excellent, cost is low cultivation matrix and its preparation method at present, especially for the cultivation matrix of tomato.
Chinese patent: CN102715064A, provide a kind of compound method of tomato soilless culture substrate and utilize the method for substrate culture tomato, utilize crops straw, ashes or burned gangue, farmyard manure, urea, obtains described tomato soilless culture substrate, because fermentation time is short, the rotten amount of cure of crops straw is not high.
Chinese patent: CN103828700A, provides tomato soiless cultivation compound substrate and preparation method thereof, and this composite interstitial substance is made up of mushroom residue fermentation substrate and vermiculite, but matrix total porosity low matrix unit weight is lower.
Summary of the invention
The object of the invention is to for matrix batching fermentation maturity degree inadequate, the problem that matrix volume to weight ratio is lower, cattle and sheep excrement is utilized to prepare tomato soilless culture substrate, and the cotton stalk utilized, mushroom slag, the peat composed of rotten mosses, vermiculite, river sand is with low cost, part material realizes gathering materials on the spot, and the soilless culture substrate of preparation, physicochemical property is excellent, have the advantage that tomato production promoting effect and product quality are significantly improved.
The present invention is realized by following technology preparation process:
One, material composition
Utilize cattle and sheep excrement to prepare tomato soilless culture substrate, comprise raw material and additive: the kind of raw material and proportioning are cow dung, sheep excrement, cotton stalk, mushroom slag, the peat composed of rotten mosses, vermiculite, river sand.1m 3the additive types of adding in raw material and proportioning are: microbial bacterial agent 2.5kg, stalk fermentation microbial inoculum 3.0kg, ' every household is fertile ' biological organic fertilizer 0.5kg, tpn wetting powder 20.0g of 500 times 75%.
Two, preparation method
For achieving the above object, the present invention adopts following technical scheme
(1) fermentation of cow dung and sheep excrement: keep cow dung and sheep excrement humidity at 55%-60%, add the cotton straw adding volume 3% and 3.5% in cow dung and sheep excrement respectively and regulate C/N ratio, be mixed evenly, add microbial fermentation inoculum, bottom paving plastics and soil are isolated.Stockpile is become shape, upper cover canopy film, carry out fermenting every 7-10d stirring 1 time, within every about 20 days, supplements once, whole process need 40-50d.
(2) cotton stalk fermentation: first Cotton Stalk is cut into 1.5-2.0cm length and cut, keep humidity at 55%-60% by water-soaked, add microbial fermentation inoculum, rick, stockpile is become 1.2-1.5m height buttress, upper cover canopy film, ferments, every 7-10d stirring 1 time, and keep the skin wet according to dry wet degree, when cornstalk has delicate fragrant taste, fermentation completes, whole process need 45-55d.
(3) mushroom slag fermentation: first bacterium rod is crushed to 2.0-3.0mm, every m 3add, potassium superphosphate 0.2kg, magnesium sulfate 0.lkg, calcium carbonate 1kg, be in harmonious proportion pH value to 6-7; Fully soaked by mushroom slag water, humidity is at 55%-60%, and bottom paving plastics and soil are isolated; Stockpile is become 1.2-1.5m height buttress, upper cover canopy film, ferments, every 7-10d stirring 1 time, and keeps the skin wet according to dry wet degree, and when material fully attenuates free from extraneous odour, fermentation completes, whole process need 30-40d.
(4) river sand process: sieved by river sand, selects 4-8 order, 8-16 object river sand, and bottom paving plastics and soil are isolated.
(5) soilless culture substrate preparation: the proportioning of the raw material fermented by cow dung, sheep excrement, cotton stalk, mushroom slag, the peat composed of rotten mosses, vermiculite, river sand is fully mixed evenly, 1m 3additive ' every household is fertile ' the biological organic fertilizer 0.5kg added in raw material, the tpn wetting powder 25.0g of 500 times 75%, fully mixes.
(6) cultivation uses the cultivation of " rectangle " type slot type, be applicable to underground cultivation, cultivating groove adopts burr, gravel pebbles, fine sand and cement are cast, flute length 7m, groove internal diameter 70cm, groove depth 30cm, the reserved post at extending direction 2.3 meters of, north and south, groove side, acrial part 50cm, under ground portion is 50cm, facilitates the erection of dropper pipeline.North and South direction extends, and high south, north is low, and gradient 1/100, leaves discharge outlet in the south, and in addition, fill the thick gravel of 5cm at trench bottom and be also convenient to draining, operation path, at 0.6m, spreads one deck canopy film at bottom land, re-uses woven bag bedding, fills cultivation matrix.
Described step (1) with microbial fermentation inoculum in described step (2) is: fiber degradation type microbial inoculum aspergillus niger, cellulomonas cartae, straw decomposition type microbial inoculum bacillus subtilis, Trichoderma, prebiotic type bacterium lactic acid bacteria and saccharomycete composition, every square metre of using dosage is 0.5kg.
The proportioning of described step (5) cow dung, sheep excrement, cotton stalk, mushroom slag, the peat composed of rotten mosses, vermiculite, river sand is 1.5:1:2:1:1:1:2.5.
Compared with prior art, tool has the following advantages and beneficial effect in the present invention:
The present invention is a kind of tomato soilless culture substrate and preparation method thereof, the Different Stroma of especially suitable Desert Regions Tomato in Greenhouse cultivation, the present invention suits measures to local conditions, gather materials on the spot, be reduce production cost, produce the effective way of cheap and good-quality localization environmental protection soilless culture organic substrate.Current domestic organic ecological soilless culture substrate, organic substrate many employings maize straw, mushroom slag, peat composed of rotten mosses cow dung, chicken manure etc., inorganic matrix many employings vermiculite, perlite, slag etc.The present invention can carry out organic ecological soilless culture at Desert Regions greenhouse by solar heat, replace the inorganic matrixes such as slag with LATERAL EYES OF PHRYNOCEPHALUSE, river sand, significantly can reduce production cost, improve the yield and quality, increase farmers' income, accelerate applying of organic ecological soilless culture.
Embodiment
Below by way of specific embodiment, the invention will be further described, but the interest field that the present invention protects is not limited only to following examples.
Embodiment 1
The present embodiment utilizes cattle and sheep excrement to prepare tomato soilless culture substrate and is completed by following steps:
1. the fermentation of cow dung and sheep excrement: keep cow dung and sheep excrement humidity 60%, add the cotton straw adding volume 3% and 3.5% in cow dung and sheep excrement respectively and regulate C/N ratio, be mixed evenly, every square metre uses microbial fermentation inoculum amount to be 0.5kg, and bottom paving plastics and soil are isolated.Stockpile is become shape, upper cover canopy film, carry out fermenting every 10d stirring 1 time, within every about 20 days, supplements once, whole process need 50d.
2. cotton stalk fermentation: first Cotton Stalk is cut into 1.5cm length and cut, keep humidity 60% by water-soaked, every square metre uses microbial fermentation inoculum amount to be 0.5kg, ricks, stockpile is become 1.5m height buttress, upper cover canopy film, ferments, every 10d stirring 1 time, and keep the skin wet according to dry wet degree, when cornstalk has delicate fragrant taste, fermentation completes, whole process need 55d.
3. mushroom slag fermentation: first bacterium rod is crushed to 2.0mm, every square metre adds, potassium superphosphate 0.2kg, magnesium sulfate 0.lkg, calcium carbonate 1kg, mediation pH value to 6.5; Fully soaked by mushroom slag water, humidity is 60%, and bottom paving plastics and soil are isolated; Stockpile is become 1.2m height buttress, upper cover canopy film, ferments, every 10d stirring 1 time, and keeps the skin wet according to dry wet degree, and when material fully attenuates free from extraneous odour, fermentation completes, whole process need 40d.
4. river sand process: sieved by river sand, selects 4 object river sands, and bottom paving plastics and soil are isolated.
5. soilless culture substrate preparation: the proportioning 1.5:1:2:1:1:1:2.5 of the raw material fermented by cow dung, sheep excrement, cotton stalk, mushroom slag, the peat composed of rotten mosses, vermiculite, river sand is fully mixed evenly, 1m 3additive ' every household is fertile ' the biological organic fertilizer 0.5kg added in raw material, the tpn wetting powder 25.0g of 500 times 75%, fully mixes, obtains tomato soilless culture substrate.
6. cultivation uses the cultivation of " rectangle " type slot type, be applicable to underground cultivation, cultivating groove adopts burr, gravel pebbles, fine sand and cement are cast, flute length 7m, groove internal diameter 70cm, groove depth 30cm, the reserved post at extending direction 2.3 meters of, north and south, groove side, acrial part 50cm, under ground portion is 50cm, facilitates the erection of dropper pipeline.North and South direction extends, and high south, north is low, and gradient 1/100, leaves discharge outlet in the south, in addition, fill the thick gravel of 5cm at trench bottom and be also convenient to draining, operation path, at 0.6m, spreads one deck canopy film at bottom land, re-use woven bag bedding, fill cultivation matrix, carry out substrate culture.
Embodiment 2
The present embodiment utilizes cattle and sheep excrement to prepare the matrix of tomato soilless culture substrate preparation with embodiment 1 (T1), difference is to adopt " Europe Supreme Being " tomato to be the tomato variety trying material, the cultivation of " rectangle " type of use slot type, with the A that fills a prescription (local conventional formulation matrix) and the B (commodity matrix) that fills a prescription for contrast, by measuring tomato plant strain growth situation and fruit quality and output, research the present embodiment utilizes cattle and sheep excrement to prepare the validity of tomato soilless culture substrate.Test is taked and single factor test randomised block design, each process 20 strain tomato, in triplicate.Choose that robust growth is consistent, root system is complete, without the tomato seedling of damage by disease and insect, transplant.Appropriate irrigation, makes matrix keep moistening.Except cultivation matrix, other external environmental conditions and cultivation management measure are consistent.In tomato field planting after 80 days, measure the indexs such as plant height in tomato growth, stem are thick, the number of blade, chlorophyll content.Carry out topping treatment after growing 3 fringe fruits, and measure number of results and the single plant yield of tomato.
Table 1 utilizes cattle and sheep excrement to prepare tomato soilless culture substrate to the impact of tomato morphological index
From morphological index, the thick and number of blade of the process plant height of T1, stem is more or less the same with B process, and processes A significant difference, illustrates that the soilless culture substrate that embodiment 2 is prepared is all the same with commodity matrix fertilizer efficiency.
Table 2 mushroom slag matrix is on the impact affecting tomato yield of tomato yield
As can be seen from Table 2, the per plant number of T1 process and the aspect such as single fruit weight, single plant yield, all the highest in all process, be secondly that treatments B process A index is minimum.Illustrate that the soilless culture substrate that embodiment 2 is prepared can improve tomato yield slightly than commodity matrix.

Claims (5)

1. utilize cattle and sheep excrement to prepare tomato soilless culture substrate, it is characterized in that, be made up of raw material and additive, the kind of raw material is cow dung, sheep excrement, cotton stalk, mushroom slag, the peat composed of rotten mosses, vermiculite, river sand.1m 3the additive types of adding in raw material and proportioning are: microbial fermentation inoculum 2.5kg, stalk fermentation microbial inoculum 3.0kg, ' every household is fertile ' biological organic fertilizer 0.5kg, tpn wetting powder 20.0g of 500 times 75%.
2. utilize cattle and sheep excrement to prepare tomato soilless culture substrate, it is characterized in that, comprise its following steps:
(1) fermentation of cow dung and sheep excrement: keep cow dung and sheep excrement humidity at 55%-60%, add the cotton straw adding volume 3% and 3.5% in cow dung and sheep excrement respectively and regulate C/N ratio, be mixed evenly, add microbial fermentation inoculum, bottom paving plastics and soil are isolated.Stockpile is become shape, upper cover canopy film, carry out fermenting every 7-10d stirring 1 time, within every about 20 days, supplements once, whole process need 40-50d.
(2) cotton stalk fermentation: first Cotton Stalk is cut into 1.5-2.0cm length and cut, keep humidity at 55%-60% by water-soaked, add microbial fermentation inoculum, rick, stockpile is become 1.2-1.5m height buttress, upper cover canopy film, ferments, every 7-10d stirring 1 time, and keep the skin wet according to dry wet degree, when cornstalk has delicate fragrant taste, fermentation completes, whole process need 45-55d.
(3) mushroom slag fermentation: first bacterium rod is crushed to 2.0-3.0mm, every m 3add, potassium superphosphate 0.2kg, magnesium sulfate 0.lkg, calcium carbonate 1kg, be in harmonious proportion pH value to 6-7; Fully soaked by mushroom slag water, humidity is at 55%-60%, and bottom paving plastics and soil are isolated; Stockpile is become 1.2-1.5m height buttress, upper cover canopy film, ferments, every 7-10d stirring 1 time, and keeps the skin wet according to dry wet degree, and when material fully attenuates free from extraneous odour, fermentation completes, whole process need 30-40d.
(4) river sand process: sieved by river sand, selects 4-8 order, 8-16 object river sand, and bottom paving plastics and soil are isolated.
(5) soilless culture substrate preparation: the proportioning of the raw material fermented by cow dung, sheep excrement, cotton stalk, mushroom slag, the peat composed of rotten mosses, vermiculite, river sand is fully mixed evenly, 1m 3additive ' every household is fertile ' the biological organic fertilizer 0.5kg added in raw material, the tpn wetting powder 25.0g of 500 times 75%, fully mixes.
(6) cultivation uses " rectangle " type slot type cultivating groove, be applicable to underground cultivation, cultivating groove adopts burr, gravel pebbles, fine sand and cement are cast, flute length 7m, groove internal diameter 70cm, groove depth 30cm, the reserved post at extending direction 2.3 meters of, north and south, groove side, acrial part 50cm, under ground portion is 50cm, facilitates the erection of dropper pipeline.North and South direction extends, and high south, north is low, and gradient 1/100, leaves discharge outlet in the south, and in addition, fill the thick gravel of 5cm at trench bottom and be also convenient to draining, operation path, at 0.6m, spreads one deck canopy film at bottom land, re-uses woven bag bedding, fills cultivation matrix.
3. the cattle and sheep excrement that utilizes as requested described in 2 prepares tomato soilless culture substrate, it is characterized in that, step (1) with the microbial fermentation inoculum described in step (2) is: fiber degradation type microbial inoculum aspergillus niger, cellulomonas cartae, straw decomposition type microbial inoculum bacillus subtilis, Trichoderma, prebiotic type bacterium lactic acid bacteria and saccharomycete composition, every square metre of using dosage is 0.5kg.
4. the cattle and sheep excrement that utilizes as requested described in 2 prepares tomato soilless culture substrate, it is characterized in that, in described step (5), the proportioning of cow dung, sheep excrement, cotton stalk, mushroom slag, the peat composed of rotten mosses, vermiculite, river sand is 1.5:1:2:1:1:1:2.5.
5. the cattle and sheep excrement that utilizes as requested described in 2 prepares tomato soilless culture substrate, and it is characterized in that, described step (6) " rectangle " type slot type cultivating groove is provided with drip irrigation system, and pipeline can be placed in above reserved post.
CN201510738722.1A 2015-11-03 2015-11-03 Preparation of tomato soilless culture substrate by using cattle and sheep manure Pending CN105265292A (en)

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Cited By (16)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN106007981A (en) * 2016-05-26 2016-10-12 塔里木大学 Formula of organic active soilless culture substrate and preparation method thereof
CN106105488A (en) * 2016-06-23 2016-11-16 青岛蔚蓝生物集团有限公司 A kind of method improving Quality of Seedlings
CN106258901A (en) * 2016-08-30 2017-01-04 柳州放心源农业有限公司 A kind of soilless culture substrate
CN106258888A (en) * 2016-08-16 2017-01-04 柳州市欧亚农业发展有限公司 A kind of Fructus Lycopersici esculenti soilless culture substrate
CN106305393A (en) * 2016-08-23 2017-01-11 柳州市欧亚农业发展有限公司 Special substrate for soilless culture of tomatoes
CN106416651A (en) * 2016-06-25 2017-02-22 西北农林科技大学 Method for increasing seed germination rate in medium seedling culture
CN107211860A (en) * 2017-07-03 2017-09-29 合肥卓畅农业科技有限公司 A kind of soilless culture substrate and preparation method thereof
CN107652036A (en) * 2017-10-10 2018-02-02 无为县古峰生态农业科技有限责任公司 A kind of tomato soilless culture substrate
CN107805137A (en) * 2017-11-27 2018-03-16 唐爱林 A kind of preparation method of raising seedling of cotton matrix
CN107801602A (en) * 2017-11-07 2018-03-16 贵州大学 A kind of preparation method of tomato seedling organic substrate
CN107857611A (en) * 2017-11-24 2018-03-30 马新世 A kind of corps nutrient pillow and preparation method thereof
CN109122090A (en) * 2018-08-22 2019-01-04 候海燕 A kind of cultural method of simple tomato matrix
CN109232031A (en) * 2018-11-28 2019-01-18 青海省农林科学院 A kind of pepper cultivation matrix and preparation method thereof
CN110583431A (en) * 2019-10-24 2019-12-20 东营市菇健生物科技有限公司 Method for preparing tomato seedling substrate by utilizing hypsizigus marmoreus residues
CN111742814A (en) * 2020-07-14 2020-10-09 甘肃省农业科学院土壤肥料与节水农业研究所 Low-cost tomato culture medium and preparation method and application thereof
CN111903449A (en) * 2020-08-26 2020-11-10 通渭县农业技术推广中心 Tomato cultivation method based on biological reactor technology in sunlight greenhouse

Cited By (17)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN106007981A (en) * 2016-05-26 2016-10-12 塔里木大学 Formula of organic active soilless culture substrate and preparation method thereof
CN106105488B (en) * 2016-06-23 2019-06-07 青岛蔚蓝生物集团有限公司 A method of improving Quality of Seedlings
CN106105488A (en) * 2016-06-23 2016-11-16 青岛蔚蓝生物集团有限公司 A kind of method improving Quality of Seedlings
CN106416651A (en) * 2016-06-25 2017-02-22 西北农林科技大学 Method for increasing seed germination rate in medium seedling culture
CN106258888A (en) * 2016-08-16 2017-01-04 柳州市欧亚农业发展有限公司 A kind of Fructus Lycopersici esculenti soilless culture substrate
CN106305393A (en) * 2016-08-23 2017-01-11 柳州市欧亚农业发展有限公司 Special substrate for soilless culture of tomatoes
CN106258901A (en) * 2016-08-30 2017-01-04 柳州放心源农业有限公司 A kind of soilless culture substrate
CN107211860A (en) * 2017-07-03 2017-09-29 合肥卓畅农业科技有限公司 A kind of soilless culture substrate and preparation method thereof
CN107652036A (en) * 2017-10-10 2018-02-02 无为县古峰生态农业科技有限责任公司 A kind of tomato soilless culture substrate
CN107801602A (en) * 2017-11-07 2018-03-16 贵州大学 A kind of preparation method of tomato seedling organic substrate
CN107857611A (en) * 2017-11-24 2018-03-30 马新世 A kind of corps nutrient pillow and preparation method thereof
CN107805137A (en) * 2017-11-27 2018-03-16 唐爱林 A kind of preparation method of raising seedling of cotton matrix
CN109122090A (en) * 2018-08-22 2019-01-04 候海燕 A kind of cultural method of simple tomato matrix
CN109232031A (en) * 2018-11-28 2019-01-18 青海省农林科学院 A kind of pepper cultivation matrix and preparation method thereof
CN110583431A (en) * 2019-10-24 2019-12-20 东营市菇健生物科技有限公司 Method for preparing tomato seedling substrate by utilizing hypsizigus marmoreus residues
CN111742814A (en) * 2020-07-14 2020-10-09 甘肃省农业科学院土壤肥料与节水农业研究所 Low-cost tomato culture medium and preparation method and application thereof
CN111903449A (en) * 2020-08-26 2020-11-10 通渭县农业技术推广中心 Tomato cultivation method based on biological reactor technology in sunlight greenhouse

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Application publication date: 20160127