CN102349430A - Method for breeding seedlings of grapes by using containers - Google Patents

Method for breeding seedlings of grapes by using containers Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102349430A
CN102349430A CN2011102180715A CN201110218071A CN102349430A CN 102349430 A CN102349430 A CN 102349430A CN 2011102180715 A CN2011102180715 A CN 2011102180715A CN 201110218071 A CN201110218071 A CN 201110218071A CN 102349430 A CN102349430 A CN 102349430A
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China
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container
nursery
grape
containers
soil
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CN2011102180715A
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CN102349430B (en
Inventor
毛妮妮
刘吉祥
阎永齐
刘照亭
刘伟忠
芮东明
蒋水平
马媛媛
张玉军
楮小明
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Zhenjiang Institute of Agricultural Sciences Jiangsu Hilly Area
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Zhenjiang Institute of Agricultural Sciences Jiangsu Hilly Area
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Abstract

The invention discloses a method for breeding seedlings of grapes by using containers and belongs to the field of fruit tree seedling raising. The method comprises the following steps of: (1) scissoring annual grape branches in winter to conserve in winter; (2) taking out the branches in late February of the next year, cutting the branches into sections of 18 to 20 cm, retaining stalks of 2 to 3 buds, and inserting into containers by cuttage, wherein nutritional soil comprises a mixture of reed residue matrix and garden soil, or a mixture of rich chaff dust and garden soil, or a mixture of the reed residue matrix, the rich chaff dust and the garden soil; and (3) inserting bamboo poles with the length of 1m into the containers to fix young sprouts when nursery stocks have 7 to 8 leaves, and pinching when the young sprouts are 80 cm. The method is not limited by season, so the defects in seedling in big lands are effectively overcome, root systems are formed in the containers and have good and complete root balls, roots are not damaged when seedlings are lifted, the seedlings are not required to be trimmed before planting, one-step forming is realized, time and labor are saved, survival rate is high after transplantation, the slow seedling stage does not exist, growth quantity is large in the initial stage, flower bud differentiation is realized in advance, high yield in early stage is realized, and quality of the nursery stocks is high.

Description

A kind of method of grape container nursery
Technical field
The present invention relates to a planting fruit-trees seedling growing process, relate to a kind of method of grape container nursery specifically.
Background technology
Grape is that a kind of adaptability is strong, and the growth life-span is long, is prone to high yield, the fruit tree that economic benefit is higher.Along with the adjustment of pattern of farming, area under cultivation constantly enlarges in recent years.At present; Grape is adopting the land for growing field crops seedling propagation as main modes of reproduction, but owing to administrative skill and Effect of Environmental, there is the problem that survival rate is low, the nursery stock damage by disease and insect is serious in the seedling propagation of grape; Cause the nursery stock shortage, become the restraining factors of fruit tree industrial scale.The general land for growing field crops cuttage grape of growth is down had relatively high expectations to soil; Need avoid continuous cropping; The damage by disease and insect phenomenon is comparatively serious; Nursery stage reaches 8~10 months, and the winter need be strengthened management when hiding and prevented mouldy or frostbite, hinders root during lifting; Influence planting survival rates; Seedling-slowing stage is long after the field planting, is subjected to season limit (spent spring, be difficult to summer plant).And container nursery can overcome all drawbacks of aforementioned land for growing field crops cuttage fully through optimal design and scientific management to technology such as container, matrix, liquid manure.
Container nursery is meant uses the seedling raising manners that particular container is cultivated crop or fruit tree, flowers, forest seedling, is the nursery stock production technology of various countries, world today extensive use.70~eighties of 20th century, container nursery is carried out from south to north in China at large, and technology also constantly is improved and improves, from forestry to gardens, gardening, flowers all is widely used.But the research of cultivation of container seedling aspect fruit tree only has breakthrough aspect some of apple and oranges and tangerines.On other seeds, do not appear in the newspapers as yet.
Reed is the discarded object that produces when adopting reed papermaking cutting processing, and the past is directly discharged the Changjiang river, and both contaminated environment was wasted resource again.Existing is the reed end matrix that raw material is processed through reed, is usually used in soilless culture.Rice chaff ash is to form after being burnt by rice hulls, and main component is a potash, is alkalescent after the hydrolysis.Through assay, rice chaff ash contains potassium 5~15%, and micro element is more than 15~20% in the phosphorus 1.5~2.5%, calcium, magnesium, boron, zinc, manganese etc.Rice chaff ash can hestening rooting germinates, and plays the effect of sterilizing deinsectization, also increases soil aggregate, improves soil porosity, improves drought resisting, waterlogging-resistant, high temperature resistance, antifreeze ability.
Summary of the invention
Goal of the invention: the purpose of this invention is to provide a kind of method of grape container nursery, overcome the defective and the deficiency of land for growing field crops cuttage, shorten nursery stage, optimum management, improve the nursery stock quality.
Technical scheme: for realizing above-mentioned purpose, the method for a kind of grape container nursery of the present invention comprises the steps:
(1) plant the selection of bar: ripe, the annual grape branch that eye is full of clip in winter is as kind of a bar, and the said kind of long 75~85cm of bar is embedded in humidity and is in 50% the wet sand winter to hide after being bundled into bundle;
(2) processing of slotting fringe: take out the slotting fringe of planting bar and being cut into 18~20cm, reservation 2~3 buds in late Febuary next year, will dip root-inducing powder at base portion behind said slotting fringe immersion 3~6h, cuttage is in being equipped with the native container of nutrition then; Said nutrition soil is reed end matrix and the mixing of garden mould, and perhaps rice chaff ash and garden mould mixes the perhaps mixing of the last matrix of reed, rice chaff ash and garden mould;
(3) cultivate nursery stock: insert fixedly young sprout of the long bamboo pole of 1m when nursery stock grows to when having 7~8 leaves to container, carry out pinching when said young sprout grows to 80cm.
Wherein, the said nutrition soil of step (2) further comprises: reed end matrix, garden mould 1: 1 by volume~3 mixed preparing; Rice chaff ash, garden mould 1: 1 by volume~3 mixed preparing; Reed end matrix, rice chaff ash and garden mould preparation in 1: 1: 1 by volume; As preferred version of the present invention, said nutrition soil adopts reed end matrix, rice chaff ash and garden mould preparation in 1: 1: 1 by volume.
It is snakeskin bag or non-woven bag or pottery pot or vinyon flowerpot or polyethylene plastic bag that the said container of step (2) is cultivated the container of selecting.As preferred version of the present invention, said container is non-woven bag or polyethylene plastic bag or vinyon flowerpot, the bottom surface diameter 18~30cm of said container, high 16~30cm.
As preferred version of the present invention, the bottom surface diameter of the said container of step (2) is 25~30cm, high 20~30cm.
The slotting fringe cuttage that step (2) is said will dip root-inducing powder is filled to 2/5 of container with nutrition soil earlier in container the time, put into insert fringe after, banket again to 4/5 of container, make that to insert the fringe terminal bud fair with native face.For soil and slotting fringe are connected airtight, with the container proper alignment after the cuttage, and the spray primary water.
Beneficial effect: the method for a kind of grape container nursery of the present invention has following advantage:
1, transplanted seedling tree is not subjected to season limit, at any time can field planting after nursery stock roots, not only be confined to spring;
2, solved field seedling raising effectively on the spot environmental requirement is higher, the plot can not occur by turns, continuous cropping causes a disease, and nursery stage is longer, and the winter is hidden problems such as management is numerous and diverse, and lifting is time-consuming takes a lot of work, and is prone to hinder root, and seedling-slowing stage is longer after the field planting, and the nursery stock quality is not high;
3, root system forms in container, and well-developed complete root ball is arranged, and does not hinder root during lifting, need not prune before the plantation, can one-shot forming, and survival rate height, time and labour saving;
4, the back survival rate of planting is high, does not have seedling-slowing stage, and the primary growth amount is big, and flower bud differentiation ahead of time realizes early high-yield, and seedling quality is high.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is Different Nutrition soil proportioning change of soil water content figure;
Fig. 2 is the change of soil water content figure of different size non-woven bag;
Fig. 3 is the change of soil water content figure of different size vinyon flowerpot;
Fig. 4 is unlike material container experiment change of soil water content figure.
Embodiment
Embodiment
1, the selection and the winter of planting bar hides
Behind the grape fallen leaves, ins conjunction with winter pruning, clip fully maturation, eye is full, internode is lacked, be without damage, do not have 1 year living branch of damage by disease and insect.Press 80cm progress row arrangement, cut sublateral shoot, tendril, per 50 are bundled into bundle.Lash the back and bury,, guarantee the branch quality to reduce water evaporates with wet husky interim training.To plant bar before the storage and be dipped in 5 degree lime sulfurs or 5% ferrous sulfate 1~3 minute, and take out and dry the back and preserve.
Different according to the various places weather, can adopt trench storage perhaps to store sth. in a cellar.Optimum reserve temperature is 0 ℃, is higher than 5 ℃, and eye can be sprouted.The grape freezing tolerance is stronger, can resist-15 ℃ low temperature, so reserve temperature is rather low not high.The first river sand of shop 10~20cm during storage is planted bar and is placed vertically and sequence, and the limit is filled out husky limit and rocked kind of a bar, bundle with bundle, to fill up sand between bar and the bar, otherwise mildew and rot easily.Trench storage kind bar upper end is covered husky 10~20cm again, store sth. in a cellar thicker, about general 30cm.Along with the reduction of temperature is wanted gradation and is covered sand.After burying, water, river sand humidity remains on 50%, and is agglomerating to hold, and do not loose after loosing one's grip and be advisable.Must diligent check diligent moisturizing.Go mouldy as finding, in time to take out kind of a bar, with 5% ferrous sulfate, 0.1% mercuric chloride liquid or 0.3% disinfecting solution of potassium permanganate kind bar 1~3 minute, seasoning again after drying.
2, insert the processing of fringe
Late Febuary next year, the kind bar that will hide through passing the winter takes out, and cuts and grow into 18~20cm, has the slotting fringe of 2~3 buds, inserts fringe upper end straight snips apart from clip bud 1~1.5cm.Tiltedly cut apart from the following 0.5cm of eye the lower end.Not hinder diaphragm degree of being, preserve intact slotting fringe on the adjacent joint, the full stalwartness of performance eye, eye do not split, new wound is an emerald green.Insert fringe and in water, soaked 3~6 hours, suction moisture, dry.Use concentration to dip and inserted the fringe base portion 5 minutes, dry as the ABT root-inducing powder of 500ppm.
3, container selection
The container that the container cultivation is selected comprises any one in snakeskin bag, non-woven bag, pottery pot, vinyon flowerpot, the polyethylene plastic bag.Containers size according to bottom surface diameter * height comprise greatly (30cm * 30cm), in (25cm * 20cm), little (18cm * 16cm) three kinds.
4, the preparation of nutrition soil
The preparation of nutrition soil is different according to nutrition soil composition and proportioning, comprises reed end matrix, garden mould 1: 1 by volume~3 mixed preparing; Rice chaff ash, garden mould 1: 1 by volume~3 mixed preparing; Reed end matrix, rice chaff ash and garden mould preparation in 1: 1: 1 by volume.
5, the preparation in place
For vitis vinifera, because rainy at southern china, the place of therefore growing seedlings will be chosen in the lew.Lew generally requires before growing seedlings at the beginning of 3 months, to build to finish, and builds with reference to common booth, and draw-in groove is installed around the frame, and height is about 1.5m, and apron is not established in the draw-in groove below.If the booth that 6m is wide, the wide 7.0~7.5m that is generally of canopy film, length is looked the plot and is decided.Canopy inherent smooth good upper berth, ground layer of non-woven fabric or plastic film both can play the effect that air is completely cured, and can prevent weed growth again.The Eurasian kind at Chinese grape varieties northern and that plant other non-Eurasias need not the facility of taking shelter from rain, and only need selection level land upper berth layer of non-woven fabric or plastic film.
6, dress soil, cuttage
Nutrition soil is filled to 2/5 of vessel volume, puts into slotting fringe, refills soil to 4/5 of container, and slotting fringe terminal bud and native face are maintained an equal level.To note protecting sprout during dress soil.Fresh or produced callus to clip, but the person of not taking root as yet, the ABT root-inducing powder of usable concentration 500ppm speed once more dips in and inserts the fringe base portion.The container proper alignment that plantation is good.Set back spray primary water, soil and slotting fringe are connected airtight.
7, the management of emerging
Green seedling growing period will in time be sprayed water, can not overdrying or wet excessively.Temperature mainly leans on natural lighting to regulate, and day temperature is controlled at 25~28 ℃, and the highest above 30 ℃, surpassing 28 ℃ will lower the temperature with the sunshade net.Like cold air, cover the straw screen or mat insulation to the greenhouse.Soil moisture content is 60~80% of a maximum water-holding capacity in the container.The interior relative moisture of canopy remains on 75~80% and is advisable.In 5 months, the last ten-days period, treat about the high 20cm of young sprout, when having 7~8 leaves, insert the long bamboo pole of 1m, young sprout is fixed on the bamboo pole, treat the long pinching during to 80cm of young sprout, impel it to increase slightly.
8, the extermination of disease and insect pest
Diseases prevention emphasis between the grape nursery stage is downy mildew and powdery mildew, and the insect protected emphasis is a green plant bug.Alternately controls of insecticide such as disease can be used the alternately control of bactericide such as 70% first holder, 10% generation height, and insect pest Ke Yong Le Siben, farmland are happy.
9, outplanting
Promptly can be used as commercial seedling and sell as long as the grape nursery stock of cultivating reaches wholeheartedly standard (four above leaves are arranged, the obvious growth point is arranged) of four leaves, have tangible root system to generate.The field planting time is not subjected to the restriction in season.Will in seedling growth greenhouse, ventilate the refining seedling more than one week before going out the garden.During field planting container is removed, be with native ball field planting, well-developed complete root ball is arranged, do not hinder root, do not have seedling-slowing stage after planting, seedling quality is high, and survival rate is high, and is effective, need not prune before the plantation, can one-shot forming.
Test Example 1
For container nursery; Moisture capacity and permeability embody the quality of dissimilar nutrition soil; In this Test Example; The vinyon flowerpot that adopts bottom surface diameter 25cm, high 20cm is as container; Prepare 8 kinds of nutrition soil (as shown in table 1) that composition is different with proportioning; Method according to embodiment is carried out container nursery to grape, moisture content change (Fig. 1) in continuous 5 days of in September, 2010 detection container, in December, 2010 measure the finished product seedling do high, do thick, Root Distribution situation (table 2).
Table 1 Different Nutrition soil composition and proportioning
Can know that by Fig. 1 A5, A6 soil moisture content almost do not change, the less variation of A7 soil moisture content, A1 soil moisture content amplitude of variation is maximum, and A2, A3, A4 soil moisture content amplitude of variation are placed in the middle.Can infer that the rice chaff ash moisture capacity is better, reed end matrix gas permeability is better.Moisture did not change in continuous 2~3 days, grew seedlings and macerated root easily, and change of soil water content is grown seedlings more greatly needs duty to water time-consuming taking a lot of work.A8 soil moisture content amplitude of variation is placed in the middle, is optimum.
Table 2 Different Nutrition soil proportioning seedling growth test seedling growth situation relatively
Visible by table 2, A2, A3, A4 relatively along with the rising of garden mould ratio, try the dried height of material, dried thick obvious the reduction, and A5, A6, A7 also present identical trend.A7 even be lower than contrast presents minimum.It is high, dried slightly apparently higher than other that A8 does, and the ratio of fibrous root is high, rare thick root.
So A8 reed end matrix: rice chaff ash: garden mould is that 1: 1: 1 nutrition soil moisture capacity, gas permeability is all comparatively moderate, the nursery stock of cultivation do high, do aspect thick, the Root Distribution all optimum.
Test Example 2
Adopt reed end matrix: rice chaff ash: garden mould was nutrition soil in 1: 1: 1 by volume; The container of choosing three kinds of different sizes of non-woven bag and vinyon flowerpot respectively carries out the grape container nursery according to embodiment; In September, 2010 continuous 5 days, detect moisture content change (Fig. 2, Fig. 3) in the container.Measure the finished product seedling in December, 2010 and do high, dried thick, Root Distribution situation (table 2).
Containers size is three kinds according to bottom surface diameter * high score: large size (30cm * 30cm), medium size (25cm * 20cm), small size (18cm * 16cm).
Like Fig. 2, shown in Figure 3, change of soil water content large size and medium size amplitude of variation basically identical in the non-woven bag, small size amplitude of variation is bigger.And the vinyon flowerpot is along with the increase of container, and the amplitude of change of soil water content reduces gradually.Because continuous 5 days large size vinyon flowerpot change of soil water content are less, the nursery stock of cultivation is prone to macerates the root phenomenon.So from practicality and economic aspect analysis, (25cm * 20cm) container is optimum to medium size.
Table 3 different vessels specification seedling growth test seedling growth situation relatively
As shown in table 3, non-woven bag is along with the increase of container, do high, do thick and root system total quantity, thick radical amount all enlarge markedly.But medium size is less with large size difference.Identical variation tendency also appears in the vinyon flowerpot.It is thus clear that selecting specification is the container about 25cm * 20cm, both economical, can produce high-quality nursery stock again.
Test Example 3
Adopt reed end matrix: rice chaff ash: garden mould was chosen the different container of 5 kinds respectively for nutrition soil in 1: 1: 1 by volume, was contrast to plant in the nursery stock on ground, garden.In September, 2010 continuous 5 days, moisture content change (Fig. 4) in the monitoring container.Measure the finished product seedling in December, 2010 and do high, dried thick, Root Distribution situation (table 4).
Can know that by Fig. 4 pottery pot change of soil water content amplitude is maximum, secondly is non-woven bag, the snakeskin bag, polyethylene plastic bag and vinyon flowerpot are compared no significant difference with the contrast of ground, garden.It is thus clear that the pottery pot moisture capacity is the poorest; Polyethylene plastic bag and vinyon flowerpot moisture capacity are best, but continuous 2~3 days moisture amplitudes of variation are less, the phenomenon that occurs macerating root easily.Nonwoven and snakeskin bag moisture capacity are moderate, but the snakeskin bag is perishable through summer high temperature.So non-woven bag is optimum.
Table 4 unlike material chamber test seedling growth situation relatively
Can be known that by table 4 just do Gao Eryan, ground, garden is the highest, secondly is non-woven bag, snakeskin bag, pottery pot is minimum.Just do slightly, polyethylene plastic bag is the thickest, and secondly ground, garden the second be non-woven bag, and pottery pot is the thinnest.With regard to the distribution of root, the thick root on ground, garden is maximum, and plastic sack and snakeskin bag are more, and other are less.
It is thus clear that, select non-woven bag to grow seedlings, seedling quality is best, but because the non-woven bag price is vinyon flowerpot, plastic sack 10 times, so from economic angle, large tracts of land is grown seedlings and selected vinyon flowerpot, plastic sack is that container is also comparatively desirable.
The above only is a preferred implementation of the present invention; Be noted that for those skilled in the art; Under the prerequisite that does not break away from the principle of the invention, can also make some improvement and retouching, these improvement and retouching also should be considered as protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (4)

1. the method for a grape container nursery is characterized in that comprising the steps:
(1) plant the selection of bar: ripe, the annual grape branch that eye is full of clip in winter is as kind of a bar, and the said kind of long 75 ~ 85cm of bar is embedded in humidity and is in 50% the wet sand winter to hide after being bundled into bundle;
(2) processing of slotting fringe: take out the slotting fringe of planting bar and being cut into 18 ~ 20cm, reservation 2 ~ 3 buds in late Febuary next year, will dip root-inducing powder at base portion behind said slotting fringe immersion 3 ~ 6h, cuttage is in being equipped with the native container of nutrition then; Said nutrition soil is reed end matrix and the mixing of garden mould, and perhaps rice chaff ash and garden mould mixes the perhaps mixing of the last matrix of reed, rice chaff ash and garden mould;
(3) cultivate nursery stock: insert fixedly young sprout of the long bamboo pole of 1m when nursery stock grows to when having 7 ~ 8 leaves to container, carry out pinching when said young sprout grows to 80cm.
2. the method for a kind of grape container nursery according to claim 1 is characterized in that: the said nutrition soil of step (2) adopts reed end matrix, rice chaff ash and garden mould to be the 1:1:1 preparation by volume.
3. the method for a kind of grape container nursery according to claim 1 is characterized in that: the said container of step (2) is non-woven bag or polyethylene plastic bag or vinyon flowerpot, the bottom surface diameter 18 ~ 30cm of said container, high 16 ~ 30cm.
4. the method for a kind of grape container nursery according to claim 3 is characterized in that: the bottom surface diameter of the said container of step (2) is 25 ~ 30cm, high 20 ~ 30cm.
CN 201110218071 2011-08-01 2011-08-01 Method for breeding seedlings of grapes by using containers Expired - Fee Related CN102349430B (en)

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Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN103975822A (en) * 2014-05-22 2014-08-13 吐鲁番枣尔康农业科技开发有限责任公司 Grape root domain limiting seedling cultivation method
CN104447005A (en) * 2014-12-04 2015-03-25 何德 Lightweight organic nutrient soil and preparation method thereof
CN104823799A (en) * 2015-06-08 2015-08-12 安顺市平坝时尚果蔬专业合作社 Grape root zone limiting cultivating method
CN105218240A (en) * 2015-10-16 2016-01-06 全椒县荣昌葡萄种植专业合作社 A kind of grape seedling medium
CN106069671A (en) * 2016-06-22 2016-11-09 青岛农业大学 Be suitable to two sections of substrate cultivating methods of fruit tree hybrid Seedling of greenhouse second crop soil
CN107873284A (en) * 2017-11-24 2018-04-06 犍为县九妹家庭农场 A kind of grape cottage breeding technology
CN110089357A (en) * 2019-05-13 2019-08-06 江西省科学院生物资源研究所 A kind of cuttage and seedling culture method of radix tetrastigme

Non-Patent Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
施雪良等: "葡萄设施育苗新方法", 《现代园艺》 *
秦元丽: "杂交山葡萄育苗技术", 《广西林业科学》 *

Cited By (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN103975822A (en) * 2014-05-22 2014-08-13 吐鲁番枣尔康农业科技开发有限责任公司 Grape root domain limiting seedling cultivation method
CN104447005A (en) * 2014-12-04 2015-03-25 何德 Lightweight organic nutrient soil and preparation method thereof
CN104823799A (en) * 2015-06-08 2015-08-12 安顺市平坝时尚果蔬专业合作社 Grape root zone limiting cultivating method
CN105218240A (en) * 2015-10-16 2016-01-06 全椒县荣昌葡萄种植专业合作社 A kind of grape seedling medium
CN106069671A (en) * 2016-06-22 2016-11-09 青岛农业大学 Be suitable to two sections of substrate cultivating methods of fruit tree hybrid Seedling of greenhouse second crop soil
CN106069671B (en) * 2016-06-22 2019-04-02 青岛农业大学 Two sections of matrix cultivating methods of fruit tree hybrid seedling suitable for greenhouse second crop soil
CN107873284A (en) * 2017-11-24 2018-04-06 犍为县九妹家庭农场 A kind of grape cottage breeding technology
CN110089357A (en) * 2019-05-13 2019-08-06 江西省科学院生物资源研究所 A kind of cuttage and seedling culture method of radix tetrastigme

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