CN101697703B - Method for bickiron inoculation of buds symbiotic to root fungi for culturing seedlings of Chinese chestnut - Google Patents

Method for bickiron inoculation of buds symbiotic to root fungi for culturing seedlings of Chinese chestnut Download PDF

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CN101697703B
CN101697703B CN2009102187168A CN200910218716A CN101697703B CN 101697703 B CN101697703 B CN 101697703B CN 2009102187168 A CN2009102187168 A CN 2009102187168A CN 200910218716 A CN200910218716 A CN 200910218716A CN 101697703 B CN101697703 B CN 101697703B
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chinese chestnut
root
bud
grafting
seedlings
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CN101697703A (en
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季志平
吕平会
何佳林
魏安智
周亚娟
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Northwest A&F University
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Abstract

The invention discloses a method for the bickiron inoculation of buds symbiotic to root fungi for culturing the seedlings of Chinese chestnut. The method adopts the methods of the bickiron graft of bud seedlings and the root-pruning inoculation of root fungi for breeding the container seedlings of Chinese chestnut of which the root system is symbiotic to the root fungi, prior diluted Chinese chestnut mycorhiza liquid or a prior Chinese chestnut mycorhiza agent is adopted, and inoculation is carried out after root pruning; on one hand, side roots have flourishing growth; on the other hand, the root system is symbiotic to the root fungi, and then the container seedlings are transplanted into a greenhouse for large-scale culture; and the seedlings after being cultured successfully are directly transplanted into a plowland, the seedling raising time is quick, the survival rate of the seedlings is high, and the growth of the seedlings is robust.

Description

A kind of method of cultivating seedlings of Chinese chestnut with the bud stock grafting of root fungus symbiosis
Technical field
The invention belongs to the cultivating seedlings field, relate to a kind of seedlings of Chinese chestnut seedling-cultivating method, particularly a kind of method of cultivating seedlings of Chinese chestnut with the bud stock grafting of root fungus symbiosis.
Background technology
Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume) claim chestnut, Mao Li again, is the special product of China.Traditional medicine thinks that Chinese chestnut is warm in nature, and it is sweet flat to distinguish the flavor of, and goes into spleen, stomach, kidney channel, and effects such as kidney tonifying, invigorating the spleen are arranged.Ming Dynasty's Li Shizhen (1518-1593 A.D.) is put down in writing in Compendium of Material Medica: " Li Zhi suffers from a deficiency of the kidney, the waist skelasthenia, can lead to kidney benefit gas, thick stomach also, kidney master stool, chestnut can main kidney ".Tangsun is thought far away Thousand Golden Prescriptions cloud: " chestnut, the salty temperature of distinguishing the flavor of, nontoxic, the Qi invigorating and intestines strengthening stomach, kidney tonifying gas makes us anti-flesh, eats it raw, it is unsuccessful very to control the waist pin ".So Chinese chestnut has the title of " kidney is fruit ".
China cultivates Chinese chestnut country the earliest in the world, and China's Chinese chestnut cultivation is distributed in 21 provinces (district), the main producing region in Shandong, Qin in Hebei, Hubei, Henan, Shaanxi clings to the mountain area.By 2004, national Chinese chestnut area under cultivation reached 1,250,000 hectares, produced 800000 tons of Chinese chestnuts per year, accounted for 71.7% of Gross World Product.Chinese chestnut is a China foreign exchange earning key product always, enjoys a very good reputation in the international market, product is in always that supply falls short of demand state.The chestnut of the annual outlet of China has 40,000 tons, and year earns foreign exchange near 7,990 ten thousand dollars, and the chestnut foreign exchange earning occupies the dry fruit first place.In recent years, under the affecting that the market demand, price and healthy food industry rise, adjust under the promotion of policy in conceding the land to forestry and agricultural structure, Chinese chestnut has had fast development in China, has built up a collection of Chinese chestnut commodity base in succession in each suitable district.Because Chinese chestnut small investment, instant effect, benefit are big, the masses have regarded Chinese chestnut as " wishing tree ", " tree of getting rich ", " cash cow ", and planting scale enlarges year by year.
But the fast development of production needs a large amount of breeding nurseries.At present, owing to lack Chinese chestnut breeding scale breeding technology, the improved variety degree of Chinese chestnut is very low, is difficult to support the Chinese chestnut good quality and high output and cultivates, and does not reach the requirement of producing the nuisanceless Chinese chestnut fruit of foreign-exchange earning high-quality.
Deng Zhongmei discloses a kind of Chinese chestnut sprout stock graft technology, and (forestry science and technology is developed, and 1999 the 1st phases 43-44), were with after the Chinese chestnut presprouting of seeds, and the Chinese chestnut branch stock that grafting is given birth to then obtains grafting after the healing cultivation; Grafting is cultivated scion bud bud at husky bed opens to put and goes out canopy when green and transplant to the land for growing field crops nursery lot.This method tool goes out garden afforestation one year, saves time, does sth. in advance solid advantage; But this method still is to adopt the mode of seedling raising and transplanting to build the garden.
At present, build Chinese chestnut and generally to adopt the grow directly from seeds mode of breeding of land for growing field crops in the garden, it is low to build the garden standard, and output does not increase.If adopt the mode of seedling raising and transplanting to build the garden, no matter be seedling or grafting, because the taproot of its nursery stock, and the root regeneration ability, it is serious to hinder root when causing nursery stock transplanting afforestation, slow seedling phenomenon is serious, solid later; Even grow into forest after transplanting, still can there be the phenomenon of solid minimizing after two to three years.This is that the symbiosis of Chinese chestnut mycorhiza is the essential condition that guarantees the Chinese chestnut normal growth because Chinese chestnut tip of a root part is normal and some mycosymbiosises form external root fungus.Because seedling soil separates, change the soil environment of soil fungi and root system symbiosis in the Chinese chestnut transplantation of seedlings wood process, just can't ensure the normal growth of root system.
Summary of the invention
The problem that the present invention solves is to provide a kind of method of cultivating seedlings of Chinese chestnut with the bud stock grafting of root fungus symbiosis, this method is a kind of seedlings of Chinese chestnut that has root fungus of cultivating on the basis that bud stock grafting is grown seedlings, can realize quick, the large-scale cultivation, the nursery stock that this method is cultivated can be directly used in field-transplanting, the survival rate height, the seedling growth stalwartness.
The present invention is achieved through the following technical solutions:
A kind of method of cultivating seedlings of Chinese chestnut with the bud stock grafting of root fungus symbiosis comprises the following steps:
1) inoculation Chinese chestnut root fungus
The grafting that bud stock grafting is cultivated comprises that the tip of a root of main lateral root clips 0.5~2cm, dips in root 2~3s then in Chinese chestnut root fungus liquid;
2) cultivation of container seedling
The grafting that has inoculated Chinese chestnut root fungus liquid is transplanted in the container of cultivating matrix is housed, transplanted the degree of depth and make the grafting interface expose cultivation matrix;
Grafting is transplanted to behind the container seedling, sprays the water cooking liquid 30ml~50ml of Chinese chestnut sylvan life dry branches and fallen leaves the same day;
3) warm canopy is cultivated
Move in the warm canopy that seals within the 6h behind the container seedling sprinkling water cooking liquid and cultivate, keep the interior relative moisture of canopy between 70~80%, temperature is no more than 35 ℃;
4) seedling management
Between warm canopy culture period, in time remove stock rudiment and bud;
The temperature canopy is thrown off film and is leaked informaton after keeping sealing 30~40 days night; After this, the potassium dihydrogen phosphate solution that sprayed mass fraction 0.2~0.3% every 10~15 days once;
Before container seedling was transplanted the land for growing field crops, the water cooking liquid that carries out a Chinese chestnut sylvan life dry branches and fallen leaves again sprayed, and every strain container seedling is sprayed 30ml~50ml.
The Chinese chestnut root fungus liquid of using during described inoculation Chinese chestnut root fungus is the Chinese chestnut root fungus liquid or the agent of Chinese chestnut root fungus of 1000 times of dilutions configuring in advance.
Described Chinese chestnut root fungus liquid is the mix bacterium agent that contains red suede lid bolete (Xerocomus chrysenteron) and wool cortina bacterium (Cortinarius sublanatu).
Described cultivation matrix is: the Chinese chestnut sylvan life table soil of mass fraction 25%~45%, the baked wheaten cake soil or the mold of mass fraction 20%~40%, the sand of mass fraction 20%~30%, the superphosphate of mass fraction 3%~5%, the potassium sulphate of mass fraction 1~5%, the ferrous sulfate of mass fraction 0.5%~2%.
The water cooking liquid of described Chinese chestnut sylvan life dry branches and fallen leaves is: boil Chinese chestnut sylvan life dry branches and fallen leaves 30min, the filtered fluid after static the cooling with 100 ℃ of boiling water.
Describedly on the warm canopy of the sealing that container seedling moves into, taken cool canopy, kept remove later cool canopy to summer.
The used container of described cultivation container seedling is the black plastic container, diameter 16~20cm, height 20cm; Perhaps adopt degradable container.
Described bud stock grafting is cultivated grafting and be may further comprise the steps:
1) vernalization of anvil kind
Be 0.5% liquor potassic permanganate seed soaking 2h with selected Chinese chestnut seed mass concentration or be that 2%~3% liquor potassic permanganate is soaked seed and taken out behind the 30min with mass concentration, be tiled on the husky bed after clean with flushing with clean water, cover sand bed and water sufficient saturation water, on sand bed, cover ventilative film; Husky bed humidity remains on 40%, and temperature is controlled at 15~20 ℃, keeps 15~20 days;
When treating seed base-root length to 2~3cm, clip radicle tip of a root 1cm, the seed of the radicle tip of a root that broken is soaked 1~3s at the methyl of 50ppm or the ABT3 root-inducing powder of 50~100ppm, take out seed then, the tip of a root is placed in the warm canopy on the ready-made in advance husky bed by grain downwards, cover thin sand and soil, continue vernalization; Temperature of shed is controlled at 20~25 ℃, and relative moisture remains on 80%~85%, keeps 20~25 days;
2) gather scion
The Chinese chestnut branch of gathering the semi-lignified of newly growing then collects grafting as scion from scion, and the time can not be above 12 hours;
3) grafting
When treating that plumule grows to 3~5cm, the bud seedling is taken out from warm canopy, blocks the upper end of bud seedling, keep bud shoot root minister 2.5~3cm, then from the central longitudinal of bud stem to incision, long incision 1.5~2cm;
The Chinese chestnut branch for the treatment of grafting is cut into scion, and each fringe stays two buds, stays the limb of 0.5cm on first bud, stays the limb of 1.5~2cm under second bud; The branch lower end is whittled into wedge shape, the long 1~2cm of bevel, 2 cuttves are whittled into, and can not mend cutter;
The scion of cutting is inserted 1.5~2cm from bud stem incision, colligation behind the good cambium is fixed;
Healing obtains grafting after cultivating.
The described Chinese chestnut branch that is used for grafting is the semi-lignified branch that new then diameter of growing and bud anvil match;
The semi-lignified phase of bud anvil growth rate and scion coincide realizes by the temperature of regulating vernalization temperature canopy, humidity control bud anvil growth rate.
The described scion that will cut is inserted when carrying out grafting from bud stem incision, behind good cambium, do not leave a blank down between scion and the otch, on do not show money or valuables one carries unintentionally; Fix or use the plastic film colligation then with aluminium foil.
Compared with prior art, the present invention has following beneficial technical effects:
Chinese chestnut breeding method provided by the invention is that the employing sprout stock is transferred and the method for the inoculation root fungus of being completely cured is bred the Chinese chestnut container seedling of root system and root fungus symbiosis, then container seedling is moved in the warm canopy and cultivates on a large scale; The nursery stock of growing seedlings after the success is grafted directly to the land for growing field crops, and seedling raise period is fast, the plant percent height.
Owing to after being completely cured of grafting, inoculate the Chinese chestnut root fungus, and cultivate cultivating on the matrix, make and root system and the root fungus symbiosis of the nursery stock cultivated have improved the survival rate after the transplanting greatly, and the plant root well-grown afterwards that grows into forest, solid effective.
Application number is that 200610081201.4 Chinese invention patent discloses the agent of a kind of Chinese chestnut root fungus, and discloses root fungus agent with its preparation and be used for the root that soaks that the seed soaking of seeding and seedling raising or direct seeding forestation and annual nursery stock plant.By comparison, Chinese chestnut mycorhiza bacterium liquid of the present invention can adopt above-mentioned Chinese chestnut mycorhiza liquid or the agent of Chinese chestnut mycorhiza through dilution, but the root that dips in of the present invention comprises inoculation after the tip of a root of main lateral root is completely cured grafting, make on the one hand the lateral root growth prosperity, make root system and root fungus symbiosis on the other hand; And be condition to symbiosis necessity of the growth that promotes root system and root fungus at the cultivation matrix in cultivation of container seedling stage and the water cooking liquid that sprays the sylvan life fallen leaves for twice; Abolish container at last and transplant the symbiosis that reaches root system and root fungus behind the land for growing field crops.
In the bud stock grafting and the cultivation of two megastages of root fungus symbiosis that the present invention also provides, comprise and being completely cured for twice, the effect of blocking disconnected radicle when once being the vernalization of anvil kind is to expedite the emergence of lateral root, is for the second time being completely cured of grafting after the grafting, and this is completely cured is in order to inoculate root fungus; Twice be completely cured promoted the continuous growth of root system, for the symbiosis with root fungus provides advantageous conditions.
The identical of scion and plumule is the key of grafting success in the middle of bud stock grafting, comprise bud anvil growth appropriateness (3~5cm) with the coincideing of semi-lignified phase of scion, and the coincideing of scion diameter and bud anvil diameter basically identical, the present invention controls bud anvil growth rate by the temperature of regulating vernalization temperature canopy, humidity.
Embodiment
Chinese chestnut breeding method provided by the invention is to adopt sprout stock to transfer and the method for the inoculation root fungus of being completely cured is bred the seedlings of Chinese chestnut of root system and root fungus symbiosis, and the nursery stock directly transplanting of cultivation is in field planting, and seedling raise period is fast, the plant percent height.
Grow seedlings and comprise that sprout stock connects with the root fungus symbiosis and grew seedlings for two megastages; The detailed stage of growing seedlings comprises: the vernalization of anvil kind, collection scion, grafting, inoculation root fungus, cultivation of container seedling, warm canopy are cultivated and the seedling management stage.Below in conjunction with embodiment the present invention is done to describe in further detail, the explanation of the invention is not limited.
Embodiment 1
A kind of method of cultivating seedlings of Chinese chestnut with the bud stock grafting of root fungus symbiosis comprises the following steps:
1) vernalization of anvil kind
In the north, the Qinling Mountains, Shaanxi, at the beginning of 10 months, selective maturation degree seed mass concentration good, no damage by disease and insect is 0.5% liquor potassic permanganate seed soaking 2h after the Chinese chestnut maturation, with flushing with clean water clean after, layering is tiled on the husky bed, covers sand bed and waters sufficient saturation water, covers ventilative film on sand bed; Husky bed humidity remains on 60%, and temperature is controlled to be at 15~20 ℃, keeps 15~20 days;
When treating seed base-root length to 2~3cm, clip the radicle tip of a root from tip of a root 1.5cm, the methyl at 50ppm soaks 1~3s then, moves into warm canopy vernalization; Be convenient to the sprouting of lateral root after clipping the tip of a root and soaking the methyl of 50ppm;
The seed of clipping the radicle tip of a root is placed on the husky bed by grain, and the tip of a root is downward, and covers thin sand and soil; Temperature of shed is controlled at 20~25 ℃, and relative moisture remains on 80%~85%, keeps 20~25 days; By the growth of control temperature of shed control bud seedling, guarantee that scion acquisition time and bud seedling developmental phase coincide.
2) gather scion
When treating that plumule can grow to 3~4cm, gathering then, (with bud anvil rugosity basically identical) Chinese chestnut branch of the diameter 4~5mm of new semi-lignified of growing carries out grafting; Collect grafting from branch, the time is no more than 12 hours;
3) grafting
When the bud seedling length to 3 of anvil kind~5cm, from warm canopy, take out the bud seedling, block the upper end of bud seedling, keep the long 2.5~3cm of bud seedling, then from the central longitudinal of bud stem to incision, long incision 1.5~2cm;
The Chinese chestnut branch is cut into scion, and each fringe stays two buds, stays the limb of 0.5cm on first bud, stays the limb of 1.5~2cm under second bud; The branch lower end is whittled into wedge shape, the long 1~2cm of bevel, 2 cuttves are whittled into, and can not mend cutter;
The scion of cutting is inserted from bud stem incision, dark about 1.5~2cm, to good cambium, colligation is fixed again;
4) inoculation Chinese chestnut mycorhiza bacterium
The grafting tip of a root after the grafting is clipped 0.5~2cm, in Chinese chestnut root fungus liquid, dip in root 3s then; Chinese chestnut root fungus liquid is the Chinese chestnut root fungus liquid or the agent of Chinese chestnut root fungus of 1000 times of dilutions configuring in advance;
5) cultivation of container seedling
The grafting that has inoculated Chinese chestnut root fungus liquid is transplanted in the container of cultivating matrix is housed, transplanted the degree of depth grafting interface is exposed; The prescription of cultivating matrix is: the Chinese chestnut sylvan life table soil of mass fraction 45%, the baked wheaten cake soil or the mold of mass fraction 30%, the sand of mass fraction 20%, the superphosphate of mass fraction 3%, the potassium sulphate (K of mass fraction 1.5% 2SO 4), the ferrous sulfate (FeSO of mass fraction 0.5% 4).
Grafting is transplanted to behind the container seedling, sprays the water cooking liquid of 2 Chinese chestnut sylvan life dry branches and fallen leavess, and once sprayed the same day after transplanting, once sprays before transplanting the land for growing field crops, and the sprinkling amount is controlled at each container 30ml~50ml;
6) warm canopy is cultivated
After container seedling has been sprayed the water cooking liquid of the dry branches and fallen leaves of Chinese chestnut sylvan life for the first time, will move in 6 hours in the warm canopy of sealing and cultivate.Keep the interior relative moisture of canopy between 70~80%, temperature is no more than 35 ℃; On the warm canopy of the sealing that container seedling moves into, taken cool canopy, after the shed of sealing is thrown off film, kept remove later cool canopy to summer;
7) seedling management
Keep shed sealing 20 days, can throw off film after 30~40 days, remove the stock rudiment, extract the bud of germinating; Nursery stock is after taking off film, every 10~15 days spray 0.2~0.3% potassium dihydrogen phosphate solutions once.
Long to about high 15cm when container seedling, just can directly carry out field planting during thick 8~10mm.
Embodiment 2
A kind of method of cultivating seedlings of Chinese chestnut with the bud stock grafting of root fungus symbiosis comprises the following steps:
1) collection of anvil kind is hidden with husky
In the Baoji, at the beginning of 10 months, select local fine tree species society chestnut elite stand to gather seed, the selective maturation degree is good, the seed of no damage by disease and insect, with mass concentration is to take out the sand Tibetan behind 2%~3% the liquor potassic permanganate seed soaking 30min; Husky humidity requirement is held agglomerating, openhanded degree of promptly loosing, and temperature is controlled in 15 ℃; Stirred once in per 7 days.
2) vernalization
Select leeward on the sunny side, build plastic tunnel, the wide 6m of canopy, high 2m, long 20~30m on irrigation and drainage are convenient, physical features the is smooth sandy loam.
Pad 2cm fine sand is made husky bed in booth, and the ditch 30cm that do not bother to see me out is wide, puts the thick seed of 2~3cm on sand, puts the thick sand of 3cm on seed, waters sufficient saturated water amount, and is at husky loam cake upper film, tight with soil pressure all around then; Husky bed humidity remains on 85%~90%, and temperature is controlled to be at 15~20 ℃ Celsius, keeps 15~20 days.
3) disconnected radicle is urged root
In 3 months coming year, the last ten-days period, when treating seed base-root length to the 2~3cm left and right sides, take out the back and sieve repeatedly with sieve, make it to knock mutually radicle 1cm (bud), the chestnut kind of germinateing continues husky the Tibetan, with germinateing with being completely cured.
The seed of the radicle that broken was soaked 1~3 second at the ABT3 of 50~100ppm root-inducing powder, move into warm canopy then and continue to urge plumule, seed is placed on the husky bed by grain, and the tip of a root is downward, is covered with the thick thin sand and soil of 10cm then; Temperature of shed is controlled at 20~25 ℃ Celsius, and relative moisture remains on 80%, keeps 20~25 days, treats that plumule can grow to 3~4cm and get final product grafting.
4) scion collection
In mid or late April, when treating that plumule can grow to 3~4cm, the new then semi-lignified branch of growing of 4 collections later in afternoon, diameter rugosity 4~5mm transports grafting ground immediately to and carries out grafting; Require the next morning grafting to finish, the time can not be above 12 hours.
In the time of can growing to 3~4cm in order to ensure plumule, branch just is in the semi-lignified degree, can be by control greenhouse temperature and appropriateness control bud seedling growth rate, and too fast when the growth of bud anvil, just can reduce greenhouse temperature and humidity is controlled.
5) grafting
When bud length to 3~5cm, from warm canopy, take out the bud seedling of making stock, with the upper end of disconnected its bud seedling of single face cutter, the bud seedling only keeps 2.5~3cm length, again with single-edge blade from the central longitudinal of bud stem to incision, otch is about 1.5~2cm;
Before grafting, branch is cut into scion, stay 2 full buds, stay the limb of 0.5cm on first bud, stay the limb of 1.5~2cm under second bud; Scion is whittled into wedge shape with scraper, the long 1~2cm of bevel, 2 cuttves are whittled into, and can not mend cutter.
The scion of cutting is inserted dark about 1.5~2cm from bud stem incision,, accomplishes down not leave a blank as far as possible good cambium, on do not show money or valuables one carries unintentionally; Fix or use the plastic film colligation at last with aluminium foil.
4) inoculation Chinese chestnut root fungus
The grafting tip of a root (together with lateral root) after the grafting is clipped 0.5~2cm, in 1000 times of dilutions of the Chinese chestnut root fungus that configures, dip in 2 seconds of root.
5) cultivation of container seedling
The grafting that has inoculated Chinese chestnut root fungus liquid is transplanted in the container of cultivating matrix is housed, used container to be ordinary soft black plastic bag, specification is 15cm * 22m, transplants the degree of depth and is advisable with the aluminium foil cover letter of exposing interface;
Cultivation matrix is: the Chinese chestnut sylvan life table soil of mass fraction 35.5%, the baked wheaten cake soil or the mold of mass fraction 30%, the sand of mass fraction 25%, the superphosphate of mass fraction 5%, the potassium sulphate (K of mass fraction 3% 2SO 4), the ferrous sulfate (FeSO of mass fraction 1.5% 4).
Grafting is transplanted to behind the container seedling, sprays the water cooking liquid of a Chinese chestnut sylvan life dry branches and fallen leaves immediately, sprays once before transplanting the land for growing field crops then again, and the sprinkling amount is controlled at each container 30ml~50ml;
6) warm canopy is cultivated
In the water cooking liquid that has sprayed Chinese chestnut sylvan life first time dry branches and fallen leaves 6 hours, container seedling is moved in the plastic canopy of sealing, cost cool canopy on the shed again; Keep the interior relative moisture of canopy between 70~80%, temperature is no more than 35 ℃, continues 20 days, can not take off canopy therebetween and leak informaton;
Throw off film after 30~40 days again, but can not remove cool canopy, wait after the summer high temperature, when temperature drops to below 30 ℃, just can remove cool canopy.
7) seedling management
After throwing off film, stock rudiment and dead individual plant be in time removed, also the bud of sprouting will be in time extractd simultaneously, and every 10~15 days spray 0.2~0.3% potassium dihydrogen phosphate solutions once.
If meet long-term wet weather, subterranean water level rises, and easily causes root rot, and should strengthen light transmittance this moment, film two can be opened, and in order to ventilated, ditch cleaning draining in time simultaneously.
Long to about high 15cm when container seedling, just can directly carry out field planting during thick 8~10mm.Generally transplant, scratch plastic sack during plantation, take out nursery stock and place in kind of the plant hole, cut off the crooked root system in lower end in spring.Want behind the transplanted seedling tree about 20cm above ground level, the nursery stock collar was above the ground level after the back earth that guarantees to pour water sank.
If the employing degradable container can adopt band container transplanting method, needn't abolish container, can keep the condition of root system and root fungus symbiosis not to be destroyed, improve plant percent.
The contrast that the foregoing description bud stock grafting cultivation Chinese chestnut seedling that cultivate and the root fungus symbiosis and the common grafting of growing directly from seeds are planted between the seedling is as shown in table 1, and the beneficial effect that the present invention had is conspicuous.
The bud anvil of table 1 root fungus symbiosis and common grafting seedling and the grafting of the growing directly from seeds contrast between the seedling of planting

Claims (10)

1. a method of cultivating seedlings of Chinese chestnut with the bud stock grafting of root fungus symbiosis is characterized in that, comprises the following steps:
1) inoculation Chinese chestnut root fungus
The grafting that bud stock grafting is cultivated comprises that the tip of a root of main lateral root clips 0.5~2cm, dips in root 2~3s then in Chinese chestnut root fungus liquid;
2) cultivation of container seedling
The grafting that has inoculated Chinese chestnut root fungus liquid is transplanted in the container of cultivating matrix is housed, transplanted the degree of depth and make the grafting interface expose cultivation matrix;
Grafting is transplanted to behind the container seedling, and every strain container seedling was sprayed the water cooking liquid 30ml~50ml of Chinese chestnut sylvan life dry branches and fallen leaves the same day;
3) warm canopy is cultivated
Move in the warm canopy that seals within the 6h behind the container seedling sprinkling water cooking liquid and cultivate, keep the interior relative moisture of canopy between 70~80%, temperature is no more than 35 ℃;
4) seedling management
Between warm canopy culture period, in time remove stock rudiment and bud;
The temperature canopy is thrown off film and is leaked informaton after keeping sealing 30~40 days night; After this, the potassium dihydrogen phosphate solution that sprayed mass fraction 0.2~0.3% every 10~15 days once;
Before container seedling was transplanted the land for growing field crops, the water cooking liquid that carries out a Chinese chestnut sylvan life dry branches and fallen leaves again sprayed, and every strain container seedling is sprayed 30ml~50ml.
2. the bud stock grafting of as claimed in claim 1 and root fungus symbiosis is cultivated the method for seedlings of Chinese chestnut, it is characterized in that, the Chinese chestnut root fungus liquid of using during described inoculation Chinese chestnut root fungus is the Chinese chestnut root fungus liquid or the agent of Chinese chestnut root fungus of 1000 times of dilutions configuring in advance.
3. method of cultivating seedlings of Chinese chestnut as claimed in claim 2 with the bud stock grafting of root fungus symbiosis, it is characterized in that described Chinese chestnut root fungus liquid is the mix bacterium agent that contains red suede lid bolete (Xerocomus chrysenteron) and wool cortina bacterium (Cortinarius sublanatu).
4. method of cultivating seedlings of Chinese chestnut as claimed in claim 1 with the bud stock grafting of root fungus symbiosis, it is characterized in that, described cultivation matrix is: the Chinese chestnut sylvan life table soil of mass fraction 25%~45%, the baked wheaten cake soil or the mold of mass fraction 20%~40%, the sand of mass fraction 20%~30%, the superphosphate of mass fraction 3%~5%, the potassium sulphate of mass fraction 1~5%, the ferrous sulfate of mass fraction 0.5%~2%.
5. method of cultivating seedlings of Chinese chestnut with the bud stock grafting of root fungus symbiosis as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that the water cooking liquid of described Chinese chestnut sylvan life dry branches and fallen leaves is: boil Chinese chestnut sylvan life dry branches and fallen leaves 30min with 100 ℃ of boiling water, leave standstill the filtered fluid after cooling.
6. the bud stock grafting of as claimed in claim 1 and root fungus symbiosis is cultivated the method for seedlings of Chinese chestnut, it is characterized in that, has describedly taken cool canopy on the warm canopy of the sealing that container seedling moves into, and keeps remove later cool canopy to summer.
7. method of cultivating seedlings of Chinese chestnut with the bud stock grafting of root fungus symbiosis as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that cultivating the used container of container seedling is the black plastic container, diameter 16~20cm, height 20cm; Perhaps adopt degradable container.
8. method of cultivating seedlings of Chinese chestnut with the bud stock grafting of root fungus symbiosis as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that, described bud stock grafting is cultivated grafting and be may further comprise the steps:
1) vernalization of anvil kind
Be 0.5% liquor potassic permanganate seed soaking 2h with selected Chinese chestnut seed mass concentration or be that 2%~3% liquor potassic permanganate is soaked seed and taken out behind the 30min with mass concentration, be tiled on the husky bed after clean with flushing with clean water, cover sand bed and water sufficient saturation water, on sand bed, cover ventilative film; Husky bed humidity remains on 60%, and temperature is controlled at 15~20 ℃, keeps 15~20 days;
When treating seed base-root length to 2~3cm, clip radicle tip of a root 1cm, the seed of the radicle tip of a root that broken is soaked 1~3s at the methyl of 50ppm or the ABT3 root-inducing powder of 50~100ppm, take out seed then, the tip of a root is placed in the warm canopy on the ready-made in advance husky bed by grain downwards, cover thin sand and soil, continue vernalization; Temperature of shed is controlled at 20~25 ℃, and relative moisture remains on 80%~85%, keeps 20~25 days;
2) gather scion
The Chinese chestnut branch of gathering the semi-lignified of newly growing then collects grafting as scion from scion, and the time can not be above 12 hours;
3) grafting
When treating that plumule grows to 3~5cm, the bud seedling is taken out from warm canopy, blocks the upper end of bud seedling, keep bud shoot root minister 2.5~3cm, then from the central longitudinal of bud stem to incision, long incision 1.5~2cm;
The Chinese chestnut branch for the treatment of grafting is cut into scion, and each fringe stays two buds, stays the limb of 0.5cm on first bud, stays the limb of 1.5~2cm under second bud; The branch lower end is whittled into wedge shape, the long 1~2cm of bevel, 2 cuttves are whittled into, and can not mend cutter;
The scion of cutting is inserted 1.5~2cm from bud stem incision, colligation behind the good cambium is fixed;
Healing obtains grafting after cultivating.
9. method of cultivating seedlings of Chinese chestnut with the bud stock grafting of root fungus symbiosis as claimed in claim 8 is characterized in that, the described Chinese chestnut branch that is used for grafting is the semi-lignified branch that new then diameter of growing and bud anvil match;
The semi-lignified phase of bud anvil growth rate and scion coincide realizes by the temperature of regulating vernalization temperature canopy, humidity control bud anvil growth rate.
10. the bud stock grafting of as claimed in claim 8 and root fungus symbiosis is cultivated the method for seedlings of Chinese chestnut, it is characterized in that, the described scion that will cut is inserted when carrying out grafting from bud stem incision, behind good cambium, do not leave a blank down between scion and the otch, on do not show money or valuables one carries unintentionally; Fix or use the plastic film colligation then with aluminium foil.
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