CN101507410B - Machine-transplanted rice seedling raising ground substance - Google Patents

Machine-transplanted rice seedling raising ground substance Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101507410B
CN101507410B CN2009100299667A CN200910029966A CN101507410B CN 101507410 B CN101507410 B CN 101507410B CN 2009100299667 A CN2009100299667 A CN 2009100299667A CN 200910029966 A CN200910029966 A CN 200910029966A CN 101507410 B CN101507410 B CN 101507410B
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China
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seedling raising
rice seedling
machine
ground substance
raising ground
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CN2009100299667A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN101507410A (en
Inventor
王其传
徐春山
祁红英
陈月珍
沈志远
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王其传
淮安柴米河农业科技发展有限公司
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02WCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT OR WASTE MANAGEMENT
    • Y02W30/00Technologies for solid waste management
    • Y02W30/40Bio-organic fraction processing; Production of fertilisers from the organic fraction of waste or refuse

Abstract

The invention relates to a rice seedling raising substrate, in particular to a rice seedling raising substrate taking agricultural and forestal wastes as materials and mechanically transplanting rice seedlings. The forming steps of the rice seedling raising substrate of the invention are as follows: organic wastes such as straws are taken as raw materials, fermented by various beneficial microorganisms, and prepared into an organic substrate with a fertilizer slow release and caking agent and a water retention agent. The rice seedling raising substrate has strong stress resistance and strong compatibility with mechanical rice transplanting technology, and makes the rice seedlings have good quality; and the technology of raising the rice seedlings by the substrate is simple, and has low cost and high success ratio.

Description

Machine-transplanted rice seedling raising ground substance
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of rice seedling raising ground substance and production method thereof, particularly a kind of is seedling raising ground substance and production method thereof material, the rice mechanization rice transplanting with the agriculture and forestry organic waste material.
Background technology
The seedling-cultivation technique of existing machine-transplanted rice has plants the standardization that matches with machinery and moulds grow seedlings stripping and slicing technology, calcium of dish seedling growing process, the two films of open country and mould and serve as a contrast plate seedling raising technology, woven cloth seedling-cultivation technique etc.Above-mentioned seedling raising method still with soil as host material, though adopt nutrition soil seedling direct cost lower, but labour intensity is big owing to fetch earth, seedling, lifting recruitment are many, disease is serious, complex procedures is not easy to standardization, standardized operation, and the peasant often causes the seedling failure because of grasping for the moment its technology; The soil of the nutrition simultaneously seedling many shortcomings such as area is big, seedling dish weight is big, and Work machine load galling is fast that occupy cultivated land have limited the popularization of mechanized planting technology.
In order to overcome the drawback of nutrition soil seedling, present having utilizes the pulverizing rice husk directly as seedling raising ground substance, researched and developed paddy rice joint seedlings and soil technology, still unleavened rice husk hypotrophy, the unfavorable root growth of the fertile water retention property difference of guarantor, especially be not suitable for non-irrigated seedling, grow disease simultaneously easily; Also having with agricultural rock wool is that matrix has proposed paddy rice immunity seedling growing process; Also having with special organic matter is carrier, is developed into the module seedling raising ground substance with the combination high-tech means, but these materials can't decompose, and long-term use can cause soil pollution, and the cost height is not suitable for peasant household's use simultaneously; Also have Shanghai Donghua University to develop novel straw type non-weaving cloth and do not have native nutrient solution seedling-cultivation technique as rice seedling raising ground substance, but owing to one be technical sophistication, cost height, the 2nd, light weight is swayed easily, machine transplanting of rice difficulty.
Summary of the invention
The objective of the invention is to overcome the defective that above-mentioned existing seedling-cultivation technique exists, providing a kind of is raw material with organic wastes such as straws, through the multiple beneficial microbial fermentation, be mixed with organic substrate with fertilizer slow release, binding agent, water-loss reducer, seedling raising ground substance and production method thereof, this seedling raising ground substance resistance are strong, seedling quality is good, with machine rice transplanting technical compatibility is strong, the matrix seedling-cultivation technique is simple, with low cost, success rate is high.The present invention realizes by the following technical solutions:
A kind of method of cultivating machine-transplanted rice seedling raising ground substance comprises
(1) agriculture and forestry organic waste material is shredded or is crushed to 0.5~1.5cm length;
(2) add organic manure or feces of livestock and poultry, grouts or analog in above-mentioned agriculture and forestry organic waste material, add the slowly-releasing inorganic fertilizer again, form mixed material, the weight ratio of three kinds of raw materials is 4: 5: 1;
(3) in above-mentioned mixed material, add saccharomycete or actinomycetes or lactic acid bacteria or sporeformer, or above mixed bacterial, wherein the mixing ratio of mixed bacterial is a saccharomycete: actinomycetes: lactic acid bacteria: sporeformer=20: 5: 3: 10, add biocontrol microorganisms again;
(4) 60% the water yield that adds its cumulative volume in the mixed material after adding bacterium is is more evenly mixed and stirred, stacking, cover film preserve moisture, and begins fermentation;
(5) in the time of 15~20 days, note measuring the stacking temperature, when average heap temperature rise is carried out turning for nearly 60 ℃, day on daytime temperature higher, every aeration 15 minutes half an hour, about about 30 days, form machine-transplanted rice seedling raising ground substance, in cold especially winter, with the proper extension fermentation time.
The advantage of matrix seedling of the present invention concentrates on: 1. resistance is stronger, seedling quality is good, there are not disease generations such as upright withered, that green grass or young crops is withered, rice shoot is short strong, lower 15% than the average plant height of nutrition seedlings and soil, false stem increases slightly (wide) 0.12cm, and blade is roomy, color and luster is bright green, and it is long more than 5 days than the nutrition seedlings and soil that rice shoot suitable planted the phase.2. there is not seedling-slowing stage behind the matrix shoot transplanting equipment.The rice shoot well developed root system, packing power is strong, compares with the nutrition seedlings and soil, the white root of every young plant increases by 4.03, packing power strengthens 25%, transplant plant hinder light, rooting ability is strong, it is fast to send out seedling in early days, helps the Honda chemical weed control.3. strong with machine rice transplanting technical compatibility.Matrix unit weight is lighter, and every disk base material seedling weighs 1.5~1.7kg and only is 1/4~1/6 of equal-volume soil, and the rice transplanting mechanical load is little, light to mechanical wear, the speed of planting improves 20% than the native seedling of nutrition, and every hand machine every day at least can many rice transplantings 5 mu, and the rate of being short of seedling significantly reduces.4. the matrix seedling-cultivation technique is simple, with low cost, success rate is high.The user only needs " sow kind, water water " can bring out healthy and strong rice shoot; The matrix seedling, every mu of land for growing field crops of more conventional nutrition seedlings and soil integrated cost is saved 8~15 yuan; Matrix seedling seedling Honda area ratio is 1: 150~180, has both solved conventional seedling soil and the bigger problem of topsoil consumption, has improved seedling again, has reduced risk factor.5. the ground mass industrial seedling is effective agronomic measures of preventing and treating stripe disease.
Embodiment:
In order to deepen the understanding of the present invention, the invention will be further described below in conjunction with embodiment, and this embodiment only is used to explain the present invention, do not constitute the qualification to protection domain of the present invention.
The present invention be obtain implementation result satisfied seedling raising ground substance, each step to the seedling technical process is successively repeatedly carried out various experimental studies, as: the screening of body material and experimental pretreatment, inoculation fermentation bacterium are tested, moisture content is regulated and control test, adjustment and control test, aeration time are tested at interval, fertilizer slow-release formulation is tested, add special nutriment tests or the like.Now introduce the seedling technical process by preferred forms:
Get agricultural solid organic castoff 200kg such as stalk, it is long to shred or be crushed to 0.5~1.5cm, add organic fertilizer or feces of livestock and poultry, grouts or analog 250kg, slowly-releasing inorganic fertilizer 50kg, the weight ratio of above-mentioned raw materials is 4: 5: 1, add saccharomycete, or actinomycetes, or lactic acid bacteria, or sporeformer, or above mixed bacterial, wherein the mixing ratio of mixed bacterial is a saccharomycete: actinomycetes: lactic acid bacteria: sporeformer=20: 5: 3: 10, the amount of single bacterium or mixed bacterial is 1kg, biocontrol microorganisms 1kg, 60% the water yield that adds above all substances cumulative volume (about 5 cubic metres) is is evenly mixed and stirred, stacking, cover film is preserved moisture, and begins fermentation, note measuring the stacking temperature in the time of 15~20 days, when average heap temperature rise is carried out turning for nearly 60 ℃, day on daytime temperature higher, every aeration 15 minutes half an hour.Generally: from building the interior fermentation finished thoroughly1 of heap about about 30 days, in cold especially winter, with the proper extension fermentation time.Gather sample determination result in the heap, nitrogenous 1.54%, phosphorous (P 2O 5) be 2.1, contain potassium 0.37, NPK total amount 4.02, alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen 2418.5Nmg/kg, electrical conductivity EC 1.62ms/cm, pH 6.42, meet the requirement of full nutrition organic active matrix fully.
The rice seedling raising ground substance of producing according to above-mentioned process, the composition ratio is, the humus 60~70% that agriculture and forestry organic waste material fermentation finished thoroughly1s such as stalk form, porous high-specific surface area material (expanded mica or zeolite or active carbon) 20~30%, activated humic acid 7%, high polymer binder, water-keeping material (polyacrylamide etc.) 2%, organic acid antioxidant 0.5%.
Seedling raising ground substance of the present invention and seedling-cultivation technique, be to be raw material with plant residues such as crop stalks, technology such as integrated application microbial fermentation, control physicochemical characters such as the suction of product, water retention property by adjusting raw-material ratio and specific production technology, and add the grow various elements of needs of rice seedling in process of production, with the growth of satisfying paddy rice different demands to fertilizer, oxidation by microbial fermentation produces humic acid, antioxidant alleviation divalent iron solves the problem that drought is educated the etiolated seedling under the condition.This matrix possesses the required whole nutrition of rice seedling, can adapt to non-irrigated seedling, water is educated and the requirement of water-raised seedling, and the user only needs " sow kind, water water " can bring out healthy and strong rice shoot, is a kind of point-and-shoot seedling-cultivation technique.

Claims (5)

1. machine-transplanted rice seedling raising ground substance, it is characterized in that the composition ratio is, the humus 60~70% that the agriculture and forestry organic waste material fermentation finished thoroughly1 forms, porous high-specific surface area material 20~30%, activated humic acid 7%, high polymer binder, water-keeping material 2%, organic acid antioxidant 0.5%, each composition is 100% than sum, and the step that described machine-transplanted rice seedling raising ground substance forms is:
(1) agriculture and forestry organic waste material is shredded or is crushed to 0.5~1.5cm length;
(2) add organic manure, feces of livestock and poultry or grouts in above-mentioned agriculture and forestry organic waste material, add the slowly-releasing inorganic fertilizer again, form mixed material, the weight ratio of three kinds of raw materials is 4: 5: 1;
(3) in above-mentioned mixed material, add saccharomycete or actinomycetes or lactic acid bacteria or sporeformer, or above mixed bacterial, wherein the mixing ratio of mixed bacterial is a saccharomycete: actinomycetes: lactic acid bacteria: sporeformer=20: 5: 3: 10, add biocontrol microorganisms again;
(4) 60% the water yield that adds its cumulative volume in the mixed material after adding bacterium is is more evenly mixed and stirred, stacking, cover film preserve moisture, and begins fermentation;
(5) in the time of 15~20 days, note measuring the stacking temperature, when average heap temperature rise is carried out turning for nearly 60 ℃, day on daytime temperature higher, every aeration 15 minutes half an hour, about 30 days, form machine-transplanted rice seedling raising ground substance, in cold especially winter, with the proper extension fermentation time.
2. machine-transplanted rice seedling raising ground substance according to claim 1 is characterized in that: get agriculture and forestry organic waste material 200kg in the step 2, organic manure, feces of livestock and poultry or grouts 250kg, slowly-releasing inorganic fertilizer 50kg.
3. machine-transplanted rice seedling raising ground substance according to claim 1 is characterized in that: the amount of saccharomycete described in the step 3 or actinomycetes or lactic acid bacteria or sporeformer or mixed bacterial is 1kg, and the amount of described biocontrol microorganisms is 1kg.
4. machine-transplanted rice seedling raising ground substance according to claim 1 is characterized in that: described porous high-specific surface area material is expanded mica, zeolite or active carbon.
5. machine-transplanted rice seedling raising ground substance according to claim 1 is characterized in that: described water-keeping material is a polyacrylamide.
CN2009100299667A 2009-03-30 2009-03-30 Machine-transplanted rice seedling raising ground substance CN101507410B (en)

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