CN113141891B - Method for cutting tea tree germplasm resources in short spikes - Google Patents

Method for cutting tea tree germplasm resources in short spikes Download PDF

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CN113141891B
CN113141891B CN202110323623.2A CN202110323623A CN113141891B CN 113141891 B CN113141891 B CN 113141891B CN 202110323623 A CN202110323623 A CN 202110323623A CN 113141891 B CN113141891 B CN 113141891B
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cutting
soil
tree
mother tree
nursery
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CN113141891A (en
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田易萍
邓少春
陈林波
陈春林
徐丕忠
包云秀
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Tea Research Institute Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G2/00Vegetative propagation
    • A01G2/10Vegetative propagation by means of cuttings
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01BSOIL WORKING IN AGRICULTURE OR FORESTRY; PARTS, DETAILS, OR ACCESSORIES OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINES OR IMPLEMENTS, IN GENERAL
    • A01B79/00Methods for working soil
    • A01B79/02Methods for working soil combined with other agricultural processing, e.g. fertilising, planting
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/005Cultivation methods
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G24/00Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • A01G24/10Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing inorganic material
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G24/00Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • A01G24/10Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing inorganic material
    • A01G24/12Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing inorganic material containing soil minerals
    • A01G24/15Calcined rock, e.g. perlite, vermiculite or clay aggregates
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G24/00Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • A01G24/20Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing natural organic material
    • A01G24/28Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing natural organic material containing peat, moss or sphagnum

Abstract

The invention discloses a method for cutting tea tree germplasm resources short spikes, which comprises the following steps: 1) Selecting a nursery; 2) Sorting nursery garden; 3) Cultivating the scion mother tree; 4) Cutting the cutting slips; 5) Cutting; 6) Seedling management; 7) And (5) field planting. The invention belongs to the technical field of tea tree seedling raising, and particularly provides a method for cutting tea tree germplasm resources, which solves the problems of long period, natural environment restriction and ecological environment damage of traditional short cutting seedling raising of tea trees, and has the advantages of high quality, developed root system, high bud ratio, strong seedling and high seedling rate, and can obtain a large number of plants with consistent genetic characters in a short period.

Description

Method for cutting tea tree germplasm resources in short spikes
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of tea tree seedling raising, and particularly relates to a method for cutting tea tree germplasm resources in short spikes.
Background
At present, tea trees are mainly asexually propagated. The cutting rooting rate of tea trees is large in difference and the seedling rate is low due to different varieties. The tea tree propagation method comprises sexual propagation and asexual propagation, wherein the sexual propagation has the advantages of strong environment adaptability, convenient seedling management, low seedling cost, large propagation quantity and the like, and the tea tree propagation method has the defects of mixed economic characters among plants, large growth difference, inconsistent growth period, inconvenient management, and inconvenience in processing and developing famous tea, and particularly has the defect that some tea tree varieties with low fruiting rate are difficult to propagate by using seeds. The advantage of asexual propagation is that the characteristic characteristics of fine seeds can be maintained, the uniformity of offspring characters is high, the picking efficiency is high, the quality is good, the management of tea gardens is facilitated, and the mechanical operation is facilitated, but the method is not very good in the selection and pretreatment processes of cutting slips at present, so that the final tea tree is not very good in rooting effect and survival rate.
Disclosure of Invention
In order to solve the existing problems, the invention provides a method for cutting tea tree germplasm resources, which solves the problems of long period, natural environment restriction and ecological environment damage of the traditional short cutting seedling raising of tea trees, and has the advantages of high quality of the cultivated tea tree seedlings, developed root systems, high bud rate, strong seedlings and high seedling rate, and can obtain a large number of plants with consistent genetic characters in a short period.
The technical scheme adopted by the invention is as follows: a method for cutting tea tree germplasm resources in short spikes comprises the following steps:
1) Nursery selection: acid soil with sufficient sunlight, rich and soft soil, mild topography and good drainage irrigation condition is selected as a nursery;
2) And (3) nursery finishing: ploughing the seedbed twice, initially ploughing the soil for 10-20 cm, applying 800-1200kg of decomposed poultry manure for soil cultivation, deeply ploughing for 30 cm, raising furrows with the width of 1-1.2 m and the furrow width of 50 cm, removing grass roots, weeds and stones in the soil, applying 100 kg of decomposed soybean cakes again, adding 50kg of compound fertilizer with 15% of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium respectively for soil cultivation, paving a layer of soil with the thickness of 5 cm, sieving, and irrigating the soil with water for the day before cutting;
3) Cultivation of scion mother tree: selecting a green-strong tea tree base with high cutting yield as a mother tree garden, applying 1000-2000kg of decomposed manure and 25-35kg of compound fertilizer per mu in the middle 10 months to the upper 11 months of the last year, watering the mother tree garden with 15-20kg of urea and 1200-1500kg of water per mu in the middle 2 months to the upper 3 months, spraying 500-1000mg/kg of ethephon to carry out flower and fruit dropping treatment on the mother tree, re-cutting the mother tree from the position 35-40 cm away from the ground in the middle 5 months of spring tea in the mother tree garden, growing leaf buds grown on the mother tree body as cutting, culturing the mother tree, shading and yellowing the mother tree 20 days before cutting, removing the green for 10 days before cutting the mother tree, topping treatment on the mother tree, spraying yield increasing agent on the mother tree 3-5 days before cutting the mother tree, and improving rooting rate and survival rate of the later cutting;
4) Cutting the cutting slips: selecting new branches which grow well, have no plant diseases and insect pests, full axillary buds, intact leaves, semi-lignification, thickness of 3-5 mm and brown or yellowish green branch epidermis as cuttings in the current year; cutting the cutting edges by sharp scissors before 10 am or after 3 pm, storing the cut cutting edges in a shade place as soon as possible, wherein the cutting edges are provided with two healthy leaves and complete axillary buds, the stem is thicker than or equal to 2.5 mm and is 6-10 cm long, cutting edges are smooth, the cutting edges are inclined to be the same as the leaves, piles are left at the upper cutting edges by 2-3 mm, the cutting edges with the leaf length of more than 12 cm are cut by 1/3-1/2, so that the nursery utilization rate is improved, transpiration is reduced, and the cutting edges can be treated by auxin and other root-promoting substances when being cut to improve the rooting and seedling rate of cutting edges;
5) Cutting: watering a nursery before cutting, cutting after moisture is infiltrated, cutting soil is in a wet and non-sticky soft state, obliquely inserting the cutting slips into the cutting soil at an angle of 40-50 degrees, enabling leaf handles to be level with furrow surfaces, avoiding leaf clay, pressing soil nearby the cutting slips by hands while cutting, enabling the cutting slips to be closely connected with the soil so as to facilitate rooting, enabling the leaves to face the wind direction, enabling plant spacing to be suitable for enabling the leaves to be not overlapped, enabling row spacing to be 10-12 cm, enabling 15 ten thousand to 20 ten thousand cutting slips to be cut in each mu of nursery, and fully watering after cutting;
6) Seedling management: covering a sunshade net after cutting; watering for 1 time each day in the morning and evening in sunny days, watering for 1 time each day after cutting rooting, applying additional fertilizer for 50-60 days after cutting, and applying additional fertilizer for 2-3 times before nursery emergence to promote vigorous growth of seedlings, wherein the temperature of a greenhouse is controlled between 25 ℃ and 35 ℃; the air humidity is controlled to be 60% -90%, natural illumination is adopted, illumination is manually supplemented after the mountain under the sun, illumination time is up to more than 12 hours, illumination is also supplemented in rainy days, 500-700 times chlorothalonil or 500-700 times carbendazim is sprayed every 7 days, monopotassium phosphate is sprayed to the seedbed within 18-24 days of cutting, and rooting of cutting shoots is promoted;
7) Planting: and (5) when the seedling height is 30-40cm, planting in a field, and carrying out normal field management.
Further, the fowl manure in the step 2) may be one or more of chicken manure, duck manure and goose manure, and preferably, the fowl manure is chicken manure.
Further, the particle size of the soil inserted in the step 2) is smaller than 1 cm, and the soil inserted in the soil is soft and breathable.
Further, the manure in the step 3) is one or more of pig manure, cow manure and sheep manure.
Further, the soil inserted in the step 2) can be one or more of paddy field soil, sand soil, silt soil, peat soil, subacidity yellow soil core soil and perlite.
Preferably, the soil inserting in the step 2) comprises the following components in parts by weight: 1-2 parts of peat soil, 2-3 parts of slightly acidic yellow soil core soil, 0.5-1 part of perlite and 0.5-1 part of sandy soil.
By adopting the scheme, the invention has the following beneficial effects: the method for cutting the tea tree germplasm resources by the short cutting adopts the cutting soil formed by mixing a plurality of breathable water-retaining matrixes, is convenient for cutting to ensure enough moisture and is convenient for the root of the cutting to breathe, facilitates the rapid rooting of the cutting by spraying the yield increasing agent on the parent tree before cutting the cutting, solves the problems of long period, natural environment restriction, ecological environment destruction and the like of the traditional short cutting seedling raising of the tea tree, has high quality of the cutting, high nitrogen content of the cutting, multiple roots, strong dehydration resistance of the cutting, easy survival of the cutting, high quality of the tea tree seedlings cultivated by the method, obviously increased root quantity, developed root system, great importance for the growth of the tea seedlings, greatly increased bud percentage, light plant diseases and insect pests, strong seedlings and high seedling forming rate, and can obtain a large number of plants with consistent genetic characters in a short period,
Detailed Description
The following description of the technical solutions in the embodiments of the present invention will be clear and complete, and it is obvious that the described embodiments are only some embodiments of the present invention, but not all embodiments. All other embodiments, which can be made by those skilled in the art based on the embodiments of the invention without making any inventive effort, are intended to be within the scope of the invention.
Embodiment 1 a method for cutting tea tree germplasm resources short spikes, comprising the following steps:
1) Nursery selection: acid soil with sufficient sunlight, rich and soft soil, mild topography and good drainage irrigation condition is selected as a nursery;
2) And (3) nursery finishing: ploughing the seedbed twice, initially ploughing 20 cm of land, applying 800kg of soil for the decomposed poultry manure, deeply ploughing 30 cm of land, lifting a furrow with the width of 1 meter and the furrow width of 50 cm, removing grass roots, weeds and stones in the soil, applying 100 kg of decomposed soybean cakes again, adding 50kg of soil for the compound fertilizer with 15% of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium respectively, paving a layer of soil with the thickness of 5 cm, sieving, and irrigating the soil with water one day before cutting;
3) Cultivation of scion mother tree: selecting a green-strong tea tree base with high cutting yield as a mother tree garden, applying 1000kg of decomposed manure and 25kg of compound fertilizer per mu in the middle 10 to the upper 11 months of the last year, watering the mother tree garden with 15kg of urea and 1200kg of water per mu in the middle 2 to the upper 3 months, spraying 500mg/kg of ethephon to carry out flower and fruit dropping treatment on the mother tree, re-cutting the mother tree from a position 35-40 cm away from the ground after the mother tree garden stops picking in the middle 5 months of spring tea, growing leaf buds growing on the mother tree body, culturing as cutting, shading and yellowing the mother tree 20 days before cutting, removing the green for 10 days before cutting the cutting, topping treatment on the mother tree, spraying yield increasing agent on the mother tree 3 days before cutting the cutting, and improving the rooting rate and survival rate of the later cutting;
4) Cutting the cutting slips: selecting new branches which grow well, have no plant diseases and insect pests, full axillary buds, intact leaves, semi-lignification, thickness of 3 mm and brown or yellowish green branch epidermis as cutting slips; cutting off the scion by sharp scissors before 10 am or after 3 pm, storing the cut scion in a shade place as soon as possible, wherein the scion is provided with two healthy leaves and complete axillary buds, the stem is thicker than or equal to 2.5 mm and is 6 cm long, the cutting opening of the scion is smooth, the cutting opening slant is the same as the leaf direction, a pile is left at the upper cutting opening, the length of the scion is more than 12 cm, and 1/3 of the scion is cut off, so that the nursery utilization rate is improved, the transpiration is reduced, and the scion can be treated by auxin and other root promoting substances when being cut off;
5) Cutting: watering a nursery before cutting, cutting after moisture is infiltrated, cutting soil is in a wet and non-sticky soft state, obliquely inserting the cutting slips into the cutting soil at an angle of 40 degrees, enabling leaf stems to be parallel to ridge surfaces, avoiding leaf clay, pressing soil near the cutting slips by hands while cutting, enabling the cutting slips to be closely connected with the soil so as to facilitate rooting, enabling the leaves to face down the wind, enabling plant spacing to be suitable for enabling the leaves to be not overlapped with each other, enabling row spacing to be 12 cm, cutting 15 ten thousand cutting slips per mu of nursery, and fully watering after cutting;
6) Seedling management: covering a sunshade net after cutting; watering for 1 time every day in sunny days and in late days, watering for 1 time every day after cutting rooting, applying additional fertilizer for 50 days after cutting, and applying additional fertilizer for 2 times before outplanting to promote vigorous growth of seedlings, wherein the temperature of a greenhouse is controlled between 25 ℃ and 35 ℃; the air humidity is controlled to be 60% -90%, natural illumination is adopted, illumination is manually supplemented after the mountain under the sun, illumination time is up to more than 12 hours, illumination is also supplemented in rainy days, 500-700 times chlorothalonil is sprayed every 7 days, monopotassium phosphate is sprayed on a seedbed in 18-24 days of cuttage, and rooting of cutting shoots is promoted;
7) Planting: and (5) when the seedling height is 30-40cm, planting in a field, and carrying out normal field management.
Embodiment 2 a method for cutting tea tree germplasm resources short spikes, comprising the following steps:
1) Nursery selection: acid soil with sufficient sunlight, rich and soft soil, mild topography and good drainage irrigation condition is selected as a nursery;
2) And (3) nursery finishing: ploughing the seedbed twice, initially ploughing 15 cm of soil, applying 1000kg of soil for decomposing poultry manure, deeply ploughing 30 cm of soil for the second time, lifting furrows with the width of 1.1 m and the width of 50 cm of furrows, removing grass roots, weeds and stones in the soil, applying 100 kg of decomposed soybean cakes again, adding 50kg of soil for cultivating compound fertilizer with 15% of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium respectively, paving a layer of soil with the thickness of 5 cm, sieving, and irrigating the soil with water one day before cutting;
3) Cultivation of scion mother tree: selecting a green-strong tea tree base with high cutting yield as a mother tree garden, applying 1500kg of decomposed manure and 30kg of compound fertilizer per mu in the middle 10 to the upper 11 months of the last year, watering the mother tree garden with 1350kg of water mixed with 18kg of urea per mu in the middle 2 to the upper 3 months, spraying 750mg/kg of ethephon to carry out flower and fruit dropping treatment on the mother tree, re-cutting the mother tree from a position 35-40 cm away from the ground after the mother tree garden stops picking in the middle 5 months of spring tea, growing leaf buds which grow on the mother tree body, culturing as cutting, shading and yellowing the mother tree 20 days before cutting, removing the green for 10 days before cutting the cutting, topping the mother tree, spraying yield increasing agent on the mother tree 4 days before cutting the cutting, and improving the rooting rate and survival rate of the later cutting;
4) Cutting the cutting slips: selecting new branches which grow well, have no plant diseases and insect pests, full axillary buds, intact leaves, semi-lignification, thickness of 4 mm and brown or yellowish green branch epidermis as cutting slips; cutting the scion with sharp scissors before 10 am or after 3 pm, storing the cut scion in a shade place as soon as possible, wherein the scion is provided with two healthy leaves and complete axillary buds, the stem is thicker than or equal to 2.5 mm and longer than 8 cm, the cutting opening of the scion is smooth, the cutting opening slant is the same as the leaf direction, a pile is left at the upper cutting opening for 2-3 mm, the length of the scion with the leaf length of more than 12 cm is cut off by 1/2, so that the nursery utilization rate is improved, the transpiration is reduced, and the scion can be treated by auxin and other root-promoting substances when being cut off for improving the rooting rate of cutting;
5) Cutting: watering a nursery before cutting, cutting after moisture is infiltrated, cutting soil is in a wet and non-sticky soft state, obliquely inserting the cutting slips into the cutting soil at 45 degrees, enabling leaf handles to be flush with furrow surfaces, avoiding leaf clay, pressing soil near the cutting slips by hands while cutting, enabling the cutting slips to be closely connected with the soil so as to facilitate rooting, enabling the leaves to face down the wind, enabling plant spacing to be suitable for enabling the leaves to be not overlapped with each other, enabling row spacing to be 11 cm, cutting 18 ten thousand cutting slips per mu of nursery, and fully watering after cutting;
6) Seedling management: covering a sunshade net after cutting; watering for 1 time every day in sunny days and in late days, watering for 1 time every day after cutting rooting, applying additional fertilizer for 55 days after cutting, and applying additional fertilizer for 2 times before outplanting to promote vigorous growth of seedlings, wherein the temperature of a greenhouse is controlled between 25 ℃ and 35 ℃; the air humidity is controlled to be 60% -90%, natural illumination is adopted, illumination is manually supplemented after the mountain under the sun, illumination time is up to more than 12 hours, illumination is also supplemented in rainy days, 500-700 times chlorothalonil is sprayed every 7 days, monopotassium phosphate is sprayed on a seedbed in 18-24 days of cuttage, and rooting of cutting shoots is promoted;
7) Planting: and (5) when the seedling height is 30-40cm, planting in a field, and carrying out normal field management.
Embodiment 3 a method for cutting tea tree germplasm resources short spikes, comprising the following steps:
1) Nursery selection: acid soil with sufficient sunlight, rich and soft soil, mild topography and good drainage irrigation condition is selected as a nursery;
2) And (3) nursery finishing: ploughing the seedbed twice, initially ploughing 20 cm of land, applying 1200kg of decomposed poultry manure and raising soil, deeply ploughing 30 cm of land for the second time, lifting furrows with the width of 1.2 m and the width of 50 cm of furrows, removing grass roots, weeds and stones in the soil, applying 100 kg of decomposed soybean cakes again, adding 50kg of compound fertilizer with 15% of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium respectively and raising soil, paving a layer of soil with the thickness of 5 cm and sieving, and fully irrigating the soil with water one day before cutting;
3) Cultivation of scion mother tree: selecting a green-strong tea tree base with high cutting yield as a mother tree garden, applying 2000kg of decomposed manure and 35kg of compound fertilizer per mu in the middle 10 to the upper 11 months of the last year, watering the mother tree garden with 20kg of urea and 1500kg of water per mu in the middle 2 to the upper 3 months, spraying 1000mg/kg of ethephon to carry out flower and fruit dropping treatment on the mother tree, re-cutting the mother tree from a position 35-40 cm away from the ground after the mother tree garden stops picking in the middle 5 months of spring tea, growing leaf buds growing on the mother tree body, culturing as cutting, shading and yellowing the mother tree 20 days before cutting, removing the green for 10 days before cutting the cutting, topping treatment on the mother tree, spraying yield-increasing agent on the mother tree 5 days before cutting the cutting, and improving the rooting rate and survival rate of the later cutting;
4) Cutting the cutting slips: selecting new branches which grow well, have no plant diseases and insect pests, full axillary buds, intact leaves, semi-lignification, thickness of 5 mm and brown or yellowish green branch epidermis as cutting slips; cutting the scion with sharp scissors before 10 am or after 3 pm, storing the cut scion in a shade place as soon as possible, wherein the scion is provided with two healthy leaves and complete axillary buds, the stem is thicker than or equal to 2.5 mm and longer than 10 cm, the cutting opening of the scion is smooth, the cutting opening slant is the same as the leaf direction, a pile is left at the upper cutting opening for 2-3 mm, the length of the scion with the leaf length of more than 12 cm is cut off by 1/2, so that the nursery utilization rate is improved, the transpiration is reduced, and the scion can be treated by auxin and other root-promoting substances when being cut off for improving the rooting rate of cutting;
5) Cutting: watering a nursery before cutting, cutting after moisture is infiltrated, cutting soil is in a wet and non-sticky soft state, obliquely inserting the cutting slips into the cutting soil at an angle of 50 degrees, enabling leaf stems to be level with furrow surfaces, avoiding leaf clay, pressing soil near the cutting slips by hands while cutting, enabling the cutting slips to be closely connected with the soil so as to facilitate rooting, enabling the leaves to face down the wind, enabling plant spacing to be suitable for enabling the leaves to be not overlapped with each other, enabling row spacing to be 10 cm, cutting 20 ten thousand cutting slips per mu of nursery, and fully watering after cutting;
6) Seedling management: covering a sunshade net after cutting; watering for 1 time every day in sunny days and in late days, watering for 1 time every day after cutting rooting, applying additional fertilizer for 60 days after cutting, and applying additional fertilizer for 3 times before outplanting to promote vigorous growth of seedlings, wherein the temperature of a greenhouse is controlled between 25 ℃ and 35 ℃; the air humidity is controlled to be 60% -90%, natural illumination is adopted, illumination is manually supplemented after the mountain under the sun, illumination time is up to more than 12 hours, illumination is also supplemented in rainy days, 500-700 times carbendazim is sprayed every 7 days, monopotassium phosphate is sprayed on a seedbed in 18-24 days of cuttage, and rooting of cutting shoots is promoted;
7) Planting: and (5) when the seedling height is 30-40cm, planting in a field, and carrying out normal field management.
The foregoing description is only illustrative of the present invention and is not intended to limit the scope of the invention, and all equivalent structures or equivalent processes or direct or indirect application in other related arts are included in the scope of the present invention.

Claims (3)

1. A method for cutting tea tree germplasm resources in short spikes is characterized by comprising the following steps:
1) Nursery selection: acid soil with sufficient sunlight, rich and soft soil, mild topography and good drainage irrigation condition is selected as a nursery;
2) And (3) nursery finishing: ploughing the seedbed twice, initially ploughing the soil for 10-20 cm, applying 800-1200kg of decomposed poultry manure for soil cultivation, deeply ploughing for 30 cm, raising furrows with the width of 1-1.2 m and the furrow width of 50 cm, removing grass roots, weeds and stones in the soil, applying 100 kg of decomposed soybean cakes again, adding 50kg of compound fertilizer with 15% of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium respectively for soil cultivation, paving a layer of soil with the thickness of 5 cm, sieving, and irrigating the soil with water for the day before cutting; the fowl dung can be one or more of chicken dung, duck dung and goose dung; the particle size of the soil inserted particles is smaller than 1 cm;
3) Cultivation of scion mother tree: selecting a green-strong tea tree base with high cutting yield as a mother tree garden, applying 1000-2000kg of decomposed manure and 25-35kg of compound fertilizer per mu in the middle 10 months to the upper 11 months of the last year, watering the mother tree garden with 15-20kg of urea and 1200-1500kg of water per mu in the middle 2 months to the upper 3 months, spraying 500-1000mg/kg of ethephon to carry out flower and fruit dropping treatment on the mother tree, re-cutting the mother tree from the position 35-40 cm away from the ground in the middle 5 months of spring tea in the mother tree garden, growing leaf buds grown on the mother tree body as cutting, culturing the mother tree, shading and yellowing the mother tree 20 days before cutting, removing the green for 10 days before cutting the mother tree, topping treatment on the mother tree, and spraying the yield increasing agent 3-5 days before cutting the mother tree; the manure is one or more of pig manure, cow manure and sheep manure;
4) Cutting the cutting slips: selecting new branches which grow well, have no plant diseases and insect pests, full axillary buds, intact leaves, semi-lignification, thickness of 3-5 mm and brown or yellowish green branch epidermis as cuttings in the current year; cutting the scion with sharp scissors before 10 am or after 3 pm, storing the cut scion in a shade place as soon as possible, cutting the scion with two healthy leaves and complete axillary buds, the stem being thicker than 2.5 mm and longer than 6-10 cm, cutting the scion smoothly, cutting the scion obliquely the same as the leaf, leaving piles on the cutting opening for 2-3 mm, and cutting the scion with the leaf length of more than 12 cm by 1/3-1/2;
5) Cutting: watering a nursery before cutting, cutting after moisture is infiltrated, cutting soil is in a wet and non-sticky soft state, obliquely inserting the cutting slips into the cutting soil at an angle of 40-50 degrees, enabling leaf handles to be parallel to ridge surfaces, avoiding leaf clay, pressing soil nearby the cutting slips by hands while cutting, enabling the cutting slips to be closely connected with the soil, enabling the leaves to face down the wind, enabling plant spacing to be proper, enabling the leaves to be not overlapped with each other, enabling line spacing to be 10-12 cm, enabling 15 ten thousand to 20 ten thousand cutting slips to be cut in each mu of nursery, and fully watering after cutting;
6) Seedling management: covering a sunshade net after cutting; watering for 1 time each day in the morning and evening in sunny days, watering for 1 time each day after cutting rooting, applying additional fertilizer for 50-60 days after cutting, and applying additional fertilizer for 2-3 times before nursery emergence to promote vigorous growth of seedlings, wherein the temperature of a greenhouse is controlled between 25 ℃ and 35 ℃; the air humidity is controlled to be 60-90%, natural illumination is adopted, illumination is manually supplemented after the mountain under the sun, illumination time is ensured to be more than 12 hours, illumination is also supplemented in rainy days, 500-700 times chlorothalonil or 500-700 times carbendazim is sprayed every 7 days, and monopotassium phosphate is sprayed to the seedbed in 18-24 days of cuttage;
7) Planting: and (5) when the seedling height is 30-40cm, planting in a field, and carrying out normal field management.
2. The method for cutting tea tree germplasm resources short spikes according to claim 1, wherein in step 2) the cutting soil is one or more of paddy field soil, sandy soil, muddy sand, peat soil, slightly acidic yellow loam core soil and perlite.
3. The method for cutting tea tree germplasm resources short spikes according to claim 1, wherein the soil for cutting in the step 2) comprises the following components in parts by weight: 1-2 parts of peat soil, 2-3 parts of slightly acidic yellow soil core soil, 0.5-1 part of perlite and 0.5-1 part of sandy soil.
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