CN112753533A - Growth-promoting stress-resistant rice seedling raising base matrix, seedling raising matrix, preparation method of seedling raising matrix and seedling raising method - Google Patents

Growth-promoting stress-resistant rice seedling raising base matrix, seedling raising matrix, preparation method of seedling raising matrix and seedling raising method Download PDF

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CN112753533A
CN112753533A CN202110165260.4A CN202110165260A CN112753533A CN 112753533 A CN112753533 A CN 112753533A CN 202110165260 A CN202110165260 A CN 202110165260A CN 112753533 A CN112753533 A CN 112753533A
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seedling raising
rice
matrix
substrate
seedling
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柴如山
安之冬
魏俊岭
管浩
张亮亮
田帅
华胜
王宜坤
叶新新
郜红建
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Anhui Agricultural University AHAU
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G24/00Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • A01G24/20Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing natural organic material
    • A01G24/22Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing natural organic material containing plant material
    • A01G24/25Dry fruit hulls or husks, e.g. chaff or coir
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G24/00Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • A01G24/10Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing inorganic material
    • A01G24/12Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing inorganic material containing soil minerals
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G24/00Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • A01G24/10Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing inorganic material
    • A01G24/12Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing inorganic material containing soil minerals
    • A01G24/15Calcined rock, e.g. perlite, vermiculite or clay aggregates
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G24/00Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • A01G24/20Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing natural organic material
    • A01G24/22Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing natural organic material containing plant material
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01NPRESERVATION OF BODIES OF HUMANS OR ANIMALS OR PLANTS OR PARTS THEREOF; BIOCIDES, e.g. AS DISINFECTANTS, AS PESTICIDES OR AS HERBICIDES; PEST REPELLANTS OR ATTRACTANTS; PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS
    • A01N37/00Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing organic compounds containing a carbon atom having three bonds to hetero atoms with at the most two bonds to halogen, e.g. carboxylic acids
    • A01N37/44Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing organic compounds containing a carbon atom having three bonds to hetero atoms with at the most two bonds to halogen, e.g. carboxylic acids containing at least one carboxylic group or a thio analogue, or a derivative thereof, and a nitrogen atom attached to the same carbon skeleton by a single or double bond, this nitrogen atom not being a member of a derivative or of a thio analogue of a carboxylic group, e.g. amino-carboxylic acids
    • A01N37/46N-acyl derivatives
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01NPRESERVATION OF BODIES OF HUMANS OR ANIMALS OR PLANTS OR PARTS THEREOF; BIOCIDES, e.g. AS DISINFECTANTS, AS PESTICIDES OR AS HERBICIDES; PEST REPELLANTS OR ATTRACTANTS; PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS
    • A01N43/00Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds
    • A01N43/34Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds having rings with one nitrogen atom as the only ring hetero atom
    • A01N43/36Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds having rings with one nitrogen atom as the only ring hetero atom five-membered rings
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01NPRESERVATION OF BODIES OF HUMANS OR ANIMALS OR PLANTS OR PARTS THEREOF; BIOCIDES, e.g. AS DISINFECTANTS, AS PESTICIDES OR AS HERBICIDES; PEST REPELLANTS OR ATTRACTANTS; PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS
    • A01N51/00Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing organic compounds having the sequences of atoms O—N—S, X—O—S, N—N—S, O—N—N or O-halogen, regardless of the number of bonds each atom has and with no atom of these sequences forming part of a heterocyclic ring
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05BPHOSPHATIC FERTILISERS
    • C05B7/00Fertilisers based essentially on alkali or ammonium orthophosphates

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  • Soil Sciences (AREA)
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  • Cultivation Of Plants (AREA)
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  • Cultivation Receptacles Or Flower-Pots, Or Pots For Seedlings (AREA)

Abstract

The invention provides a growth-promoting stress-resistant rice seedling raising basic matrix, a seedling raising matrix, a preparation method of the seedling raising matrix and a seedling raising method, and relates to the technical field of rice seedling raising. The invention is based on rich and easily-obtained crop straw resources in the rice and wheat grain main production area, the raw materials of the basic matrix comprise decomposed rice and wheat straws, decomposed rice hulls, retention type paddy soil and vermiculite, and agricultural organic wastes are developed again to replace the traditional nutrient soil for seedling cultivation. The invention also provides a seedling raising substrate based on the basic substrate, more comprehensive and balanced nutrients are provided for raising seedlings by reasonably distributing organic and inorganic fertilizers, and the nitrogen fertilizer is cooperatively provided for the seedlings by the urea and the diammonium phosphate which are easily absorbed and utilized by rice. The seedling raising substrate promotes the seedling plants and root systems to develop robustly by adding humic acid and naphthylacetic acid plant growth regulators with proper concentrations, improves the stress resistance of rice, and is beneficial to the cultivation of strong rice seedlings.

Description

Growth-promoting stress-resistant rice seedling raising base matrix, seedling raising matrix, preparation method of seedling raising matrix and seedling raising method
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of rice seedling raising, and particularly relates to a growth-promoting stress-resistant rice seedling raising base matrix, a seedling raising matrix, a preparation method of the seedling raising matrix and a seedling raising method.
Background
The rice is a grain crop mainly planted and consumed in China, the planting area of the rice accounts for about 30% of the sowing area of the whole grain, the total yield of the rice accounts for about 40%, and over 65% of people in China use the rice as staple food. At present, the main modes of rice planting in China comprise direct seeding, seedling throwing, artificial transplanting, mechanical transplanting and the like, and the direct seeding and the seedling throwing are greatly influenced by weather factors and plant diseases and insect pests, so that the stable yield is difficult to ensure; the manual transplanting has high labor cost, labor waste and time waste; the mechanized transplanting technology is not suitable for the popularization of the large-scale planting technology, so that the mechanized transplanting technology is used as a cost-saving and efficient technology for replacing the manual transplanting of the rice seedlings with proper ages, and the demonstration and popularization of the technology have very important significance for accelerating and promoting the agricultural large-scale production. At present, machine-transplanted rice is mainly transplanted by medium and small seedlings cultivated under a dense ecological condition, the seedling age is 15-20 d, the leaf age is 2.5-4.0, the population density of seedlings raised on a seedling tray is high, the seedling stage is short and weak, the damaged roots and the survival rate of the transplanted seedlings are slow, the green turning and the efficient tillering after machine transplanting are influenced, the effective spike number of the rice is low, the spike-aligning stage is delayed, the growth period is prolonged, and the final yield is reduced.
Disclosure of Invention
In view of the above, the invention aims to provide a growth-promoting stress-resistant rice seedling raising base matrix, a rice seedling raising matrix, a preparation method of the rice seedling raising matrix and a rice seedling raising method of the rice seedling raising base matrix.
In order to achieve the above object, the present invention provides the following technical solutions:
the invention provides a growth-promoting stress-resistant rice seedling raising base matrix which comprises the following raw materials in parts by volume: 25-40 parts of decomposed rice and wheat straws, 20-30 parts of decomposed rice hulls, 20-30 parts of retention type paddy soil and 10-20 parts of vermiculite;
the water content of the retention type rice soil is 18-22%, and the particle size is not more than 4-5 mm.
Preferably, the preparation method of the decomposed rice and wheat straw comprises the steps of crushing the rice and wheat straw, adjusting the water content to be 50-70%, stacking for 2d, mixing with the microbial organic material straw decomposition agent, turning over, and fermenting in a sealing mode for more than 180d to obtain the decomposed rice and wheat straw.
Preferably, the preparation method of the thoroughly decomposed rice hulls comprises the steps of crushing the rice hull waste, adjusting the water content to be 50-65%, and carrying out aerobic fermentation for more than 180 days to obtain the thoroughly decomposed rice hulls.
The invention also provides a seedling raising substrate containing the basic substrate, the seedling raising substrate also comprises a chemical fertilizer and a plant growth regulator, and the chemical fertilizer is N, P%2O5And K2The mass concentration of the O is respectively 0.5-1 g/kg of basic matrix, 0.25-1 g/kg of basic matrix and 0.25-1 g/kg of basic matrix;
the plant growth regulator comprises: 0.1-0.4 g/kg of humic acid or 0.05-0.5 mg/kg of naphthylacetic acid or 0.1-0.25 g/kg of humic acid and 0.05-0.1 mg/kg of naphthylacetic acid.
Preferably, the source of N comprises urea and diammonium phosphate, and P2O5The source of (A) includes diammonium phosphate, K2The source of O includes potassium sulfate.
The invention also provides a preparation method of the seedling raising substrate, which comprises the following steps: and after dissolving the fertilizer and the plant growth regulator, spraying the fertilizer and the plant growth regulator on the base matrix, continuously stirring and remixing the fertilizer and the plant growth regulator uniformly in the spraying process, regulating the water content of the base matrix to be 45-55%, naturally stacking the base matrix for 1-2 days, and naturally stacking the base matrix for 2-3 days after carrying out sterilization treatment to obtain the seedling raising matrix.
The invention also provides the application of the basic matrix or the seedling raising matrix in cultivating strong rice seedlings.
The invention also provides a method for cultivating strong rice seedlings, which comprises the following steps: (1) sterilizing the basic matrix or the seedling raising matrix, and then filling the sterilized basic matrix or the sterilized seedling raising matrix in a seedling raising tray to enable the thickness of the basic matrix or the seedling raising matrix in the seedling raising tray to be 2.5 cm;
(2) and sowing seeds in the seedling raising tray.
Preferably, the specification of the seedling raising tray in the step (1) is 58cm multiplied by 28cm multiplied by 3cm, and each seedling raising tray is filled with 2.13 plus or minus 0.25kg of the basic substrate or the seedling raising substrate.
Preferably, the sterilization in the step (1) comprises spraying a mixed solution of 500-1000 times of 50% sodium sulfadiazine soluble powder and 1000-1500 times of 6.25% fludioxonil-metalaxyl suspended seed coating agent to the basic substrate or the seedling raising substrate, wherein the spraying amount of the mixed solution is 100 kg/ton of the basic substrate or the seedling raising substrate; and the volume ratio of 500-1000 times of the 50% sodium sulfadiazine soluble powder in the mixed solution to 1000-1500 times of the 6.25% fludioxonil-metalaxyl-M suspended seed coating agent is 1:1.
The invention provides a growth-promoting stress-resistant rice seedling raising base matrix, which comprises the following raw materials of decomposed rice and wheat straws, decomposed rice hulls, retention type rice soil and vermiculite; the invention redevelops the agricultural organic waste into treasure, opens up a new way for comprehensively utilizing the agricultural waste, and can be used for replacing the traditional nutrient soil. The seedling raising substrate also comprises a chemical fertilizer and a plant growth regulator, the organic and inorganic fertilizers provide more comprehensive and balanced nutrients for the seedling raising process, and the inorganic nitrogen and the organic nitrogen can synergistically promote the formation of protein and chlorophyll of the seedlings to be raised, the color of stems and leaves is dark green, and the seedlings are strong; the plant growth regulator is applied in trace amount, and can improve seedling growth index, strengthen seedling root system activity, promote rice metabolism, photosynthesis and respiration and raise rice stress resistance.
The organic waste contained in the seedling raising substrate can slowly release nutrients, improve soil organic matters and provide carbon sources and energy for microorganisms; meanwhile, the porosity of the matrix can be increased, and the air permeability and the water permeability are improved. Fertilizer is applied in the seedling raising substrate to provide quick-acting nutrients, and two forms of nitrogen fertilizers are used: the amide nitrogen fertilizer urea and the ammonium nitrogen fertilizer diammonium phosphate can be used for balancing the nutrition of the seedlings, and the added plant growth regulator such as humic acid can improve the root system H+The activity of ATP enzyme and the activity of root system stimulate the growth and development of crop root system. The seedling raising substrate can stably and evenly provide nutrition required by the growth of rice in the seedling stage, can prevent and treat seedling rot, bakanae disease, damping off and the like frequently occurring in the seedling raising process, has easily available raw materials and simple operation, and is convenient for wide farmers to use and popularize.
The invention also provides a preparation method of the seedling raising substrate, which is simple to operate, can be prepared for use on site, can be produced in batches and is beneficial to striving for farming season; the nutrition required in the seedling stage is fully covered, and the problems of topdressing and insufficient fertilizer efficiency in the seedling raising process are solved. The substrate is strictly fermented and disinfected before use, does not carry pathogenic bacteria, and can avoid the occurrence of diseases, weeds, saline-alkali hazards and soil-borne diseases.
The embodiment of the invention proves that when the basic matrix or the seedling raising matrix is used for raising seedlings in the seedling raising tray, all indexes of the cultured seedlings are higher than those of a control group, the quality of the seedlings is high, the activity of the root system is high, and particularly after the chemical control treatment of humic acid and naphthylacetic acid, the seedlings have strong disease resistance and stress resistance and the root system grows vigorously. The seedlings with strong stalks and strong root systems have the advantages that dry matter accumulation on the overground part is fast after transplanting, the field tillering rate is improved, the effective spike number is increased, and the rice yield is further improved.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a photograph of a growth promoting stress-resistant rice seedling raising substrate in physical form;
FIG. 2 is a photograph of a field seedling of a rice base substrate according to the present invention;
FIG. 3 is a comparison of the rice seedling raising substrate of the present invention with the conventional nutrient soil seedling raising field seedling raising.
Detailed Description
The invention provides a growth-promoting stress-resistant rice seedling raising base matrix which comprises the following raw materials in parts by volume: 25-40 parts of decomposed rice and wheat straws, 20-30 parts of decomposed rice hulls, 20-30 parts of retention type paddy soil and 10-20 parts of vermiculite; the water content of the retention type rice soil is 18-22%, and the particle size is not more than 4-5 mm.
In the basic matrix, the volume ratio of the decomposed rice and wheat straws, the decomposed rice hulls, the retention type rice soil and the vermiculite is preferably 3: 2: 3: 2.
the preparation method of the decomposed rice and wheat straw preferably comprises the steps of crushing the rice and wheat straw, adjusting the water content to be 50-70%, stacking for 2d, mixing with the microbial organic material straw decomposition agent, turning over, and fermenting in a sealing mode for more than 180d to ensure complete decomposition, so as to obtain the decomposed rice and wheat straw. The rice and wheat straws are preferably the residual straws after the harvest of a test field prepared in the previous autumn and winter, are crushed into fragments with the length of 3-10 cm, and are accumulated on the open lands which do not hinder the field cultivation, such as the field headers, the sides of ditches and the like. According to the invention, the crushed straws are preferably wetted by water, the crushed straws are continuously turned and uniformly stirred by a stirrer in the spraying process, the water content is preferably kept at 50-70%, more preferably 60%, and the straws are squeezed out by hands when being wetted by hands. According to the invention, after the straws with the water content are stacked for 2d, the microbial organic material straw decomposition agent is preferably scattered, and the microbial organic material straw decomposition agent is continuously turned over while being scattered, so that the decomposition agent and the straws are uniformly stirred, and the surface of the straw decomposition agent is covered with plastic cloth to reduce water evaporation and fully ferment the straws. The amount of the microbial organic material straw decomposition agent is preferably 2-5 kg/ton of straw, and the microbial organic material straw decomposition agent is preferably purchased from the company of Biotech, Inc., of Lyme, Anhui. During the fermentation period, the invention preferably also comprises the steps of spraying moisture and adding water according to the moisture degree of the straws, turning and stirring the straws at intervals of 2-3 weeks, stacking and remixing for later use when the straws are in a grey brown or black brown color and white hypha in the stack is a rotten mark.
The preparation method of the thoroughly decomposed rice hulls preferably comprises the steps of crushing the rice hull waste, adjusting the water content to be 50-65%, and then carrying out aerobic fermentation for more than 180 days to obtain the thoroughly decomposed rice hulls. The rice hull waste is preferably rice hull waste separated by a rice hull separator in a rice milling plant in the previous year, and is crushed to obtain fragments with the length of 0.1-0.5 cm. The water is preferably sprayed on the fragments to keep the water content at 50-65%, rice hull turning is preferably carried out in the spraying process, the rice hull stack is kept wet, the rice hull waste is naturally decomposed, the rice hull waste is exposed to the sun and rain under natural conditions, and the natural fermentation is carried out for more than half a year. During the fermentation period of the rice hulls, the rice hulls are preferably turned and piled continuously for 2-3 weeks, so that the bottom rice hulls are guaranteed to be in full contact with air, the rice hulls are thoroughly decomposed uniformly, the rice hulls are dry in autumn and winter, proper water needs to be supplemented when the rice hulls are too dry, and spontaneous combustion caused by too high temperature during fermentation is prevented.
The preparation method of the retention type rice soil preferably comprises the steps of collecting vacant ridge rice soil without cultivated land, accumulating and airing until the water content is 18-22%, mechanically crushing, sieving by using a sieve with 4-5 mm holes, filtering out broken stone, animal and plant residues and other impurities damaging a rice transplanter needle, and stacking to obtain the retention type rice soil. The soil is a loamy clay, and has the physical and chemical properties that: the pH value is 5.50, the organic matter is 7.85g/kg, the total nitrogen is 0.26g/kg, the alkaline hydrolysis nitrogen is 13.61mg/kg, the quick-acting phosphorus is 15.21mg/kg, and the quick-acting potassium is 103 mg/kg.
The specification of the vermiculite is preferably 1-3 mm, and the volume weight is 100-130 kg/m3
In the present invention, the method for preparing the base matrix is not particularly limited, and the raw materials may be preferably mixed.
The invention also provides a seedling raising substrate containing the basic substrate, the form of the seedling raising substrate is shown in figure 1, the seedling raising substrate also comprises a chemical fertilizer and a plant growth regulator, and the chemical fertilizer is N, P2O5And K2The mass concentration of the O is respectively 0.5-1 g/kg of basic matrix, 0.25-1 g/kg of basic matrix and 0.25-1 g/kg of basic matrix;
the plant growth regulator comprises: 0.1-0.4 g/kg of humic acid or 0.05-0.1 mg/kg of naphthylacetic acid or 0.1-0.25 g/kg of humic acid and 0.05-0.1 mg/kg of naphthylacetic acid.
On the basis of the basic matrix, fertilizer and plant growth regulator are added to form the seedling raising matrix, and the source of N in the seedling raising matrix preferably comprises urea (N46%), diammonium phosphate (N18%), and P2O5Preferably, the source of (B) comprises diammonium phosphate (P)2O546%),K2The source of O preferably comprises potassium sulfate (K)2O50%). In the seedling raising substrate of the present invention, the plant growth regulator preferably includes: 0.2 to 0.3g/kg of humic acid or 0.05 to 0.1mg/kg of naphthylacetic acid, more preferably 0.3g/kg of humic acid. In the seedling raising substrate, the fertilizer is N, P%2O5And K2And in terms of O, the mass concentration is preferably 1g/kg of basic matrix, 0.5g/kg of basic matrix and 0.5g/kg of basic matrix respectively, more preferably, when the seedling raising matrix is used for strong seedling cultivation, 36g of urea, 22g of diammonium phosphate and 20g of potassium sulfate are applied to every ten trays of matrix, and 2.13 +/-0.25 kg of the seedling raising matrix is filled in each seedling raising tray.
The invention also provides a preparation method of the seedling raising substrate, which comprises the following steps: and dissolving the fertilizer and the plant growth regulator, spraying the fertilizer and the plant growth regulator on the base matrix, regulating the water content of the base matrix to 45-55%, naturally stacking for 1-2 d, spraying a sterilizing agent, and naturally stacking for 2-3 d to obtain the seedling raising matrix.
The stacking according to the invention is preferably a natural stacking. The sterilizing agent preferably comprises a mixed solution of 500-1000 times of 50% of sodium diurethane soluble powder and 1000-1500 times of 6.25% of fludioxonil and metalaxyl-M suspended seed coating agent, and the volume ratio of the 500-1000 times of the 50% of sodium diurethane soluble powder to the 1000-1500 times of the 6.25% of fludioxonil and metalaxyl-M suspended seed coating agent is preferably 1:1. The amount of the disinfectant according to the invention is preferably 100 kg/ton of base substrate.
The invention also provides the application of the basic matrix or the seedling raising matrix in cultivating strong rice seedlings. The basic matrix or the seedling raising matrix can improve the plant height, the stem-to-root ratio, the root length, the root surface area, the root-to-crown ratio, the root activity, the overground dry matter quantity, the underground dry matter quantity and the strong seedling index of the cultured rice seedlings, so that the strong rice seedlings can be cultured by using the basic matrix or the seedling raising matrix.
The invention also provides a method for cultivating strong rice seedlings, which comprises the following steps: (1) sterilizing the basic matrix or the seedling raising matrix, and then filling the sterilized basic matrix or the sterilized seedling raising matrix in a seedling raising tray to enable the thickness of the basic matrix or the seedling raising matrix in the seedling raising tray to be 2.5 cm;
(2) and sowing seeds in the seedling raising tray.
Before the base matrix or the seedling raising matrix is dishing, the sterilization is preferably carried out, more preferably, the 500-1000 times of liquid of 50% of sodium sulfadiazine soluble powder and 1000-1500 times of liquid of 6.25% of fludioxonil-mefenoxam suspension seed coating agent are re-mixed, and the mass of the sprayed mixed liquid is preferably 100 kg/ton of the base matrix or the seedling raising matrix. The volume ratio of 500-1000 times of the 50% sodium diquat soluble powder to 1000-1500 times of the 6.25% fludioxonil-metalaxyl suspended seed coating agent is preferably 1:1.
The specification of the seedling raising tray is preferably 58cm multiplied by 28cm multiplied by 3cm, each seedling raising tray is filled with the base matrix or the seedling raising matrix with the weight of 2.13 plus or minus 0.25kg, namely 500 seedling raising trays can be filled in each ton of the base matrix or the seedling raising matrix.
The method is characterized in that 100.4 +/-2.2 g of hybrid rice sprouts are preferably sown in each seedling raising tray, the steps of seed soaking for 2 days by using prochloraz, draining after seeds are exposed to the white, and seedling raising and sowing by using a long-time field 2BZP-800(SR-K800CN) are preferably carried out before sowing.
The growth promoting and stress resisting rice seedling raising base substrate, the seedling raising substrate, the preparation method thereof and the seedling raising method provided by the invention are described in detail below with reference to the examples, but the invention is not to be construed as being limited by the scope of the invention.
Example 1
The rice seedling raising contrast test is carried out at a comprehensive test station in Anhui agriculture university, and the test is carried out by 5 treatments: CK1 (paddy soil); CK2 (nutrient soil);
experiment group 1 (decomposed rice and wheat straw, decomposed rice hull, dry fine soil and vermiculite in a volume ratio of 3: 2: 3: 2 without applying fertilizer);
experiment group 2 (decomposed rice and wheat straw, decomposed rice hull, dry fine soil and vermiculite, according to the volume ratio of 3: 2: 3: 2, 4g of urea, 44g of diammonium phosphate and 20g of potassium sulfate are applied to each ten trays of substrate);
experiment group 3 (decomposed rice and wheat straw, decomposed rice hull, dry fine soil and vermiculite, according to the volume ratio of 3: 2: 3: 2, 15g of urea, 30g of diammonium phosphate and 30g of potassium sulfate are applied to each ten trays of substrate);
experiment group 4 (decomposed rice and wheat straw, decomposed rice hull, dry fine soil and vermiculite, according to the volume ratio of 3: 2: 3: 2, 40g of urea, 18g of diammonium phosphate and 10g of potassium sulfate are applied to each ten trays of substrate);
experiment group 5 (decomposed rice and wheat straw, decomposed rice hull, dry fine soil and vermiculite, according to the volume ratio of 3: 2: 3: 2, 30g of urea, 25g of diammonium phosphate, 20g of potassium sulfate and 8g of humic acid fertilizer with the effective content of 75%) are applied to each ten discs of substrate.
The nutrient content of the seedling raising soil treated by each treatment is shown in table 1, and the pH values of the experimental group 1 (basic matrix) and the experimental groups 2-5 (seedling raising matrix) can meet the slightly acidic environment suitable for the growth of rice. Compared with CK1 and CK2, the organic matter content of the matrix is 3 times or more that of the control group, and the organic matter can slowly supply nutrition in a balanced manner. The basic matrix of the experimental group 1 can replace the traditional nutrient soil; in the seedling raising substrates of the experimental groups 2-5, the total nitrogen content and the alkaline hydrolysis nitrogen content are higher than those of the control group, the contents of the available phosphorus and the available potassium are about 5-10 times of those of the control group, and the nutrient content is obviously higher than that of the control group.
TABLE 1 nutrient content of seedling raising soil
Figure BDA0002937571140000081
The rice seedling raising test adopts a production line mode of a rigid plastic seedling raising tray to raise rice seedlings (the specification is 58cm multiplied by 28cm multiplied by 3cm), the thickness of a seedling raising substrate in the seedling tray is 2.5cm, the rice variety is Hui liangyou 882, and the quantity of the rice seedlings in each tray is 100.4 +/-2.2 g. The test rice seeds are mid-late indica hybrid rice, the seed soaking time is 18-24 hours, the seed soaking water temperature is 29-35 ℃, and the seed and water are in a weight ratio of 1: 1.25. The seed soaking bactericide is 25% prochloraz 0.2mg/kg of seeds. The seed dressing agent is a suspending seed coating agent of 35 percent thiamethoxam and a suspending seed coating agent of 6.25 percent fludioxonil and metalaxyl-M, and the volume ratio is 1:1. The seed-drug ratio is 0.8mg/kg of seeds.
Before the rice is sowed, the seeds are soaked in prochloraz for 2 days, the seeds are drained after being whitened, and the juveniles are sowed by a juveniles sowing machine with a long-term preservation 2BZP-800(SR-K800CN), wherein each treatment is 10 disks. After 15 days, the growth condition of the rice seedlings is observed, the plant height, stem base width, dry matter quantity, root activity and root morphology indexes of the rice seedlings are measured, as shown in table 2, after the treatment in the same time, the physiological characteristics of the overground part, the underground part and the strong seedling index can be improved by using the basic matrix or the seedling raising matrix, and particularly the seedling raising matrix achieves very obvious difference. Wherein, the seedling cultivated in the experimental group 1 has high leveling rate of emergence as shown in figure 2; in the figure 3, the upper half part of the drawn line is the seedling raised by CK2, and the lower half part is the rice seedling raised by the experimental group 2-5, so that compared with the seedling raised by local nutrient soil, the seedling raised matrix of the invention has dark green color and stronger seedling plant development.
TABLE 2 different seedling raising soil seedling raising effects
Figure BDA0002937571140000082
Figure BDA0002937571140000091
Example 2
The rice seedling raising chemical control treatment contrast test is carried out at a comprehensive test station in Anhui agriculture university, and the test is provided with 7 treatments:
experiment group 1 (decomposed rice and wheat straw, decomposed rice hull, dry fine soil and vermiculite, according to the volume ratio of 3: 2: 3: 2, 35g of urea, 22g of diammonium phosphate and 20g of potassium sulfate are applied to each ten trays of substrate);
experiment group 2 (decomposed rice and wheat straw, decomposed rice hull, dry fine soil and vermiculite, according to the volume ratio of 3: 2: 3: 2, 35g of urea, 22g of diammonium phosphate, 20g of potassium sulfate and 3g of humic acid are applied to each ten discs of substrate);
experiment group 3 (decomposed rice and wheat straw, decomposed rice hull, dry fine soil and vermiculite, according to the volume ratio of 3: 2: 3: 2, 35g of urea, 22g of diammonium phosphate, 20g of potassium sulfate and 8g of humic acid are applied to each ten discs of substrate);
experiment group 4 (decomposed rice and wheat straw, decomposed rice hull, dry fine soil and vermiculite, according to the volume ratio of 3: 2: 3: 2, 35g of urea, 22g of diammonium phosphate, 20g of potassium sulfate and 11g of humic acid are applied to each ten discs of substrate);
experiment group 5 (decomposed rice and wheat straw, decomposed rice hull, dry fine soil and vermiculite, according to the volume ratio of 3: 2: 3: 2, 35g of urea, 22g of diammonium phosphate, 20g of potassium sulfate and 0.005g of naphthylacetic acid are applied to each ten trays of substrate);
experiment group 6 (decomposed rice and wheat straw, decomposed rice hull, dry fine soil and vermiculite, according to the volume ratio of 3: 2: 3: 2, 35g of urea, 22g of diammonium phosphate, 20g of potassium sulfate and 0.05g of naphthylacetic acid are applied to each ten trays of substrate);
experiment group 7 (decomposed rice and wheat straw, decomposed rice hull, dry fine soil and vermiculite, according to the volume ratio of 3: 2: 3: 2, 35g of urea, 22g of diammonium phosphate, 20g of potassium sulfate, 5g of humic acid fertilizer and 0.01g of naphthylacetic acid wettable powder compound preparation are applied to each ten discs of substrate).
The rice seedling raising test adopts a production line mode of a rigid plastic seedling raising tray to raise rice seedlings (the specification is 58cm multiplied by 28cm multiplied by 3cm), the thickness of a seedling raising matrix in the seedling tray is 2.5cm, the rice variety is Hui liangyou 882, and each tray is sowed with 99.6 +/-2.4 g of hybrid rice sprouts. Before the rice is sowed, the seeds are soaked in prochloraz for 2 days, the seeds are drained after being whitened, and the juveniles are sowed by a juveniles sowing machine with a long-term preservation 2BZP-800(SR-K800CN), wherein each treatment is 10 disks. After 15 days, the growth condition of the rice seedlings is observed, and the plant height, stem base width, dry matter quantity, root activity and root form indexes of the rice seedlings are measured, and the results are shown in table 3. The root morphology and physiological characteristics are closely related to the growth, development and yield of overground parts. The seedlings with strong stalks and robust root systems have the advantages that the root systems develop quickly after transplanting, the dry matter accumulation on the overground part is fast, the field tillering rate is improved, the effective spike number is increased, and the rice yield is further improved.
TABLE 3 different seedling raising soil seedling raising effects
Figure BDA0002937571140000101
The foregoing is only a preferred embodiment of the present invention, and it should be noted that, for those skilled in the art, various modifications and decorations can be made without departing from the principle of the present invention, and these modifications and decorations should also be regarded as the protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (10)

1. The growth-promoting stress-resistant rice seedling raising base matrix is characterized by comprising the following raw materials in parts by volume: 25-40 parts of decomposed rice and wheat straws, 20-30 parts of decomposed rice hulls, 20-30 parts of retention type paddy soil and 10-20 parts of vermiculite;
the water content of the retention type rice soil is 18-22%, and the particle size is not more than 4-5 mm.
2. The basic matrix of claim 1, wherein the preparation method of the decomposed rice and wheat straw comprises the steps of crushing the rice and wheat straw, adjusting the water content to 50-70%, stacking for 2d, mixing with the microbial organic material straw decomposition agent, turning the stack, and sealing and fermenting for more than 180d to obtain the decomposed rice and wheat straw.
3. The basic matrix according to claim 1, wherein the preparation method of the decomposed rice hulls comprises the steps of crushing rice hull waste, adjusting the water content to 50-65%, and performing aerobic fermentation for more than 180 days to obtain the decomposed rice hulls.
4. A seedling raising substrate comprising the base substrate of any one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that the seedling raising substrate further comprises a chemical fertilizer and a plant growth regulator, wherein the chemical fertilizer is N, P ™2O5And K2The mass concentration of the O is respectively 0.5-1 g/kg of basic matrix, 0.25-1 g/kg of basic matrix and 0.25-1 g/kg of basic matrix;
the plant growth regulator comprises: 0.1-0.4 g/kg of humic acid or 0.05-0.5 mg/kg of naphthylacetic acid or 0.1-0.25 g/kg of humic acid and 0.05-0.1 mg/kg of naphthylacetic acid.
5. A seedling raising substrate according to claim 4, characterized in that the sources of N comprise urea and diammonium phosphate, the P being2O5The source of (A) includes diammonium phosphate, K2The source of O includes potassium sulfate.
6. A method for preparing a seedling raising substrate as claimed in claim 4 or 5, characterized by comprising the steps of: and after dissolving the fertilizer and the plant growth regulator, spraying the fertilizer and the plant growth regulator on the base matrix, continuously stirring and remixing the fertilizer and the plant growth regulator uniformly in the spraying process, naturally stacking the fertilizer and the plant growth regulator for 1-2 d after adjusting the water content of the base matrix to 45-55%, and naturally stacking the fertilizer and the plant growth regulator for 2-3 d after carrying out sterilization treatment to obtain the seedling raising matrix.
7. Use of the base substrate according to any one of claims 1 to 3 or the seedling raising substrate according to claim 4 or 5 for raising strong seedlings of rice.
8. A method for cultivating strong rice seedlings is characterized by comprising the following steps: (1) placing the base substrate of any one of claims 1 to 3 or the seedling raising substrate of claim 4 or 5 in a seedling raising tray after sterilization, wherein the thickness of the base substrate or the seedling raising substrate in the seedling raising tray is 2.5 cm;
(2) and sowing seeds in the seedling raising tray.
9. The method as claimed in claim 8, wherein the size of the seedling raising trays in the step (1) is 58cm x 28cm x 3cm, and each seedling raising tray contains 2.13 plus or minus 0.25kg of the basic substrate or the seedling raising substrate.
10. The method according to claim 8, wherein the sterilization in the step (1) comprises spraying a mixed solution of 500-1000 times of 50% sodium sulfadiazine soluble powder and 1000-1500 times of 6.25% fludioxonil-metalaxyl-M suspension seed coating agent to the base substrate or the seedling raising substrate, wherein the spraying amount of the mixed solution is 100 kg/ton of the base substrate or the seedling raising substrate; and the volume ratio of 500-1000 times of the 50% sodium sulfadiazine soluble powder in the mixed solution to 1000-1500 times of the 6.25% fludioxonil-metalaxyl-M suspended seed coating agent is 1:1.
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