CN103004471B - Method for eliminating facility cultivated vegetable continuous cropping obstacle - Google Patents

Method for eliminating facility cultivated vegetable continuous cropping obstacle Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103004471B
CN103004471B CN201210571386.2A CN201210571386A CN103004471B CN 103004471 B CN103004471 B CN 103004471B CN 201210571386 A CN201210571386 A CN 201210571386A CN 103004471 B CN103004471 B CN 103004471B
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days
straw
continuous cropping
water
haystack
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CN103004471A (en
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吴洪生
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Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology
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Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology
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Abstract

The invention relates to a method for eliminating facility cultivated vegetable continuous cropping obstacles and application of the method. The method for eliminating facility cultivated vegetable continuous cropping obstacles comprises the following steps of: after facility cultivated vegetables are harvested, filling water in a vegetable facility cultivation field at field temporary spare time in spring, summer and autumn, simultaneously adding a proper quantity of ferrous sulfate, stacking and soaking crop straws in the water, adding a small quantity of unslaked lime for fermentation, covering the field with films or sealing a greenhouse after four weeks, suffocating the greenhouse at high temperature by filling water, fermenting the crop straw for 7-14 days, uncovering the films, fully draining the water accumulated in the vegetable cultivation field in the greenhouse, inoculating edible mushrooms such as straw mushrooms and shiitake on the stacked and fermented crop straw, and harvesting the edible mushrooms after approximate 20-30 days. The method is mainly applied to the planting of melons, fruits and vegetables such as hot peppers, cucumbers and tomatoes.

Description

A kind of method of eliminating Tomato in Protected Cultivation continuous cropping obstacle
Technical field
The invention belongs to agricultural technology field, particularly eliminate method and the application of facility cultivation gourd, fruit and vegetable continuous cropping obstacle.
Background technology
In melon-fruit-like vegetable, capsicum, green pepper, watermelon, tomato and cucumber occupy very consequence in the vegetables of China produce, every Annual planting area is inferior ten thousand mu of 1500-3000, because economic benefit is high, shortage of land resource, thereby tomato, cucumber, watermelon, capsicum continuous cropping is very serious, soil can not get recovering, Soil fertility exhaustion, soil physical and chemical property degenerates, pedo relict affects the allelochemical of plant growth and in a large number from poisonous substance matter, microecosystem wrecks, continuous cropping watermelon, tomato, capsicum, cucumber growth is obstructed, easily morbidity, cause a large amount of underproduction, quality declines, orchard worker, vegetable grower's economic benefit declines, because vegetable growth is not prosperous, take on morbit forms, vegetable grower uses chemical pesticide and chemical fertilizer in a large number, causes environmental pollution and gourd, fruit and vegetable Pesticide Residues, affects health simultaneously.
Summary of the invention
The technical problem solving: the present invention is directed to the problem that facility cultivation gourd, fruit and vegetable class continuous cropping obstacle takes place frequently, develop a kind of simple method, a kind of method and application of eliminating facility cultivation obstruction of vegetable continuous cropping is provided, this is in facility (booth) culturing vegetable melon and fruit harvest time, utilize of short duration time out, the vexed canopy of high temperature of pouring water in field, simultaneously by soaked agricultural crop straw retting, utilize hot fermentation, kill in a large number the harmful microorganism in continuous cropping soil, decompose the allelochemical of the plant secretion in continuous cropping soil and from poisonous substance matter, improvement and raising soil productivity, promote plant growth, suppress the generation of damage by disease and insect, reduce the generation of continuous cropping obstacle, recover the microecological balance in facility cultivation soil, reduce environmental pollution, improve crop quality, improve crop yield, increase peasant economy benefit.
Technical scheme: a kind of method of eliminating facility cultivation obstruction of vegetable continuous cropping, production stage is: after facility cultivation vegetables results, build stalk and pour water, more than making field surface water layer depth 10cm in field surrounding; Use the ferrous sulfate of 50-1000g/ mu on the cultivating facility earth's surface of waterflooding, and be uniformly distributed; Agricultural crop straw is cut into the long stalk section of 20~25cm, and tiling is stacked in water, and in the process of banking up, every 1000 kilograms of stalks spread fertilizer over the fields the fermentation of 3.5-5 kilogram of raw lime promotion crops straw; For cultivating facility covers plastic film sealing, spring and autumn is through after 15-25 days or 7-14 days summer, and crops straw is banked up and fermented, and opens film ventilated, draining; Crops straw after fermentation is again piled and is set to haystack, the long 2.5-5 rice of each haystack, wide 1-4 rice, high 1-2 rice, in the time banking up, every 1000 kilograms of haystacks spread fertilizer over the fields 1-5 kg urea, and inoculation edible fungus species keeps haystack humidity 30-60%; 20-40 days after inoculation, can adopt mushroom results, can continue planting vegetable after gathering in the crops continuously 2-3 stubble, or crops straw is stacked in to the edge of a field plantation edible mushroom, and ground in facility can direct planting vegetable after air-dry 5-10 days.
Must be immediately by field ponding venting after crops straw is banked up fermentation ends in described method, and free ventilation 5-10 days.
Described agricultural crop straw is wheat or rice straw.
The application of the method for above-mentioned elimination facility cultivation obstruction of vegetable continuous cropping on plantation capsicum, cucumber, watermelon, tomato, custard squash or reed wormwood artemisia.
Beneficial effect: the present invention can kill the harmful microorganism in facility cultivation melon-fruit-like vegetable continuous cropping obstacle soil, decomposes the allelochemical of plant secretion in soil and from poisonous substance matter; Agricultural crop straw can be carried out to biological transformation regeneration and produce edible mushroom.
The present invention can suppress or kill the pernicious bacteria in soil in a large number, the such as Fusarium in aerobic fungi, aspergillus, pythium, Phytophthora etc., improve soil microenvironment, promote beneficial microorganism growth, reduce the generation of facility cultivation melon-fruit-like vegetable disease, to crop because of long-term continuous cropping continuous cropping slow with the root growth that other disease causes, plant is short and small, withered and yellow, fallen leaves, the physiological diseases such as fallen flowers, shedding and insect pest have control efficiency.
In the present invention, utilize the time out of facility cultivation melon-fruit-like vegetable results, mainly in summer and autumn, outside air temperature is high, facility surrounding overlay film simultaneously, sealing after pouring water, both caused anaerobism kill harmful microorganism, simultaneously because water temperature in high temperature booth in summer reaches more than 75 DEG C) the continuous high temperature sterilizing that raises and cause, can killing living thalline, can kill again the spore of dormancy, the environment of simultaneously creating height anaerobism and high temperature, has double sterilization effect.The continuous high temperature vexed canopy of pouring water, has also activated the inorganic nutrients in soil in addition, promotes the decomposition and inversion of soil indissoluble nutrient.
The present invention utilizes fermenting crops straws to produce edible mushroom, and the pollution problem that has solved agricultural crop straw, alleviate again facility cultivation soil continuous cropping obstacle, improve soil organic fertilizer and soil fertility, increased peasant's income simultaneously, the dual purpose that has realized ecological agriculture circulation and increasing peasant income, is conducive to soil sustainable development.
The following beneficial effect that the present invention has compared to existing technology:
1) high temperature adopting in the present invention vexed canopy technology of pouring water can suppress soil-borne disease, improves and maintenance prevention cultivation agricultural land soil micro-ecological environment the decomposition and inversion of indissoluble nutrient in promotion soil.
2) high temperature that the present invention the adopts vexed canopy technology of pouring water can be decomposed the residual allelochemical of plant secretion in continuous cropping obstacle soil and from poisonous substance matter, be reduced allelochemical and the adverse effect from poisonous substance confrontation continuous cropping vegetable growth, promotes plant growth.
3) the present invention adopts the agricultural crop straw fermenting and producing edible mushroom of banking up, except solving the environmental pollution of agricultural crop straw, also improve the soil organic matter and soil fertility and organic matter, improved soil nodule structure, be conducive to agricultural sustainable development, increase farmers' income simultaneously.
Brief description of the drawings
Fig. 1 is the impact on cucumber growth after the technology of the present invention processing continuous cropping obstacle soil.
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with example, the invention will be further described:
Embodiment 1:
1) June after Plastic Greenhouse Tomato Cultivation In Relation results, remove tomato stubble in field, to bank up on earth's surface and grow 5 meters, wide 3 meters, wheat straw or the stack of rice straw of high 1 meter, straw or wheat straw are cut into 20 centimeter length; Banking up, every 1000 kilograms of stalks in haystack process are admixed 5 kilogram of raw lime;
2) build a dam in booth surrounding, 20 centimetres of heights of dam, pour water, and make the earth's surface water surface in canopy exceed 10 centimetres, earth's surface, and it is substantially constant to maintain the water surface, the ferrous sulfate of 50 grams/acre is used on earth's surface, haystack is soaked in water simultaneously, surrounding button canopy, sealing is exposed to the sun 10 days under the sun;
3) after 10 days, open booth, ventilated, ponding between drained field, after 7 days, by haystack turning, every 1000 kilograms of haystacks are evenly admixed 2 kg urea, keep haystack humidity 50%, inoculation straw mushroom;
4) after 10 days, adularescent/Secotium agaricoides (Czern) Hollos flower bud occurs, after 25 days, ties mushroom, can gather; After plantation straw mushroom, continuous cropping tomato can be directly continued in plot.
Embodiment 2:
1) May after greenhouse cultivation cucumber results, remove cucumber stubble in field, to bank up on earth's surface and grow 3 meters, wide 4 meters, the stack of rice straw of high 1.2 meters, straw is cut into 25 centimeter length; Banking up, every 1000 kilograms of stalks in haystack process are admixed 3.5 kilogram of raw lime;
2) build a dam in booth surrounding, 20 centimetres of heights of dam, pour water, and make the earth's surface water surface in canopy exceed 10 centimetres, earth's surface, and it is substantially constant often to maintain the water surface, the ferrous sulfate of 500 grams/acre is used on earth's surface, haystack is soaked in water simultaneously, surrounding button canopy, sealing is exposed to the sun 14 days under the sun;
3) after 14 days, open booth, ventilated, ponding between drained field, after 10 days, by haystack turning, every 1000 kilograms of haystacks are evenly admixed 5 kg urea, keep haystack humidity 40%, inoculation straw mushroom;
4) after 10 days, adularescent mushroom flower bud occurs, after 25 days, ties mushroom, can gather; After plantation straw mushroom, continuous cropping cucumber can be directly continued in plot.
Embodiment 3
1) late August after greenhouse cultivation watermelon results, remove watermelon melon stubble in field, to bank up on earth's surface and grow 2.5 meters, wide 3.5 meters, the stack of rice straw of high 1.5 meters, rice straw is cut into 25 centimeter length; Banking up, every 1000 kilograms of stalks in haystack process are admixed 5 kilogram of raw lime;
2) build a dam in booth surrounding, 20 centimetres of heights of dam, pour water, and make the earth's surface water surface in canopy exceed 10 centimetres, earth's surface, and it is substantially constant often to maintain the water surface, the ferrous sulfate of 1000 grams/acre is used on earth's surface, haystack is soaked in water simultaneously, surrounding button canopy, sealing is exposed to the sun 12 days under the sun;
3) after 12 days, open booth, ventilated, ponding between drained field, after 14 days, by haystack turning, every 1000 kilograms of haystacks are evenly admixed 3 kg urea, keep haystack humidity 60%, inoculation straw mushroom;
4) after 12 days, adularescent mushroom flower bud occurs, after 28 days, ties mushroom, can gather; After plantation straw mushroom, continuous cropping watermelon can be directly continued in plot.
Application example of the present invention:
The technology of the present invention is used for to tomato in plastic greenhouse, cucumber.
1, in more than 5 years tomato booths, plant tomato in continuous cropping, June after tomato in plastic greenhouse results, adopt the technology of the present invention to process continuous cropping obstacle soil conventional method plantation tomato, more than the comparable continuous cropping field contrast raising tomato seedling survival rate 10-30% that does not adopt the technology of the present invention processing, plant height increases by 10%, volume increase 30-65%, the bacterial wilt incidence of disease 70% left and right that declines;
2, under indoor pot experiment condition, gather 5 years above cucumber plastic shed soils of continuous cropping, indoor employing the technology of the present invention is processed continuous cropping obstacle soil, plantation cucumber, transplant after 50 days, plant plant height increases 20-35% than the soil contrast that does not adopt this invention processing, and biomass (plant complete stool fresh weight) does not increase 35-45% not etc. than contrast, and the quantity such as Fusarium, pythium, Phytophthora bacterium are than contrast decline 80-90% (Fig. 1).

Claims (1)

1. eliminate a method for Tomato in Protected Cultivation continuous cropping obstacle, it is characterized in that production stage is:
1) June after Plastic Greenhouse Tomato Cultivation In Relation results, remove tomato stubble in field, to bank up on earth's surface and grow 5 meters, wide 3 meters, wheat straw or the stack of rice straw of high 1 meter, straw or wheat straw are cut into 20 centimeter length; Banking up, every 1000 kilograms of stalks in haystack process are admixed 5 kilogram of raw lime;
2) build a dam in booth surrounding, 20 centimetres of heights of dam, pour water, and make the earth's surface water surface in canopy exceed 10 centimetres, earth's surface, and it are constant to maintain the water surface, and the ferrous sulfate of 50 grams/acre is used on earth's surface, haystack is soaked in water simultaneously, and surrounding button canopy, sealing is exposed to the sun 10 days under the sun;
3) after 10 days, open booth, ventilated, ponding between drained field, after 7 days, by haystack turning, every 1000 kilograms of haystacks are evenly admixed 2 kg urea, keep haystack humidity 50%, inoculation straw mushroom;
4) after 10 days, adularescent/Secotium agaricoides (Czern) Hollos flower bud occurs, after 25 days, ties mushroom, gathers; After plantation straw mushroom, continuous cropping tomato is directly continued in plot.
CN201210571386.2A 2012-12-26 2012-12-26 Method for eliminating facility cultivated vegetable continuous cropping obstacle Expired - Fee Related CN103004471B (en)

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