CN102511216B - Ridging method for greenhouse cucumber cultivation without continuous cropping obstacles - Google Patents

Ridging method for greenhouse cucumber cultivation without continuous cropping obstacles Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102511216B
CN102511216B CN201110446081.4A CN201110446081A CN102511216B CN 102511216 B CN102511216 B CN 102511216B CN 201110446081 A CN201110446081 A CN 201110446081A CN 102511216 B CN102511216 B CN 102511216B
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stalk
geotextiles
greenhouse
furrow
cucumber
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CN102511216A (en
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高丽红
乔永旭
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China Agricultural University
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China Agricultural University
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/10Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in agriculture
    • Y02A40/25Greenhouse technology, e.g. cooling systems therefor

Abstract

The invention discloses a ridging method for greenhouse cucumber cultivation without continuous cropping obstacles. The ridging method comprises the following steps of: 1) preparing a low plot, and laying a pesticidal geotextile on the surface of the plot, wherein the pesticidal geotextile consists of a lower geotextile which is treated with 8 to 12-mass-percent trisodium phosphate aqueous solution and 40 to 60-mass-percent N-2-benzimidazole-methyl carbamate powder and an upper geotextile which is treated with 0.2-mass-percent copper hydroxide aqueous solution; 2) spreading straw on the pesticidal geotextile, wherein the straw layer consists of straw wetted by water and a straw zymophyte agent and calcium superphosphate which contact the straw; 3) applying urea on the straw layer, and covering planting soil for fermentation; and 4) preparing plot surface and thus, preparing plot for cultivating cucumbers in a greenhouse. According to the ridging method, CO2 and small molecular substances generated straw yeasts are fully utilized, so compared with the ordinary cultivation method, the ridging method has the advantages that: the yield of the cucumbers is improved by about 11 percent; and the cucumbers are sweet and crisp.

Description

A kind of furrow method of doing for greenhouse culture cucumber that overcomes continuous cropping obstacle
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of furrow method of doing for greenhouse culture cucumber, particularly a kind of furrow method of doing for greenhouse culture cucumber that can overcome continuous cropping obstacle.
Background technology
Cucumber, is also green cucumber, perverse melon, Curcurbitaceae annual herb plant.Cucumber cultivation is with a long history, and plantation extensively, is worldwide vegetables, is distributed widely in all over China, and is one of main greenhouse product.Along with greenhouse by solar heat is in the rapid popularization of northern China, especially increase obviously with the greenhouse cucumber cultivated area on the ground such as Liaoning, Shandong, Hebei, Beijing and Tianjin in recent years.
According to statistics, China's greenhouse by solar heat in 2010 and plastic tunnel reach respectively 330,000 hectares (4,960,000 mus) and 670,000 hectares (1,007 ten thousand mu), increase by 30% and 23% than last year.Wherein in greenhouse by solar heat, the cultivated area of cucumber reaches 40% of the greenhouse by solar heat gross area, in greenhouse vegetable is produced, occupies very important status.Cucumber yield is high in addition, profitable, wherein ten thousand kilograms of every batch every mu about 0.7-1.0 of cucumber yield, and 6-8 commodity melon approximately produced in every strain, brought higher economic profit to vegetable grower, so the cultivated area of greenhouse cucumber is always high for many years.
Along with the increase year by year of greenhouse by solar heat area and the expansion of greenhouse cucumber industrialization management scale, greenhouse cucumber produce in due to continuous cropping for many years, soil salinization degree increases, soil compaction, fertility obviously decline, soil-borne disease (especially fusarium wilt) increases the weight of year by year, Soil-sickness Problem has become the bottleneck of restriction greenhouse cucumber high yield and high quality, has greatly hindered the enthusiasm of vegetable grower's plantation.Statistics according to investigations: usable floor area 667m 2first batch, greenhouse produce approximately 10,000 kilograms, melon, second batch is about 0.9 ten thousand kilograms, the 3rd batch is only about 0.7 ten thousand kilograms, just can not plant cucumber between later 2-3 again.Cause leaving unused of a large amount of greenhouses and replanting of crop, planting technology difficulty is increased.Therefore, research is a kind of novel, overcomes the efficiency cultivation technology for high of continuous cropping obstacle, is very important.
Summary of the invention
An object of the present invention is to provide the furrow method of doing for greenhouse culture cucumber, thereby effectively overcome succession cropping obstacle of green cucumber.
The furrow method of doing for greenhouse culture cucumber provided by the present invention comprises the steps:
1) dig low furrow, on the furrow face of described low furrow, lay medicinal geotextiles; Described medicinal geotextiles is made up of upper and lower two geotextiles, the geotextiles that is positioned at below is 8-12% through quality percentage composition, trisodium phosphate aqueous solution (passivation virus) and quality percentage composition as 10% are 40-60%, as N-2-benzimidazole base-methyl carbamate pulvis of 50% was processed; The Kocide SD aqueous solution (prepare by suitable heating, kill bacterium) that the geotextiles that is positioned at top is 0.2% through quality percentage composition was processed;
2) in step 1) lay a stalk layer in described medicinal geotextiles, described stalk layer by the stalk through water-wet, with the described stalk fermentation microbial inoculum contacting through the stalk of water-wet with form with the described superphosphate contacting through the stalk of water-wet;
3) in step 2) evenly spread fertilizer over the fields urea on described stalk layer, cover afterwards upper planting soil and ferment;
4) after fermentation ends, make furrow face, obtain the furrow for greenhouse culture cucumber.
In said method, the width of described low furrow can be 1.1 meters, and the degree of depth can be 30-40 centimetre, and length is determined by the span in greenhouse.
In one embodiment of the invention, use described 8-12%, as the geotextiles of 10% trisodium phosphate aqueous solution immersion (as a 30 minutes) removal plastic film, then on described geotextiles according to the consumption of 2-4g/ square metre of described geotextiles, evenly spreading fertilizer over the fields described quality percentage composition is 40-60%, as 50%N-2-benzimidazole base-methyl carbamate pulvis, described in obtaining, be positioned at the geotextiles of below; The described geotextiles that is arranged in top is made according to the method comprising the steps: the Kocide SD aqueous solution with described 0.2% soaks the geotextiles of (as 30 minutes) another removal plastic film, is positioned at the geotextiles of top described in obtaining.Upper and lower two the described geotextiles of handling well are stitched together with needlework, prevent from when upper and lower two-layer described geotextiles from moving misplacing.Should be by the surrounding of described medicinal geotextiles along reserving 30-40 centimetre on furrow wall while laying described medicinal geotextiles.
Step 2) described in stalk fermentation microbial inoculum be the straw biological fermentation ditch special bacterium song that Beijing Jingpuyuan Bio-engineering Co., Ltd. produces, the registration number of this product is: the accurate word of microorganism fertilizer (2003) (0114).
In practical operation, the consumption of described stalk fermentation microbial inoculum is the 0.3-0.5% of described stalk weight, or 0.5%; Described stalk weight is with dry weight basis; The consumption of described superphosphate is that 30-40 gram/m of stalk laid area, or 40 grams/m of stalks are laid area.
Step 3) described in the consumption of urea be that 10-20 gram/m of stalk laid area, or 15 grams/m of stalks are laid areas.
Step 2) described in the laying depth of stalk be 10-20 centimetre, or 15 centimetres; In an embodiment of the present invention, described stalk is specially maize straw.Step 3) described in time of fermentation be 10-15 days, or 15 days.Step 3) described in the cladding thickness of planting soil be specially 15-25 centimetre, or 20 centimetres.
Step 4) described in make furrow face and also comprise and spread fertilizer over the fields the step that nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer and soil mix; In described nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer, N element is made up of ammonium nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen and urea nitrogen, and their quality percentage compositions are respectively 4%, 6% and 10%; The existence form of P is P 2o 5, the existence form that its quality percentage composition is 20%, K is K 2o, its quality percentage composition is 20%, all the other compositions are auxiliary material.
In practical operation, the consumption of described nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer is 20-40 gram/m of furrow face area, or 30 grams/m of furrow face areas.
In an embodiment of the present invention, step 1) described in dig low furrow before, also comprise the step of soil disinfection.The medicine that described disinfecting soil is used is specially (chemical name: tetrahydrochysene-3,5-dimethyl-1,3, the 5-plug diazole-2-thioketones) fine granule of must speed going out.Described tetrahydrochysene-3,5-dimethyl-1, the service property (quality) percentage composition of 3,5-plug diazole-2-thioketones fine granule is specially 98-100%, and consumption is specially 40-60 gram/m of soil erosion.The concrete grammar of described soil disinfection is: by described tetrahydrochysene-3,5-dimethyl-1,3,5-plug diazole-2-thioketones fine granule is spread fertilizer over the fields soil surface uniformly, 30 centimetres of soil deeptillages, fully mix soil and medicine, and covered with plastic film at least 5 days thereon, loosen the soil 1-2 time, place afterwards 2 days.
In an embodiment of the present invention, step 1) described in dig low furrow and can specifically carry out in accordance with the following steps: north-south trench digging in described greenhouse, according to wide 1.1 meters, the standard of dark 30-40 centimetre is dug low furrow, furrow face is harrowed to broken leveling, between furrow and furrow, do one wide 30 centimetres, the ditch of dark 20 centimetres; Described ditch is as drain ditch or passageway; The length of described furrow is adjusted according to greenhouse span.
Step 4) described in furrow face be wide 40 centimetres, the Liang Tiaolong of high 10-15 centimetre, 30 centimetres, interval, described two ridges.
Also belong to protection scope of the present invention by the described furrow for greenhouse culture cucumber that obtain for the furrow method of doing of greenhouse culture cucumber.
Under normal circumstances, described greenhouse is greenhouse by solar heat.
The described furrow for greenhouse culture cucumber belong to protection scope of the present invention in the application one of cucumber Cultivation in Greenhouse.
In described application, comprise the step of cucumber seedling being carried out to field planting; In described field planting, being 25 centimetres in the spacing in the rows of cucumber seedling described in described greenhouse by solar heat north, is 30 centimetres in the spacing in the rows of described greenhouse by solar heat described cucumber seedling in the south; Described greenhouse by solar heat is for sitting south, north, the greenhouse that thing extends.In an embodiment of the present invention, described cucumber seedling is the seedling that grows to 3-4 sheet true leaf.When field planting, by part comparatively flourishing described cucumber seedling root system, towards the south, rhizome part is slightly exposed to soil.
As required, after described cucumber seedling field planting, when fine day, can add a cover the sunshade net of 60-80%.
After cucumber seedling field planting, can regulate and control environmental condition as follows: the 5-9 month, can add a cover the cooling of 50%-60% sunshade net; In described greenhouse by solar heat, day temperature is controlled at 20-28 ℃, and nocturnal temperature is controlled at 12-18 ℃; Described sunlight indoor air humidity remains on 60%-70%, and soil keeps moisture state always.Can carry out as follows rich water quality management: seedling stage, every 4-6 days watered once, within every two weeks, be 0.1% by mass percentage concentration nitrogen phosphorus potassium (20-20-20) composite fertilizer waters once; After florescence and florescence, within every 10 days, water once with 0.1% described nitrogen phosphorus potassium (20-20-20) composite fertilizer, the every 20 days potassium dihydrogen phosphate foliage-sprays with 0.1-0.3%, and water in good time; Described in good time watering as with holding soil, the not agglomerating needs of soil water; Described water permeable for watering; Described watering time, did not overcast and rainyly water between at 4 in afternoon at 9 in the morning of fine day, until uproot plants after their edible portions have been harvested.
The Heterogeneous Composite thickness of wall body in described greenhouse is not less than 60cm, and cob wall thickness is that local frozen soil layer thickness adds 50cm, and ridge is high is more than or equal to 2.8 meters, and the rear roofing elevation angle is not less than the sun altitude of the local positive period of the day from 11 a.m. to 1 p.m in Winter Solstice, and backhouse face thickness is more than or equal to 0.4 meter; The computing formula of the sun altitude of the described positive period of the day from 11 a.m. to 1 p.m is: height of the sun at noon=90 degree-(local latitude-sun direct projection latitude).
Compared to the prior art, tool has the following advantages in the present invention:
1, the preparation method uniqueness of medicinal geotextiles of the present invention, this medicinal geotextiles can obviously suppress copying of virus, the generation of control fungus and bacterium disease, for controlling, soil-borne disease and continuous cropping obstacle effect are very obvious.
2, the present invention adopts and in low furrow, lays stalk, zymophyte song, superphosphate and mix, and spreads fertilizer over the fields urea on it again.The method had both regulated C/N ratio, again for the growth of plant provides nitrogenous fertilizer and calcium P elements timely.
3, the spacing in the rows north of plant is little when field planting of the present invention, in the south large.Take full advantage of the characteristic distributions of illumination in greenhouse by solar heat, appropriate dense planting.
4, the present invention takes full advantage of carbonic acid gas and the small-molecule substance of stalk fermentation deposits yields, and cucumber yield is high by approximately 11% compared with common cultivation method, and mouthfeel is sweet crisp, is applicable to very much agricultural production company and peasant household and uses, and practical prospect is wide.
Embodiment
The experimental technique using in following embodiment if no special instructions, is conventional method.
Material, reagent etc. used in following embodiment, if no special instructions, all can obtain from commercial channels.
Embodiment 1, cucumber Cultivation in Greenhouse
1, the selection of greenhouse by solar heat
Select and sit south, north, the greenhouse by solar heat that thing extends, the thickness of its native gable and side wall is 100 centimetres, and ridge is high 2.8 meters, 34 °, rear roofing angle, 50 centimetres of backhouse face thicknesses, 7 meters of greenhouse spans.5 batches of cucumber have been planted in this greenhouse continuously.
2, soil disinfection
In greenhouse, according to the consumption of 50 grams/m, to be 98% by mass percentage concentration must speed go out (chemical name: tetrahydrochysene-3,5-dimethyl-1,3,5-plug diazole-2-thioketones) fine granule spreads fertilizer over the fields soil surface, 30 centimetres of soil deeptillages uniformly, soil and medicine are fully mixed, and covered with plastic film 6 days thereon.Loosen the soil afterwards 1 time, after 2 days, do furrow wholely.
3, the making of medicinal geotextiles
Get the geotextiles that two volumes are new, all remove the plastic film on it, wherein one twist in 10% trisodium phosphate aqueous solution and soak 30 minutes (passivation virus), pull out to flatten and dry.Then evenly spread fertilizer over the fields carbendazim (chemical name: the N-2-benzimidazole base-methyl carbamate) pulvis that thin layer (approximately 3 grams/m of geotextiles) mass percentage concentration is 50% in the above; In the Kocide SD aqueous solution that another volume geotextiles is 0.2% in mass percentage concentration, soak 30 minutes (killing bacterium), pull out to flatten and dry, be laid in first geotextiles, and two geotextiles are stitched together with needlework, prevent from when upper and lower two-layer geotextiles from moving misplacing, make medicinal composite earthwork cloth.
4, arrange and do furrow
(1) dig low furrow: north-south trench digging in greenhouse, according to 1.1 meters × 6 meters, the standard of dark 30 centimetres is dug low furrow, and furrow face is harrowed to broken leveling, does one widely 30 centimetres between furrow and furrow, and the ditch of dark 20 centimetres, can be used as drain ditch and also can be used as passageway.
(2) paving stalk: be equipped with the medicinal geotextiles performing on low furrow furrow face upper berth, surrounding is along the medicinal geotextiles that reserves 30 centimetres on furrow wall, in medicinal geotextiles, repave 15 cm thicks without cutting dry maize straw, water sprays stalk moistening, with on furrow face not water be advisable.On it, spread fertilizer over the fields straw biological fermentation ditch special bacterium song (the straw biological fermentation ditch special bacterium song that Beijing Jingpuyuan Bio-engineering Co., Ltd. produces of dry stalk weight 0.5% (mass percent concentration), the registration number of this product is: the accurate word of microorganism fertilizer (2003) (0114)), and spread fertilizer over the fields superphosphate (P elements is provided for a long time) by the amount of 40 grams/m of stalks laying areas, pat gently stalk, microbial bacterial agent, superphosphate and stalk are fully contacted.Evenly spread fertilizer over the fields urea (forbidding patting stalk) by the amount of 15 grams/m afterwards, cladding thickness is the planting soil of 20 centimetres immediately again, ferments 15 days.
(3) do furrow face: after fermentation, (N element is made up of ammonium nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen and urea nitrogen to spread fertilizer over the fields nitrogen phosphorus potassium (20-20-20) composite fertilizer according to the amount of 30 grams/m of furrow face areas, their quality percentage compositions are respectively 4%, 6% and 10%; The existence form of P is P 2o 5, the existence form that its quality percentage composition is 20%, K is K 2o, its quality percentage composition is 20%, all the other compositions are auxiliary material), and soil mixes, furrow face is made wide 40 centimetres, the Liang Tiaolong of high 15 centimetres, ridge is spaced apart 30 centimetres.
5, the field planting of cucumber seedling
During to 3-4 sheet true leaf, adopting two ridge triangle field planting until cucumber seedling growth, is 25 centimetres near the half ridge spacing in the rows on north, greenhouse, and half ridge spacing in the rows in the south is 30 centimetres.Dark cave surface planting while planting, fully unfolds root system, and by part flourishing especially root system towards the south, when earthing, rhizome part is slightly exposed to soil, fills with permeable after field planting in ditch.When fine day, need add a cover 70% sunshade net, promote slow seedling.
6, the environmental condition of greenhouse by solar heat regulation and control
In cucumber growth process, need to add a cover 60% sunshade net cooling 5-9 month.The temperature 20-27 ℃ on daytime, nocturnal temperature 12-16 ℃.Air humidity remains on 60%, and soil keeps moisture state always.
7, rich water quality management
Every 5 days of seedling stage watered once, within every two weeks, watered once with nitrogen phosphorus potassium (20-20-20) composite fertilizer; After 3 months, within every 10 days, water once with 0.1% nitrogen phosphorus potassium (20-20-20) composite fertilizer, all will irrigate at every turn, the time of fertile and water of watering is at the 10 AM of fine day.Within every 20 days, spray blade face with 0.2% potassium dihydrogen phosphate, until uproot plants after their edible portions have been harvested.
According to the method described above, continuous continuous 3 batches of the cucumber of No. three kinds of plantation natural resources in the greenhouse by solar heat of step 1, the cultivated area of every batch of cucumber is all 667 square metres.Yield result to three batches of cucumber of continuous plantation is added up, and obtains 7 of average every batch of every strain results cucumber, and average every batch of cucumber yield is 0.95 ten thousand kilogram; Adopt the greenhouse by solar heat of traditional soil cultivation, No. three cucumber of continuous 3 years plantation natural resources, 6.2 of cucumber are gathered in the crops in every batch of every strain, and every batch of average yield is 0.85 ten thousand kilogram.Increase production approximately 11%.By taste, obvious feel adopt this cultivation method produce cucumber sweet crisp compared with the mouthfeel of produced in conventional processes.

Claims (9)

1. for the furrow method of doing of greenhouse culture cucumber, comprise the steps:
1) dig low furrow, on the furrow face of described low furrow, lay medicinal geotextiles; Described medicinal geotextiles is made up of upper and lower two geotextiles, and the geotextiles that is positioned at below is that 8-12% trisodium phosphate aqueous solution and quality percentage composition are that 40-60%N-2-benzimidazole base-methyl carbamate pulvis was processed through quality percentage composition; The Kocide SD aqueous solution that the geotextiles that is positioned at top is 0.2% through quality percentage composition was processed;
2) in medicinal geotextiles described in step 1), lay a stalk layer, described stalk layer by the stalk through water-wet, with the described stalk fermentation microbial inoculum contacting through the stalk of water-wet with form with the described superphosphate contacting through the stalk of water-wet;
3) in step 2) evenly spread fertilizer over the fields urea on described stalk layer, cover afterwards upper planting soil and ferment;
4) after fermentation ends, make furrow face, obtain the furrow for greenhouse culture cucumber;
In step 1), the described geotextiles that is positioned at below is made according to the method comprising the steps: the geotextiles of soaking a removal plastic film with described 8-12% trisodium phosphate aqueous solution, then on described geotextiles according to the consumption of 2-4g/ square metre of described geotextiles, evenly spreading fertilizer over the fields described quality percentage composition is 40-60%N-2-benzimidazole base-methyl carbamate pulvis, is positioned at the geotextiles of below described in obtaining; The described geotextiles that is arranged in top is made according to the method comprising the steps: soak the geotextiles of another removal plastic film with described 0.2% the Kocide SD aqueous solution, be positioned at the geotextiles of top described in obtaining;
Step 2) described in the consumption of stalk fermentation microbial inoculum be the 0.3-0.5% of described stalk dry weight; Described stalk weight is with dry weight basis; The consumption of described superphosphate is that 30-40 gram/m of stalk laid area;
The consumption of urea described in step 3) is that 10-20 gram/m of stalk laid area;
Described in step 4), make furrow face and also comprise the step of spreading fertilizer over the fields nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer;
The consumption of described nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer is 20-40 gram/m of furrow face area.
2. method according to claim 1, is characterized in that: step 2) described in the consumption of stalk fermentation microbial inoculum be 0.5% of described stalk dry weight; Described stalk weight is with dry weight basis; The consumption of described superphosphate is that 40 grams/m of stalks are laid area.
3. method according to claim 1, is characterized in that: the consumption of urea described in step 3) is that 15 grams/m of stalks are laid area.
4. method according to claim 1, is characterized in that: step 2) described in the laying depth of stalk be 10-20 centimetre; The time of fermenting described in step 3) is 10-15 days.
5. method according to claim 4, is characterized in that: step 2) described in the laying depth of stalk be 15 centimetres; The time of fermenting described in step 3) is 15 days.
6. method according to claim 1, is characterized in that: the consumption of described nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer is 30 grams/m of furrow face areas.
7. by furrow for greenhouse culture cucumber that in claim 1-6, arbitrary described method obtains.
8. the application of furrow in cucumber Cultivation in Greenhouse described in claim 7.
9. application according to claim 8, is characterized in that: in described application, comprise the step of cucumber seedling being carried out to field planting; In described field planting, being 25 centimetres in the spacing in the rows of cucumber seedling described in described greenhouse by solar heat north, is 30 centimetres in the spacing in the rows of described greenhouse by solar heat described cucumber seedling in the south; Described greenhouse by solar heat is for sitting south, north, the greenhouse that thing extends.
CN201110446081.4A 2011-12-28 2011-12-28 Ridging method for greenhouse cucumber cultivation without continuous cropping obstacles Expired - Fee Related CN102511216B (en)

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CN103004471B (en) * 2012-12-26 2014-10-22 南京信息工程大学 Method for eliminating facility cultivated vegetable continuous cropping obstacle
CN106900319A (en) * 2017-02-17 2017-06-30 新疆生产建设兵团第六师农业科学研究所 A kind of cucumber in solar-greenhouse method for culturing seedlings for overcoming continuous cropping obstacle
CN107318403A (en) * 2017-05-09 2017-11-07 安徽禾泉农庄生态农业有限公司 A kind of method for improving cucumber fruits quality
CN108633560B (en) * 2018-03-19 2020-11-06 泰州市蒲公英农业科技发展有限公司 Low-cost fruit and vegetable greenhouse continuous cropping planting method

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