CN106717997B - Cultivation method for promoting expansion of bletilla striata tubers and bletilla striata tubers cultivated by same - Google Patents

Cultivation method for promoting expansion of bletilla striata tubers and bletilla striata tubers cultivated by same Download PDF

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CN106717997B
CN106717997B CN201710059907.9A CN201710059907A CN106717997B CN 106717997 B CN106717997 B CN 106717997B CN 201710059907 A CN201710059907 A CN 201710059907A CN 106717997 B CN106717997 B CN 106717997B
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planting
bletilla striata
tubers
tuber
fertilizer
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CN106717997A (en
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晏前海
龙娴郦
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Guizhou Province Wuling Mountain Medicinal Plants Baiji Development Co ltd
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Guizhou Province Wuling Mountain Medicinal Plants Baiji Development Co ltd
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01BSOIL WORKING IN AGRICULTURE OR FORESTRY; PARTS, DETAILS, OR ACCESSORIES OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINES OR IMPLEMENTS, IN GENERAL
    • A01B79/00Methods for working soil
    • A01B79/02Methods for working soil combined with other agricultural processing, e.g. fertilising, planting
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C1/00Apparatus, or methods of use thereof, for testing or treating seed, roots, or the like, prior to sowing or planting
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G9/00Cultivation in receptacles, forcing-frames or greenhouses; Edging for beds, lawn or the like
    • A01G9/02Receptacles, e.g. flower-pots or boxes; Glasses for cultivating flowers
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05BPHOSPHATIC FERTILISERS
    • C05B7/00Fertilisers based essentially on alkali or ammonium orthophosphates
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05DINORGANIC FERTILISERS NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C05B, C05C; FERTILISERS PRODUCING CARBON DIOXIDE
    • C05D1/00Fertilisers containing potassium
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05GMIXTURES OF FERTILISERS COVERED INDIVIDUALLY BY DIFFERENT SUBCLASSES OF CLASS C05; MIXTURES OF ONE OR MORE FERTILISERS WITH MATERIALS NOT HAVING A SPECIFIC FERTILISING ACTIVITY, e.g. PESTICIDES, SOIL-CONDITIONERS, WETTING AGENTS; FERTILISERS CHARACTERISED BY THEIR FORM
    • C05G3/00Mixtures of one or more fertilisers with additives not having a specially fertilising activity
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05GMIXTURES OF FERTILISERS COVERED INDIVIDUALLY BY DIFFERENT SUBCLASSES OF CLASS C05; MIXTURES OF ONE OR MORE FERTILISERS WITH MATERIALS NOT HAVING A SPECIFIC FERTILISING ACTIVITY, e.g. PESTICIDES, SOIL-CONDITIONERS, WETTING AGENTS; FERTILISERS CHARACTERISED BY THEIR FORM
    • C05G5/00Fertilisers characterised by their form
    • C05G5/20Liquid fertilisers

Abstract

The invention relates to a cultivation method for promoting expansion of bletilla striata tubers and bletilla striata tubers cultivated by the same, and belongs to the field of bletilla striata cultivation, wherein a drainage bottom layer prepared from at least one of cobblestones and river sand is arranged in a cultivation ditch, an isolation planting frame which comprises a first net frame, a second net frame and a supporting part for connecting the first net frame and the second net frame and is clamped with the first reverse osmosis membrane and the second reverse osmosis membrane is arranged on the drainage bottom layer, soil which takes 500kg-800kg of base fertilizer applied per mu as a standard is stacked in a stacking cavity of the first net frame, and planting ridges are formed; soaking the sown stem block with at least 2 bud eyes in KH with 3-4 wt%2PO41.5 to 3 percent of sodium molybdate and 3 to 4 percent of KNO3After at least one tuber pretreating agent is added for 30-36 h, sowing, field management and harvesting are carried out, the method effectively avoids nutrient loss in soil and promotes tuber expansion.

Description

Cultivation method for promoting expansion of bletilla striata tubers and bletilla striata tubers cultivated by same
Technical Field
The invention relates to the field of bletilla striata planting, and particularly relates to a cultivation method for promoting the enlargement of bletilla striata tubers and bletilla striata tubers cultivated by the same.
Background
Bletilla striata (a scientific name: Bletilla striata), also called Glechomae herba, radix Callicarpae Glaucae, radix Melandrii Szechuanensis, Zhulan, etc., is a perennial herb bulbous plant, and has good medicinal values of hemostasis, gastric mucosa protection, antibiosis, anticancer, radiation resistance, etc. However, as the dosage of the bletilla striata is greatly increased, wild bletilla striata resources are sharply reduced, and people's excessive excavation and predation are disturbed, so that the wild bletilla striata is few, and the wild bletilla striata is changed into artificial domestication cultivation only, and by using the conventional cultivation method, the planted bletilla striata is usually luxuriant in the overground part of the bletilla striata and strong in growth vigor, but the underground tuber part used for medicine injection is poor in growth vigor, and in order to enhance the growth vigor of the underground tuber part, a mode of applying a large amount of fertilizer is usually adopted, so that the expansion of the tuber of the bletilla striata can be promoted to a certain degree, but the application amount of the fertilizer is large, the production cost is increased, and meanwhile, the surplus fertilizer is enriched in soil; moreover, the tuber of the bletilla striata is enlarged by applying a large amount of fertilizer, the weight of the tuber of the bletilla striata is really increased, but the drug effect is reduced, and the significance of enlarging the tuber of the bletilla striata is not achieved substantially.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to provide a cultivation method for promoting the expansion of tubers of bletilla striata, which can avoid the phenomenon that nutrients in soil are reduced along with the loss of water, namely, can promote the growth and development of the bletilla striata under the condition of applying a small amount of fertilizer, promote the expansion of the tubers of the bletilla striata and improve the acre yield.
The invention also aims to provide the bletilla striata tubers, which are cultivated by the cultivation method for promoting the enlargement of the bletilla striata tubers, and the single bletilla striata tubers are large in size and heavy in weight, so that the acre yield of the obtained bletilla striata tubers is high.
The technical problem to be solved by the invention is realized by adopting the following technical scheme.
A cultivation method for promoting tuber expansion of rhizoma bletilla comprises the following steps:
land preparation: ploughing a cultivated land, digging a planting ditch, laying a drainage bottom layer at the bottom of the planting ditch, wherein the raw material of the drainage bottom layer is selected from at least one of stones and river sand, arranging an isolation planting frame at the drainage bottom layer, the isolation planting frame comprises a first net frame, a second net frame and a supporting part for connecting the first net frame and the second net frame, a channel is formed between the first net frame and the second net frame, the channel is divided into a first channel and a second channel by the supporting part, the first channel is internally paved with a first reverse osmosis membrane, the second channel is internally paved with a second reverse osmosis membrane, one side of the first net frame, which is far away from the second net frame, forms a piling cavity for ridging, piles soil in the piling cavity and forms planting ridges, and applying a base fertilizer to the planting ridges according to the standard of 500kg-800kg per mu;
cultivation: selecting rhizoma bletilla tuber with eyes, and cutting to obtain tuber containing at least 2Sowing tubers of the bud eyes, soaking the sowing tubers in a tuber pretreating agent for 30-36 h to obtain pretreated tubers, planting the pretreated tubers on planting ridges, wherein the tuber pretreating agent is selected from KH (KH) with the mass percentage of 3% -4%2PO4Solution, sodium molybdate solution with the mass percent of 1.5-3 percent and KNO with the mass percent of 3-4 percent3At least one of a solution;
field management: after the pretreated tubers are grown out, at least one additional fertilizer and at least one weed removal are carried out before the tubers are matured, and the tubers are harvested after the tubers are matured.
A tuber of rhizoma bletilla is cultivated by the cultivation method for promoting the expansion of the tuber of rhizoma bletilla.
The cultivation method for promoting the expansion of the bletilla striata tubers and the bletilla striata tubers cultivated by the cultivation method have the beneficial effects that: the cultivation method for promoting the expansion of the bletilla striata tubers avoids the phenomenon that nutrient substances in soil are reduced along with the loss of water in the soil, can ensure that enough nutrients can be absorbed by the bletilla striata in the growth process all the time under the condition of reducing the application amount of the fertilizer, and are used for the growth and expansion of the bletilla striata tubers, so that the expansion of the bletilla striata tubers is promoted, the acre yield of the bletilla striata tubers is improved, and the economic benefit of bletilla striata cultivation is improved.
Drawings
In order to more clearly illustrate the technical solutions of the embodiments of the present invention, the drawings needed to be used in the embodiments will be briefly described below, it should be understood that the following drawings only illustrate some embodiments of the present invention and therefore should not be considered as limiting the scope, and for those skilled in the art, other related drawings can be obtained according to the drawings without inventive efforts.
Fig. 1 is a cross-sectional view of an isolated planting frame provided by the present invention.
Icon: 100-isolating planting frames; 110-a first frame; 115-a second frame; 211-a support; 117-a first reverse osmosis membrane; 213-a second reverse osmosis membrane; 200-channels; 119-a first channel; 210-a second channel; 113 a-opening; 111 a-a cover; 113 b-opening; 111 b-lid.
Detailed Description
In order to make the objects, technical solutions and advantages of the embodiments of the present invention clearer, the technical solutions in the embodiments of the present invention will be clearly and completely described below. The examples, in which specific conditions are not specified, were conducted under conventional conditions or conditions recommended by the manufacturer. The reagents or instruments used are not indicated by the manufacturer, and are all conventional products available commercially.
In the description of the present invention, it should also be noted that, unless otherwise explicitly specified or limited, the terms "disposed," "connected," and the like are to be construed broadly and may, for example, be fixedly connected, detachably connected, or integrally connected; can be mechanically or electrically connected; they may be connected directly or indirectly through intervening media, or they may be interconnected between two elements. The specific meanings of the above terms in the present invention can be understood in specific cases to those skilled in the art.
The cultivation method for promoting the expansion of the bletilla striata tubers and the bletilla striata tubers cultivated by the cultivation method of the embodiment of the invention are specifically described below.
According to the cultivation method for promoting the expansion of the tuber of bletilla striata, soil is prepared, planting ditches are dug in cultivated land, a drainage bottom layer and an isolation planting frame 100 are laid, and soil mixed with base fertilizer is accumulated in the isolation planting frame 100; then placing the cut seeding tubers containing at least 2 bud eyes into a tuber pretreating agent to be soaked for 30-36 h to obtain pretreated tubers, and planting the pretreated tubers in the soil mixed with the base fertilizer; and finally, performing field management of additional fertilizer and weeding after the pretreated tubers grow seedlings to maturity until the tubers of the bletilla striata are cultivated.
Specifically, the cultivation method for promoting the enlargement of the tuber of bletilla striata comprises the following steps:
s1 soil preparation:
the method comprises the steps of firstly selecting the land to be subjected to bletilla striata cultivation, and then ploughing and turning the selected land, wherein the preferable land in the selection of the land has the advantages of gentle ground, fertile land, close water source and the like, and the management work in the planting process can be facilitated.
Digging planting ditches on the farmland, laying a drainage bottom layer at the bottom of each planting ditch, further determining the number of the planting ditches according to the specific size of the selected land, wherein the width of each planting ditch is 50-80 cm, and the depth of each planting ditch is 40-80 cm; preferably, the planting furrows are arranged in parallel, the interval between the furrows is 25cm-35cm, and the parallel arrangement mode is convenient for subsequent planting, topdressing and weeding operations.
Specifically, the depth of the drainage bottom layer is 10cm-20cm, and the raw material of the drainage bottom layer is selected from at least one of stones and river sand. The setting of drainage bottom can avoid planting the unable circumstances of in-process soil ponding of bletilla in time discharging effectively, avoids ponding to lead to mashed root etc.. The height of the planting ridges is 10cm-15cm, so that the soil of the planting ridges is enough to coat the bletilla striata and enough water and nutrients can be kept for growth and development of the bletilla striata. Still be provided with in planting the ridge and drip irrigation the pipe, should drip irrigation the pipe and plant the ridge surface 3cm-5cm apart from, except that utilizing to drip irrigation the pipe and irrigating in the cultivation process, can also utilize to drip irrigation the pipe and fertilize, let fertilizer directly get into soil, do benefit to the absorption of tuber of hyacinth bletilla root to fertilizer. The drip irrigation pipe is close to the part where the bletilla striata grows, and the absorption of the bletilla striata to nutrients is facilitated.
An isolation planting frame 100 for preventing nutrient loss is arranged on a drainage bottom layer, as shown in fig. 1, the isolation planting frame 100 comprises a first net frame 110, a second net frame 115 and a supporting part 211 for connecting the first net frame 110 and the second net frame 115, a channel 200 is formed between the first net frame 110 and the second net frame 115, the channel 200 is divided into a first channel 119 and a second channel 210 by the supporting part 211, a first reverse osmosis membrane 117 is laid in the first channel 119, an opening 113a is arranged at one end, far away from the drainage bottom layer, of the first channel 119, a cover 111a for opening and closing the opening 113a is arranged at the opening 113a, the first reverse osmosis membrane 117 in the first channel 119 can be replaced through the opening 113a, and the problem that the drainage performance is reduced due to long-term non-replacement of reverse osmosis membranes, soil ponding is serious, and rotten roots of bletilla are caused, and the growth of the bletilla is influenced is avoided; the second channel 210 is internally laid with a second reverse osmosis membrane 213, and the second channel 210 has an opening 113b and a cover 111b in accordance with the structure and function of the first channel 119, and the specific structure and function can refer to the first channel 119. It should be noted that, a stacking cavity for forming ridges is formed on the side of the first net frame 110 away from the first net frame 110, and the planting ridges are formed by soil stacked in the stacking cavity. It should be further noted that the reverse osmosis membrane can be replaced every 6 months to every 8 months. It should be further noted that there is no particular limitation on the raw materials for manufacturing the first frame 110 and the second frame 115, such as: wire netting, ABS plastics, etc.
The first reverse osmosis membrane 117 and the second reverse osmosis membrane 213 are each a reverse osmosis membrane, for example: the reverse osmosis membrane can isolate water in the soil above the planting frame 100, so that water is not accumulated in the soil, and the rotten roots of bletilla striata and the like caused by excessive water in the planting ridges are avoided; meanwhile, the reverse osmosis membrane only allows water to pass through, and various nutrient substances dissolved in the water cannot penetrate through the reverse osmosis membrane but stay in the soil above the isolation planting frame 100, so that the isolation planting frame 100 is installed for cultivation, the application amount of fertilizer can be reduced, and the bletilla striata can be promoted to absorb nutrient swelling tubers.
The openings 113a and 113b facilitate the replacement of the first and second reverse osmosis membranes 117 and 213, and the provision of the first and second passages 119 and 210 in the form of double passages further enhances the convenience of replacing the reverse osmosis membranes. The cover 111a and the cover 111b are arranged to effectively prevent impurities such as soil and fertilizer from entering the channel 200 to block the channel 200, and prevent the reverse osmosis membrane from being replaced.
Soil is piled up in the isolation planting frame 100 to form planting ridges. The soil filled into the accumulation cavity is mixed with base fertilizer, and the application amount standard of the base fertilizer is 500kg-800kg per mu. The base fertilizer comprises a fertilizer and an additive, wherein the fertilizer is selected from at least one of compost, livestock manure and stable manure, and the additive is selected from at least one of perlite and vermiculite. The function of adding the base fertilizer into the soil is to provide necessary nutrient elements for the growth of the tuber of bletilla striata, such as: nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium. The addition of the perlite can further improve the drainage and air permeability of the soil, prevent the soil from hardening, and avoid the poor growth and even rotten tuber of the bletilla striata caused by soil water accumulation; the vermiculite can play the functions of fertilizer retention, water retention, air permeability, mineral fertilizer and the like in soil, and can slowly release the fertilizer in the soil, so that the bletilla striata can be ensured to absorb enough fertilizer for growth, and the bletilla striata is prevented from being damaged by excessive fertilizer.
S2 cultivation:
before planting the bletilla striata, a planting greenhouse can be erected on the cultivated land, and a spraying device and a heating device are erected in the planting greenhouse. The heating device can be a greenhouse heating heater, an industrial gas fan heater and the like; the spraying device can be a spraying humidifier.
When the humidity of the bletilla striata growing environment is higher, the growth and development of the bletilla striata are facilitated, so that when the humidity of the planting greenhouse is lower than 50%, the humidity in the planting greenhouse can be improved by using the spraying device, the humidity of the planting greenhouse is kept between 50% and 70%, and the growth of the bletilla striata is facilitated to be more prosperous.
When the bletilla striata grows, when the environment temperature inside the planting greenhouse is lower than 15 ℃, the heating device can be utilized to heat the environment inside the planting greenhouse, so that the temperature inside the planting greenhouse is higher than or equal to 15 ℃, and the bletilla striata can grow at an appropriate temperature in an accelerated manner. When the temperature of planting the big-arch shelter was higher than 30 ℃ daytime, utilized atomizer to cool down for the inside ambient temperature of planting the big-arch shelter, avoided too high ambient temperature to restrain the growth of tuber of hyacinth bletilla.
In summer, early autumn or other high temperature seasons, the environment temperature in the planting greenhouse at night is also higher, the internal environment of the planting greenhouse is cooled by the spraying device, so that the internal environment temperature of the planting greenhouse does not exceed 20 ℃ at night, the respiration of the bletilla striata is reduced, a large amount of organic matters consumed by the bletilla striata due to the respiration are avoided, the accumulation of the organic matters of the bletilla striata is improved, the accumulation of the organic matters of the tuber of the bletilla striata is also promoted, and the expansion of the tuber of the bletilla striata is promoted.
The spraying device can ensure a moist growth space, avoid soil drying, reduce irrigation frequency and improve field management efficiency.
Selecting bletilla striata tubers with bud eyes, cutting to obtain sown tubers with at least 2 bud eyes, soaking the sown tubers in a tuber pretreating agent for 30-36 h to obtain pretreated tubers, wherein the tuber pretreating agent is selected from KH with the mass percentage of 3-4%2PO4Solution, sodium molybdate solution with the mass percent of 1.5-3 percent and KNO with the mass percent of 3-4 percent3At least one of the solutions.
The tuber is pre-treated before planting, and potassium, nitrogen and molybdenum elements can be soaked into the tuber by soaking with a tuber pre-treating agent before planting, so as to promote rooting, germination and the like of the tuber, improve the growth vigor of the bletilla striata and facilitate the expansion of the tuber of the bletilla striata. Wherein KH is used2PO4Sodium molybdate, KNO3The solution is used for treating the seeding tubers at the same time, and the molybdenum element can promote the absorption of phosphorus, potassium and nitrogen elements by the bletilla striata; can promote the synthesis and accumulation of substances such as sugar, protein and the like; can also improve the activity of chlorophyll after budding, improve photosynthesis and promote the accumulation of organic substances of bletilla striata. The series of effects can effectively promote the tuber expansion of the bletilla striata.
Before the pretreated tubers are planted, the pretreated tubers can be disinfected, the disinfected tubers can be soaked for 20-30 min by using 4% sodium chloride by mass or soaked for 10-20 min by using 2% NaOH solution by mass, and similar disinfection treatments are carried out for a plurality of times, so that the detailed description is omitted. The disinfection treatment is used for preventing bletilla striata from suffering from fungus, bacterial diseases and the like during growth.
Planting the pretreated tubers on the planting ridges by using a hole digging cultivation method, wherein the depth of each hole is 10-13 cm, the interval between every two holes is 23-25 cm, 2-3 pretreated tubers are placed in each hole, and the bud eyes of the pretreated tubers face to the hole openings. After planting, covering the soil mixed with the base fertilizer, covering the soil to be level to the surface of the ditch, and watering once.
The depth of the holes is not easy to be too deep, so as not to be beneficial to the sprouting of the pretreated tubers; the distance between the holes is not too small, so that mutual extrusion of tubers of bletilla striata after formation is avoided, and expansion is not facilitated; the number of pretreated tubers in each hole is not easily excessive, so that the pretreated tubers are prevented from having too strong competition for growth nutrients and cannot grow well.
S3 field management:
after the pretreated tubers grow seedlings, additional fertilizer and weeding are carried out before the tubers are mature. The additional fertilizer can ensure that the growth vigor is more vigorous and the photosynthesis is stronger in the whole growth period of the bletilla striata; weeding can effectively avoid contending for nutrients for weeds and bletilla striata, and promote the growth of the bletilla striata to be more vigorous.
The top dressing can be carried out once every 30-45 days after the emergence of seedlings of bletilla striata, and the application amount of the top dressing fertilizer is 20-30 kg per mu.
The bletilla striata is a perennial plant, the tuber expansion period of the bletilla striata is 7-9 months per year, and the top dressing of the bletilla striata is particularly important in the expansion period, so that the tuber expansion fertilizer is added every 45 days on the basis of the original top dressing in the expansion period of the tuber of the bletilla striata, and the application amount is 30-50 kg per mu.
The additional fertilizer can comprise, for example, 30-40 wt.%: 5-10: 5-10: 5-10: 1-3: 3-5: 3-5 of fermented rapeseed cakes, a nitrogenous fertilizer, a phosphate fertilizer, a potash fertilizer, a molybdenum fertilizer, a zinc fertilizer and a boron fertilizer; the tuber swelling fertilizer comprises the following components in percentage by weight of 30-40: 10-20: 8-15: 5-10: 1-3: 3-5: 3-5 of fermented rapeseed cakes, a nitrogen fertilizer, a phosphate fertilizer, a potassium fertilizer, a molybdenum fertilizer, a zinc fertilizer and a boron fertilizer. Namely, the amount of nitrogenous fertilizer and phosphate fertilizer is properly increased in the expansion period of the bletilla striata tubers, so that the expansion effect of the bletilla striata tubers can be effectively improved.
In the whole growth cycle of the bletilla striata, weeding operation needs to be carried out on cultivated land of the bletilla striata for multiple times. In addition, the weeding operation preferably adopts mechanical weeding, namely, weeding is carried out manually, and the removed weeds are buried on the spot, so that the weeds are converted into humus in the cultivated land, nutrients are further provided for the growth of the bletilla striata, the bletilla striata is more fully grown, and tubers are further expanded. Meanwhile, the method is used without using chemical herbicide, and the condition that the pesticide residue of the bletilla striata exceeds the standard is avoided.
It should be noted that, in the sun-shine and heavy sun-shine weather during planting, a sunshade net is laid on the planting greenhouse in time.
The cultivation method for promoting the enlargement of the tuber of bletilla striata and the tuber of bletilla striata cultivated by the cultivation method are further described in detail with reference to the following examples.
Example 1
And 3 months later, ploughing on a relatively flat land, digging planting furrows with the width of 50cm and the depth of 80cm, wherein the interval width of each planting furrow is 25cm, paving a drainage bottom layer formed by mixing stones and river sand with the thickness of 20cm at the bottom of each planting furrow, finishing and flattening the surface of the drainage bottom layer, paving an isolation planting frame 100 clamped with a reverse osmosis membrane above the drainage bottom layer, piling soil mixed with compost and perlite in a piling cavity of the isolation planting frame 100 to form a planting ridge with the height of 10cm, and applying 500kg of compost per mu, and simultaneously burying a drip irrigation pipe at a position 3cm away from the surface of the planting ridge. A planting greenhouse is also arranged on the plowing land, and a spraying humidifier and a greenhouse heating heater are arranged in the planting greenhouse.
Cutting the bletilla striata tuber with the bud eyes to obtain a seeding tuber containing 2 bud eyes, and soaking the seeding tuber in KH with the mass percentage of 3%2PO41.5 percent of sodium molybdate and 3 percent of KNO3After the tuber pretreating agent is added for 36 hours, sodium chloride with the mass percentage of 4 percent is added for soaking for 20 minutes, and the pretreated tubers are taken out for sowing.
Digging planting holes with the depth of 10cm on the planting ridges, wherein the spacing distance of each planting hole is 23cm, placing 2 pretreated tubers in each planting hole, placing bud eyes of the pretreated tubers outside the planting holes, covering soil, and watering by using a drip irrigation pipe.
During planting, keeping the humidity in the planting greenhouse at 50% by using a spray humidifier, and enabling the internal environment temperature of the planting greenhouse to be 20 ℃ by using the spray humidifier when the internal environment temperature of the planting greenhouse is higher than 20 ℃ at night; in the daytime of high-temperature seasons such as summer and the like, the inside of the planting greenhouse is cooled by the spraying humidifier, so that the internal environment temperature of the planting greenhouse is lower than 30 ℃. And in low-temperature seasons, a greenhouse heating heater is utilized to keep the temperature of the planting greenhouse higher than 15 ℃ in the daytime. If the sun shines strongly and sunshades, a sunshade net needs to be laid on the planting greenhouse in time. The first reverse osmosis membrane 117 and the second reverse osmosis membrane 213 were replaced every 8 months during the planting period.
After the seedlings of the bletilla striata emerge, topdressing is carried out, the interval time of topdressing is 45d, the standard application amount of each topdressing is 20kg per mu, and the weight ratio of the fermented rapeseed cakes, the nitrogen fertilizer, the phosphate fertilizer, the potassium fertilizer, the molybdenum fertilizer, the zinc fertilizer and the boron fertilizer in the topdressing fertilizer is 40:10:10: 3: 5.
And 7-9 months are the expansion period of the tubers of the bletilla striata, 50kg of tuber expansion fertilizer is applied every 45 days besides the normal additional fertilizer, and the weight ratio of the fermented rapeseed cakes, the nitrogen fertilizer, the phosphate fertilizer, the potassium fertilizer, the molybdenum fertilizer, the zinc fertilizer and the boron fertilizer in the tuber expansion fertilizer is 40:20:15:10:3:5: 5.
multiple mechanical weeding is carried out during the cultivation period of the bletilla striata, and weeds are directly buried in the field.
And harvesting the bletilla striata tubers after 9 months in the third year.
Example 2
And 4, ploughing on a relatively flat land, digging planting furrows with the width of 80cm and the depth of 40cm, wherein the interval width of each planting furrow is 35cm, paving a drainage bottom layer made of stones with the thickness of 10cm at the bottom of each planting furrow, finishing and leveling the surface of the drainage bottom layer, paving an isolation planting frame 100 clamped with a reverse osmosis membrane above the drainage bottom layer, piling soil mixed with livestock manure and vermiculite in a piling cavity of the isolation planting frame 100 to form a planting ridge with the height of 15cm, and applying 800kg of livestock manure per mu, and simultaneously burying a drip irrigation pipe at a position 5cm away from the surface of the planting ridge. A planting greenhouse is also arranged on the plowing land, and a spraying humidifier and a greenhouse heating heater are arranged in the planting greenhouse.
Cutting the tuber with bud holes to obtain 3 pieces of seedStem, soaking the sown tuber in KH solution containing 4 wt%2PO43 percent of sodium molybdate and 4 percent of KNO3After 30 hours, the tuber pretreating agent is added with sodium chloride with the mass percent of 4% for soaking for 30 minutes, and the pretreated tubers are taken out for sowing.
Digging planting holes with the depth of 13cm on the planting ridges, wherein the spacing distance of each planting hole is 25cm, placing 3 pretreated tubers in each planting hole, placing bud eyes of the pretreated tubers outside the planting holes, covering soil, and watering by using a drip irrigation pipe.
During planting, keeping the humidity in the planting greenhouse at 70% by using a spray humidifier, and enabling the internal environment temperature of the planting greenhouse to be 18 ℃ by using the spray humidifier when the internal environment temperature of the planting greenhouse is higher than 20 ℃ at night; in the daytime of high-temperature seasons such as summer and the like, the inside of the planting greenhouse is cooled by the spraying humidifier, so that the internal environment temperature of the planting greenhouse is lower than 30 ℃. And in low-temperature seasons, a greenhouse heating heater is utilized to keep the temperature of the planting greenhouse higher than 15 ℃ in the daytime. If the sun shines strongly and sunshades, a sunshade net needs to be laid on the planting greenhouse in time. The first reverse osmosis membrane 117 and the second reverse osmosis membrane 213 were replaced every 6 months during the planting period.
After the seedlings of the bletilla striata emerge, topdressing is carried out, the interval time of topdressing is 30d, the standard application amount of each topdressing is 30kg per mu, and the weight ratio of the fermented rapeseed cakes, the nitrogen fertilizer, the phosphate fertilizer, the potassium fertilizer, the molybdenum fertilizer, the zinc fertilizer and the boron fertilizer in the topdressing fertilizer is 30:5:5: 1:3: 3.
And 7-9 months are the expansion period of the tubers of the bletilla striata, 30kg of tuber expansion fertilizer is applied every 45 days besides the normal additional fertilizer, and the weight ratio of the fermented rapeseed cakes, the nitrogen fertilizer, the phosphate fertilizer, the potassium fertilizer, the molybdenum fertilizer, the zinc fertilizer and the boron fertilizer in the tuber expansion fertilizer is 30:10:8:5:1:3: 3.
Multiple mechanical weeding is carried out during the cultivation period of the bletilla striata, and weeds are directly buried in the field.
And harvesting the bletilla striata tubers after 10 months in the third year.
Example 3
And 4, ploughing on a relatively flat land, digging planting ditches with the width of 65cm and the depth of 60cm, wherein the interval width of each planting ditch is 30cm, paving a drainage bottom layer made of river sand with the thickness of 15cm at the bottom of each planting ditch, finishing and flattening the surface of the drainage bottom layer, paving an isolation planting frame 100 clamped with a reverse osmosis membrane above the drainage bottom layer, accumulating soil mixed with stable manure, vermiculite and perlite in an accumulation cavity of the isolation planting frame 100 to form a planting ridge with the height of 12cm, wherein the standard of the application amount of the stable manure is 650kg per mu, and meanwhile, burying a drip irrigation pipe at a position 4cm away from the surface of the planting ridge. A planting greenhouse is also arranged on the plowing land, and a spraying humidifier and an industrial gas fan heater are arranged in the planting greenhouse.
Cutting the bletilla striata tuber with the bud eyes to obtain a seeding tuber containing 2 bud eyes, and soaking the seeding tuber in KH with the mass percentage of 3.5%2PO4Sodium molybdate accounting for 2 percent by mass and KNO accounting for 3.5 percent by mass3After 33 hours, soaking in 2 percent NaOH solution for 20min, taking out the pretreated tubers and sowing.
Digging planting holes with the depth of 11cm on the planting ridges, wherein the spacing distance of each planting hole is 24cm, placing 2 pretreated tubers in each planting hole, placing bud eyes of the pretreated tubers outside the planting holes, covering soil, and watering by using a drip irrigation pipe.
During planting, keeping the humidity in the planting greenhouse to be 60% by using a spray humidifier, and enabling the internal environment temperature of the planting greenhouse to be 19 ℃ by using the spray humidifier when the internal environment temperature of the planting greenhouse is higher than 20 ℃ at night; in the daytime of high-temperature seasons such as summer and the like, the inside of the planting greenhouse is cooled by the spraying humidifier, so that the internal environment temperature of the planting greenhouse is lower than 30 ℃. And in low-temperature seasons, a greenhouse heating heater is utilized to keep the temperature of the planting greenhouse higher than 15 ℃ in the daytime. If the sun shines strongly and sunshades, a sunshade net needs to be laid on the planting greenhouse in time. The first reverse osmosis membrane 117 and the second reverse osmosis membrane 213 were replaced every 7 months during the planting period.
After the seedlings of the bletilla striata emerge, topdressing is carried out, the interval time of topdressing is 38d, the standard application amount of each topdressing is 25kg per mu, and the weight ratio of the fermented rapeseed cakes, the nitrogen fertilizer, the phosphate fertilizer, the potassium fertilizer, the molybdenum fertilizer, the zinc fertilizer and the boron fertilizer in the topdressing fertilizer is 35:7:7: 2:4: 4.
And 7-9 months are the expansion period of the tubers of the bletilla striata, 40kg of tuber expansion fertilizer is applied every 45 days besides the normal additional fertilizer, and the weight ratio of the fermented rapeseed cakes, the nitrogen fertilizer, the phosphate fertilizer, the potassium fertilizer, the molybdenum fertilizer, the zinc fertilizer and the boron fertilizer in the tuber expansion fertilizer is 35:15:12:7:2:4: 4.
Multiple mechanical weeding is carried out during the cultivation period of the bletilla striata, and weeds are directly buried in the field.
And harvesting the bletilla striata tubers after 10 months in the third year.
Example 4
And 3 months later, ploughing on a relatively flat land, digging planting furrows with the width of 50cm and the depth of 80cm, wherein the interval width of each planting furrow is 25cm, paving a drainage bottom layer formed by mixing stones and river sand with the thickness of 20cm at the bottom of each planting furrow, finishing and flattening the surface of the drainage bottom layer, paving an isolation planting frame 100 clamped with a reverse osmosis membrane above the drainage bottom layer, piling soil mixed with compost and perlite in a piling cavity of the isolation planting frame 100 to form a planting ridge with the height of 10cm, and applying 500kg of compost per mu, and simultaneously burying a drip irrigation pipe at a position 3cm away from the surface of the planting ridge. A planting greenhouse is also arranged on the plowing land, and a spraying humidifier and a greenhouse heating heater are arranged in the planting greenhouse.
Cutting the bletilla striata tuber with the bud eyes to obtain a seeding tuber containing 2 bud eyes, and soaking the seeding tuber in KH with the mass percentage of 3%2PO4And KNO with the mass percent of 3%3After the tuber pretreating agent is added for 36 hours, the tuber pretreating agent is soaked in 2 percent NaOH solution for 10 minutes, and the pretreated tubers are taken out for sowing.
Digging planting holes with the depth of 10cm on the planting ridges, wherein the spacing distance of each planting hole is 23cm, placing 2 pretreated tubers in each planting hole, placing bud eyes of the pretreated tubers outside the planting holes, covering soil, and watering by using a drip irrigation pipe.
During planting, keeping the humidity in the planting greenhouse at 50% by using a spray humidifier, and enabling the internal environment temperature of the planting greenhouse to be 20 ℃ by using the spray humidifier when the internal environment temperature of the planting greenhouse is higher than 20 ℃ at night; in the daytime of high-temperature seasons such as summer and the like, the inside of the planting greenhouse is cooled by the spraying humidifier, so that the internal environment temperature of the planting greenhouse is lower than 30 ℃. And in low-temperature seasons, a greenhouse heating heater is utilized to keep the temperature of the planting greenhouse higher than 15 ℃ in the daytime. If the sun shines strongly and sunshades, a sunshade net needs to be laid on the planting greenhouse in time. The first reverse osmosis membrane 117 and the second reverse osmosis membrane 213 were replaced every 8 months during the planting period.
After the seedlings of the bletilla striata emerge, topdressing is carried out, the interval time of topdressing is 45d, the standard application amount of each topdressing is 26kg per mu, and the weight ratio of the fermented rapeseed cakes, the nitrogen fertilizer, the phosphate fertilizer, the potassium fertilizer, the molybdenum fertilizer, the zinc fertilizer and the boron fertilizer in the topdressing fertilizer is 40:10:10: 3: 5.
And 7-9 months are the expansion period of the tubers of the bletilla striata, 50kg of tuber expansion fertilizer is applied every 45 days besides the normal additional fertilizer, and the weight ratio of the fermented rapeseed cakes, the nitrogen fertilizer, the phosphate fertilizer, the potassium fertilizer, the molybdenum fertilizer, the zinc fertilizer and the boron fertilizer in the tuber expansion fertilizer is 40:20:15:10:3:5: 5.
Multiple mechanical weeding is carried out during the cultivation period of the bletilla striata, and weeds are directly buried in the field.
And harvesting the bletilla striata tubers after 9 months in the third year.
Comparing the bletilla striata tubers cultivated by the cultivation method for promoting the enlargement of the bletilla striata tubers with the bletilla striata tubers cultivated by a control group.
Bletilla striata was planted on 1 acre of land and harvested after maturation in the manner of example 1, example 2, example 3 and example 4, and weighing, which included weighing the total weight and randomly taking 10 tubers from the 5 cultivation methods above for comparison. The bletilla striata cultivation method in the comparison group is referred to as the cultivation method in the embodiment 1, and the only difference is that the isolated planting frame 100 is not arranged in the planting ditch of the comparison group. The weight of bletilla striata harvested in 1 mu of land under the cultivation method in 5 above was compared and the results are shown in tables 1 and 2.
TABLE 1 Total weight of bletilla striata harvested by each cultivation method
Group number Example 1 Example 2 Example 3 Example 4 Control group
Total weight of 800kg 750kg 780kg 770kg 500kg
TABLE 2 bletilla striata harvested by each cultivation method was randomly weighed 10
Group number Example 1 Example 2 Example 3 Example 4 Control group
Weight (D) 7.1kg 6.7kg 6.5kg 6.3kg 4.5kg
The comparison result shows that the cultivation method for promoting the enlargement of the tuber of bletilla striata provided by the invention can effectively enlarge the tuber of the bletilla striata, improve the average weight of a single tuber, improve the acre yield of cultivation of the bletilla striata and is beneficial to the production of the bletilla striata.
In conclusion, the cultivation method for promoting the swelling of the bletilla striata tubers and the bletilla striata tubers cultivated by the cultivation method provided by the embodiment of the invention have the advantages that during cultivation, loss of nutrients in soil along with loss of water is avoided, sufficient nutrients can be absorbed when the bletilla striata grows, the application amount of fertilizers is reduced, the absorption of the bletilla striata on the nutrients is promoted, the swelling of the bletilla striata tubers is promoted, the acre yield is improved, and the economic benefit is improved.
The embodiments described above are some, but not all embodiments of the invention. The detailed description of the embodiments of the present invention is not intended to limit the scope of the invention as claimed, but is merely representative of selected embodiments of the invention. All other embodiments, which can be derived by a person skilled in the art from the embodiments given herein without making any creative effort, shall fall within the protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (8)

1. A cultivation method for promoting tuber expansion of bletilla striata is characterized by comprising the following steps:
land preparation: plowing a cultivated land, digging a planting ditch, laying a drainage bottom layer at the bottom of the planting ditch, wherein the drainage bottom layer is made of at least one of stones and river sand, arranging an isolation planting frame at the drainage bottom layer, the isolation planting frame comprises a first net frame, a second net frame and a supporting part for connecting the first net frame and the second net frame, a channel is formed between the first net frame and the second net frame, the channel is divided into a first channel and a second channel by the supporting part, the first channel is internally paved with a first reverse osmosis membrane, the second channel is paved with a second reverse osmosis membrane, one side of the first net frame, which is far away from the second net frame, forms a piling cavity for ridging, piles soil in the piling cavity and forms a planting ridge, applying basal fertilizer to the planting ridge according to the standard of 500kg-800kg per mu, and one end of the first channel, which is far away from the drainage bottom layer, is provided with an opening, the opening is provided with a cover for opening and closing the opening;
cultivation: selecting bletilla striata tubers with bud eyes for cutting to obtain sown tubers containing at least 2 bud eyes, soaking the sown tubers in a tuber pretreating agent for 30-36 h to obtain pretreated tubers, planting the pretreated tubers in the planting ridges, wherein the tuber pretreating agent is selected from KH (KH) with the mass percentage of 3% -4%2PO4Solution, sodium molybdate solution with the mass percent of 1.5-3 percent and KNO with the mass percent of 3-4 percent3At least one of a solution;
field management: and (3) performing at least one additional fertilizer and at least one weed removal after the pretreated tubers grow seedlings and before the tubers mature tubers are harvested after the mature tubers are obtained.
2. The cultivation method for promoting tuber expansion of bletilla striata according to claim 1, wherein the base fertilizer comprises a fertilizer and an additive, the fertilizer is selected from at least one of compost, livestock manure and manure, and the additive is selected from at least one of perlite and vermiculite.
3. The cultivation method for promoting tuber expansion of bletilla striata according to claim 1, wherein the top dressing is performed every 30d-45d after cultivation, the fertilizer application amount of each top dressing is 20kg-30kg per mu, and 30kg-50kg of tuber expansion fertilizer per mu is applied to the bletilla striata at the expansion period.
4. The cultivation method for promoting the enlargement of the tuber of bletilla striata according to claim 1, wherein the depth of the planting furrows is 40cm-80cm, the thickness of the drainage bottom layer is 10cm-20cm, and the height of the planting ridges is 10cm-15 cm.
5. The cultivation method for promoting the enlargement of the tuber of bletilla striata according to claim 4, wherein the land preparation step further comprises the step of laying drip irrigation pipes in the planting ridges, and the distance from the side of the planting ridges away from the drainage bottom layer to the drip irrigation pipes is 3cm-5 cm.
6. The cultivation method for promoting the enlargement of the tuber of bletilla striata according to claim 1, wherein the cultivation step further comprises the step of building a planting greenhouse above the cultivated land, and a spraying device and a heating device are erected in the planting greenhouse.
7. The cultivation method for promoting the enlargement of the tuber of bletilla striata according to claim 6, wherein after the cultivation is completed, the humidity in the planting greenhouse is controlled to be 50% -70%.
8. The cultivation method for promoting the enlargement of the tuber of bletilla striata according to claim 6, wherein after the cultivation is finished, the internal environment temperature of the planting greenhouse is controlled not to exceed 20 ℃ at night; and controlling the internal environment temperature of the planting greenhouse to be more than or equal to 15 ℃ in daytime.
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CN107466654A (en) * 2017-09-12 2017-12-15 六盘水黔丰农业发展有限公司 A kind of efficiently method of reproducing bletilla striata tissue-cultured seedling and the growth belt method of the bletilla striata
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