CN101258813B - Method for cultivating onion in north - Google Patents

Method for cultivating onion in north Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101258813B
CN101258813B CN2008100644018A CN200810064401A CN101258813B CN 101258813 B CN101258813 B CN 101258813B CN 2008100644018 A CN2008100644018 A CN 2008100644018A CN 200810064401 A CN200810064401 A CN 200810064401A CN 101258813 B CN101258813 B CN 101258813B
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water
management
soil
root
seedlings
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CN2008100644018A
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CN101258813A (en
Inventor
刘洪家
邢如义
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Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology of CAS
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Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology of CAS
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Abstract

The invention discloses a cultivating method of a kind of economic crops, in particular to a cultivating method of high yield high quality onions in the north of China. The invention solves the problem of irregulation for the cultivation of the onions by planters. The cultivating method is completed through the essential measures of fine soil preparation, seedbed management, transplantation and field water and fertilizer management. The cultivating method of the invention has simple operating technology and is easy to be accepted by peasants, thereby being applicable to popularization and application in varied levels of agricultural technologies. The seedlings cultivated by the method have lots of leaves, long onion white and a plurality of fibrous roots. Beside, the seedlings are steady and the onions have good quality, high yield, high commodity rate, long storage life and standard and convenient cultivation.

Description

A kind of cultivation method of onion in north
Technical field
The invention belongs to the crop genetics in the agricultural technology field, specifically a kind of cultivation method of onion in north.
Background technology
Round onions is generally acknowledged by people because of its abundant healthy nutritive value already as a kind of worldwide vegetables, the plantation production of round onions is one of best kind of economic benefit in the present northern area economic crops outdoor cropping plantation, the long day type round onions in the north is more with its outstanding quality, good keeping quality and sales cycle are grown and enjoy great prestige domestic and international consumption market, the Heilongjiang Province, the round onions cultivated area in Jilin Province is all increasing substantially every year, become one of principal item of northern area agricultural restructuring, along with China's WTO, type round onions industry had welcome unprecedented opportunity to develop in long day.But, seriously influenced the enthusiasm for production at round onions plantation family for a long time because the plantation of plantation family is lacked experience, and rich water quality management is improper, and the control disease is unfavorable, and causes the underproduction and waste, has been subjected to unnecessary loss.Therefore, be necessary the culture technique of the long day type round onions in the north is studied, so that a kind of high yield and high quality cultivation method of science to be provided.
Summary of the invention
The objective of the invention is to be to provide a kind of high-yield cultivating method of onion in north, method is easy, and cultivation is convenient, by grow seedlings in good time, Honda transplanting, rational close planting, rich water quality management, improved round onions output.
For achieving the above object, the present invention adopts following technical measures:
One, the main phenophase of onion in north cultivation and production
1, grows seedlings a sowing time: late Febuary-mid-March
2, Honda is transplanted the phase: the late April-the first tenday period of a month in May
3, bulb expanding stage: late June-mid-August
4, the lodging phase: mid-August-late August
5, harvest time: mid-August-early September
Two, seed selection, whole ground, fertilising, bedding
1, seed selection: select the Japan head's day type round onions first generation of hybrid kind series that is fit to the boreal climate characteristics for use.
2, wholely: select land readjustment, fertile, irrigation condition is arranged, the loam that permeability is good, sandy loam and black earth, the plot of P in soil H value 6.3-7.8 is good.Preferably carry out the autumn and put in order ground, autumn fertilising, autumn bedding, the soil scarifying degree of depth is 20-25cm, flattens, harrows carefully, mixes fertile abundant, even.
3, basal dressing: fertilizer is puddled in conjunction with the autumn wholely and is applied, and chemical fertilizer can apply after soil in spring thaws 20-25cm.
(1) bed of growing seedlings: every mu applies 2 tons of fertilizer 4-5 ton or the chicken manures of sieving that become thoroughly decomposed.Two ammonium 25-30kg/ mus, potassium sulphate 7-10kg/ mu, the plain activator 1kg/ of phosphorus mu.It is even to revolve cake after applying, and fully puddles with soil.
(2) Honda: every mu applies 2 tons of fertilizer 4-5 ton or the chicken manures of sieving that become thoroughly decomposed.Two ammonium 50kg/ mus, urea 20kg/ mu, potassium sulphate 12kg/ mu, the plain activator 1kg/ of phosphorus mu.It is even to revolve cake after applying, and fully puddles with soil.
4, bedding: apply fertilizer, revolve evenly back bedding of cake.Furrow face width degree: 100-120cm under the sprinkling irrigation condition; 90cm under the furrow irrigation condition.Furrow face height: 15-20cm; Flat furrow or low furrow can be made in high temperature and drought sand loam soil area, furrow width 30-35cm between furrow.
Three, seedling bed earth sterilization
Take 70% carbendazim to mix with 1: 1 ratio of weight ratio, get the 8-10g mixed powder and convert the thin dry ground of 15kg, mix evenly, spread fertilizer over the fields the sowing of bed surface post-trenching with 50% tmtd.
Four, sowing
1, seeding quantity: every mu of Honda seeding quantity is 125-150g, and every square metre of seeding in nursery bed amount is 7-8g, and the long-pending ratio with the Honda area of the bed surface of growing seedlings is 1: 22.
2, seed treatment: take 70% carbendazim to mix medicinal powder dry mixing kind in back with 50% tmtd with 1: 1 ratio of weight ratio, the medicinal powder consumption is 0.3% of a grain weight.
3, sowing program and method:
Furrow face trench digging → sth. made by twisting seed → earthing → top presses → waters that sufficient water → bait → covering film puts poison.Trench depth 1.5-2.0cm, ditch spacing 6cm, thickness of earth covering 0.8-1.0cm.
Five, seedbed management and one-tenth seedling standard
1, water, fertile management: guarantee the seedbed soil moisture sufficient and in after planting in time water spray once upper and lower water is connect, do not water before taking off film until emerging, take off after 60-80% is emerged film and at any time water spray once, guarantee later on the seedbed see dried see wet.The hardening phase waters relatively less before transplanting, and when seedling height is 10-15cm, looks the growth of cereal crop seedlings and topdresses in right amount and spray leaf fertilizer in conjunction with watering; 10-15 days spray 1-2 hypophosphorous acid potassium dihydrogen 0.2-0.4% liquid before transplanting is to promote to transplant the back root of hair.
2, temperature treatment: keep after planting emerging preceding daytime temperature 20-25 ℃, nighttime temperature is greater than 13 ℃; After emerging, keep 15-20 ℃ of daytime temperature, surpass 28 ℃ and leak informaton, 10 ℃ of nighttime temperatures are not less than 8 ℃.
3, become the seedling standard: blade 3-4 sheet, false stem 0.4-0.5cm, plant height 25-30cm, very light blue long 4-5cm, fibrous root 13-15 bar, seedling age 45-55 days.
Six, transplanting and planting density
1, lifting, be stained with root: lifting seedbed the previous day beats permeable so that lifting, classification bundling behind the lifting, removes soil and cuts off the diffusing root of band earth, places deinsectization in the medicine basin, sterilization then, and liquid formula is: 600 times of liquid of 600 times of liquid+carbendazim of phoxim.
2, transplanting method: transplant with the peg wood jack, degree of depth 3cm can not be dark excessively.
3, planting density: density 2.5-3.0 ten thousand strain/mus, seeding row spacing 13-15 * 13-15cm.
Seven, Honda management
1, water management: generally water 7-10 time the time of infertility.
(1) field planting water: in time water once after the field planting, root system and soil are connected airtight, unsuitable flood irrigation.
(2) seedling recovering water: to slow seedling, should little water duty water after the field planting, keep rhizosphere soil moistening, not ponding.
(3) restraining the growth of seedlings, short root: suitably control water 5-7 days behind the slow seedling, promote root system development.
(4) tiller water: enter normal water after the restraining the growth of seedlings and divide management, watered once in 7-10 days, keep soil see dried see wet, humidity 60-80%, moistening with the root layer is principle.
(5) control water transforms: before bulb expands, suitably control water, to realize that leaf growth to the conversion that bulb expands, prevents excessive growth.
(6) bulb expands water: enter normal water behind the transition phase and divide management, can not lack of water, otherwise influence output.
(7) cut off the water: plant occurs stopping to water after the lodging, divides excessive onion to rot to prevent water.
2, fertilizing management:
(1) short root is carried seed manure: behind the slow seedling in conjunction with watering ammonium sulfate 10-15kg/ mu or the urea 10kg/ mu of topdressing.
(2) urge head fertile: the ammonium sulfate 10-15kg/ mu that topdresses before bulb expands, potassium sulphate 8kg/ mu; Leaf surface spraying concentration is potassium dihydrogen phosphate 3-4 time of 0.2-0.4%.
(3) the short painted fertilizer of onion: preceding about 15 days of harvest time, promptly bulb expands the Sheng phase and carries out foliage-spray 0.1-0.3% borate.
3, intertillage management:
Carry out 2-3 shallow intertillage before expanding to bulb behind slow seedling, the degree of depth is no more than 3cm.
Eight, results, airing, storage
1, results, airing:
The preharvest period, spray round onions closing in agent patented product (ZL200410011006.5), promote round onions closing in consolidation.When treating field 70-80% plant lodging is proper time, and the fine results of choosing have the several successive fine day after preferably receiving, in case susceptible.Put on the spot in the furrow face after playing green onion, make back one row green onion leaf cover last row's onion, do not make onion be subjected to the roasting solarization of daylight as far as possible, through 2-3 days fine days, blade is listless soft, stay 4-5cm to cut in bulb portion when the onion epidermis is dry, preliminary classification pack, piling, build the anti-rainwater of plastic foil, ventilation, airing, air-dry, painted.
2, storage: go into the cellar for storing things storage before and after October 1, thermophilic 0-2 ℃, ventilate to every day, relative moisture 65-70%.
The invention has the beneficial effects as follows: the technology of the present invention is simple to operate, is accepted by the peasant easily, is suitable for agricultural [technologys at different levels and uses.The rice shoot blade of cultivating by the present invention is many, very light blue length, and fibrous root is many, and rice shoot is sturdy; Round onions quality better, output height, commodity rate height, storage period are long, and the cultivation standard is convenient.
Test is carried out on farm, Yan Jia hilllock, Harbin City, Heilongjiang Province city, and soil is sand loam, and the content of organic matter is 10.7g/kg, alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen 51.2mg/kg, rapid available phosphorus is 58.4mg/kg, and available potassium is 110.3mg/kg, and experimental cultivar is for introducing long day Huang of Japanese long day type onion first generation of hybrid kind.Carry out cultivation management by the inventive method, average annual output 3060kg/ mu throughout the year.
Embodiment
A, seed selection, whole ground, fertilising, bedding
1, seed selection: select the Japan head's day type round onions first generation of hybrid kind series that is fit to the boreal climate characteristics for use.
2, wholely: select land readjustment, fertile, irrigation condition is arranged, the loam that permeability is good, sandy loam and black earth, the plot of P in soil H value 6.3-7.8 is good.Preferably carry out the autumn and put in order ground, autumn fertilising, autumn bedding, the soil scarifying degree of depth is 20-25cm, flattens, harrows carefully, mixes fertile abundant, even.
3, basal dressing: fertilizer is puddled in conjunction with the autumn wholely and is applied, and chemical fertilizer can apply after soil in spring thaws 20-25cm.
(1) bed of growing seedlings: every mu applies 2 tons of fertilizer 4-5 ton or the chicken manures of sieving that become thoroughly decomposed.Two ammonium 25-30kg/ mus, potassium sulphate 7-10kg/ mu, the plain activator 1kg/ of phosphorus mu.It is even to revolve cake after applying, and fully puddles with soil.
(2) Honda: every mu applies 2 tons of fertilizer 4-5 ton or the chicken manures of sieving that become thoroughly decomposed.Two ammonium 50kg/ mus, urea 20kg/ mu, potassium sulphate 12kg/ mu, the plain activator 1kg/ of phosphorus mu.It is even to revolve cake after applying, and fully puddles with soil.
4, bedding: apply fertilizer, revolve evenly back bedding of cake.Furrow face width degree: 100-120cm under the sprinkling irrigation condition; 90cm under the furrow irrigation condition.Furrow face height: 15-20cm; Flat furrow or low furrow can be made in high temperature and drought sand loam soil area, furrow width 30-35cm between furrow.
B, seedling bed earth sterilization
Take 70% carbendazim to mix with 1: 1 ratio of weight ratio, get the 8-10g mixed powder and convert the thin dry ground of 15kg, mix evenly, spread fertilizer over the fields the sowing of bed surface post-trenching with 50% tmtd.
C, sowing
1, seeding quantity: every mu of Honda seeding quantity is 125-150g, and every square metre of seeding in nursery bed amount is 7-8g, and the long-pending ratio with the Honda area of the bed surface of growing seedlings is 1: 22.
2, seed treatment: take 70% carbendazim to mix medicinal powder dry mixing kind in back with 50% tmtd with 1: 1 ratio of weight ratio, the medicinal powder consumption is 0.3% of a grain weight.
3, sowing program and method:
Furrow face trench digging → sth. made by twisting seed → earthing → top presses → waters that sufficient water → bait → covering film puts poison.Trench depth 1.5-2.0cm, ditch spacing 6cm, thickness of earth covering 0.8-1.0cm.
D, seedbed management and one-tenth seedling standard
1, water, fertile management: guarantee the seedbed soil moisture sufficient and in after planting in time water spray once upper and lower water is connect, do not water before taking off film until emerging, take off after 60-80% is emerged film and at any time water spray once, guarantee later on the seedbed see dried see wet.The hardening phase waters relatively less before transplanting, and when seedling height is 10-15cm, looks the growth of cereal crop seedlings and topdresses in right amount and spray leaf fertilizer in conjunction with watering; 10-15 days spray 1-2 hypophosphorous acid potassium dihydrogen 0.2-0.4% liquid before transplanting is to promote to transplant the back root of hair.
2, temperature treatment: keep after planting emerging preceding daytime temperature 20-25 ℃, nighttime temperature is greater than 13 ℃; After emerging, keep 15-20 ℃ of daytime temperature, surpass 28 ℃ and leak informaton, 10 ℃ of nighttime temperatures are not less than 8 ℃.
3, become the seedling standard:
Blade 3-4 sheet, false stem 0.4-0.5cm, plant height 25-30cm, very light blue long 4-5cm, fibrous root 13-15 bar, seedling age 45-55 days.
E, transplanting and planting density
1, lifting, be stained with root: lifting seedbed the previous day beats permeable so that lifting, classification bundling behind the lifting, removes soil and cuts off the diffusing root of band earth, places deinsectization in the medicine basin, sterilization then, and liquid formula is: 600 times of liquid of 600 times of liquid+carbendazim of phoxim.
2, transplanting method: transplant with the peg wood jack, degree of depth 3cm can not be dark excessively.
3, planting density: density 2.5-3.0 ten thousand strain/mus, seeding row spacing 13-15 * 13-15cm.
F, Honda management
1, water management: generally water 7-10 time the time of infertility.
(1) field planting water: in time water once after the field planting, root system and soil are connected airtight, unsuitable flood irrigation.
(2) seedling recovering water: to slow seedling, should little water duty water after the field planting, keep rhizosphere soil moistening, not ponding.
(3) restraining the growth of seedlings, short root: suitably control water 5-7 days behind the slow seedling, promote root system development.
(4) tiller water: enter normal water after the restraining the growth of seedlings and divide management, watered once in 7-10 days, keep soil see dried see wet, humidity 60-80%, moistening with the root layer is principle.
(5) control water transforms: before bulb expands, suitably control water, to realize that leaf growth to the conversion that bulb expands, prevents excessive growth.
(6) bulb expands water: enter normal water behind the transition phase and divide management, can not lack of water, otherwise influence output.
(7) cut off the water: plant occurs stopping to water after the lodging, divides excessive onion to rot to prevent water.
2, fertilizing management:
(1) short root is carried seed manure: behind the slow seedling in conjunction with watering ammonium sulfate 10-15kg/ mu or the urea 10kg/ mu of topdressing.
(2) urge head fertile: the ammonium sulfate 10-15kg/ mu that topdresses before bulb expands, potassium sulphate 8kg/ mu; Leaf surface spraying concentration is potassium dihydrogen phosphate 3-4 time of 0.2-0.4%.
(3) the short painted fertilizer of onion: preceding about 15 days of harvest time, promptly bulb expands the Sheng phase and carries out foliage-spray 0.1-0.3% borate.
3, intertillage management:
Carry out 2-3 shallow intertillage before expanding to bulb behind slow seedling, the degree of depth is no more than 3cm.
G, results, airing, storage
1, results, airing:
The preharvest period, spray round onions closing in agent patented product (ZL200410011006.5), promote round onions closing in consolidation.When treating field 70-80% plant lodging is proper time, and the fine results of choosing have the several successive fine day after preferably receiving, in case susceptible.Put on the spot in the furrow face after playing green onion, make back one row green onion leaf cover last row's onion, do not make onion be subjected to the roasting solarization of daylight as far as possible, through 2-3 days fine days, blade is listless soft, stay 4-5cm to cut in bulb portion when the onion epidermis is dry, preliminary classification pack, piling, build the anti-rainwater of plastic foil, ventilation, airing, air-dry, painted.
2, storage: go into the cellar for storing things storage before and after October 1, thermophilic 0-2 ℃, ventilate to every day, relative moisture 65-70%.

Claims (1)

1. the cultivation method of an onion in north is characterized in that: this cultivation method by whole ground, grow seedlings, seedbed management, transplanting, five key steps of Honda management finish:
A, selection kind:
Select the Japan head's day type round onions first generation of hybrid kind series that is fit to the boreal climate characteristics for use;
B, whole ground, fertilising, bedding:
Whole ground, fertilising: select land readjustment, fertile, irrigation condition is arranged, the loam that permeability is good, sandy loam and black earth, the plot of P in soil H value 6.3-7.8; The soil scarifying degree of depth is 20-25cm;
Grow seedlings bed fertilising: every mu applies 2 tons of fertilizer 4-5 ton or the chicken manures of sieving that become thoroughly decomposed, two ammonium 25-30kg/ mus, potassium sulphate 7-10kg/ mu, the plain activator 1kg/ of phosphorus mu; It is even to revolve cake after applying, and fully puddles with soil;
Honda fertilising: every mu applies 2 tons of fertilizer 4-5 ton or the chicken manures of sieving that become thoroughly decomposed, two ammonium 50kg/ mus, urea 20kg/ mu, potassium sulphate 12kg/ mu, the plain activator 1kg/ of phosphorus mu; It is even to revolve cake after applying, and fully puddles with soil;
Bedding: apply fertilizer, revolve evenly back bedding of cake; Furrow face width degree is 100-120cm under the sprinkling irrigation condition, and furrow face width degree is 90cm under the furrow irrigation condition, and furrow face height is 15-20cm;
C, sowing
Seeding quantity: every mu of Honda seeding quantity is 125-150g, and every square metre of seeding in nursery bed amount is 7-8g, and the long-pending ratio with the Honda area of the bed surface of growing seedlings is 1: 22; Seed treatment: take 70% carbendazim to mix medicinal powder dry mixing kind in back with 50% tmtd with 1: 1 ratio of weight ratio, the medicinal powder consumption is 0.3% of a grain weight; Sowing program and method: furrow face trench digging → sth. made by twisting seed → earthing → top presses → waters that sufficient water → bait → covering film puts poison; Trench depth 1.5-2.0cm, ditch spacing 6cm, thickness of earth covering 0.8-1.0cm;
D, seedbed management
Water, fertile management: guarantee the seedbed soil moisture sufficient and in after planting in time water spray once upper and lower water is connect, do not water before taking off film until emerging, take off after 60-80% is emerged film and at any time water spray once, guarantee later on the seedbed see dried see wet; The hardening phase waters relatively less before transplanting, and when seedling height is 10-15cm, looks the growth of cereal crop seedlings and topdresses in right amount in conjunction with watering; 10-15 days spray 1-2 hypophosphorous acid potassium dihydrogen 0.2-0.4% liquid before transplanting is to promote to transplant the back root of hair; Temperature treatment: keep after planting emerging preceding daytime temperature 20-25 ℃, nighttime temperature is greater than 13 ℃; After emerging, keep 15-20 ℃ of daytime temperature, surpass 28 ℃ and leak informaton, nighttime temperature is not less than 8 ℃;
E, transplanting:
Lifting seedbed the previous day beats permeable so that lifting, classification bundling behind the lifting, removes soil and cuts off the diffusing root of band earth, places deinsectization in the medicine basin, sterilization then, and liquid formula is: 600 times of liquid of 600 times of liquid+carbendazim of phoxim;
Transplant degree of depth 3cm with the peg wood jack; Density 2.5-3.0 ten thousand strain/mus, seeding row spacing 13-15 * 13-15cm;
F, Honda management:
Water management: generally water 7-10 time the time of infertility;
(1) field planting water: in time water once after the field planting, make root system and soil connect airtight not flood irrigation;
(2) seedling recovering water: to slow seedling, should little water duty water after the field planting, keep rhizosphere soil moistening, not ponding;
(3) restraining the growth of seedlings, short root: suitably control water 5-7 days behind the slow seedling, promote root system development;
(4) tiller water: enter normal water after the restraining the growth of seedlings and divide management, watered once in 7-10 days, keep soil see dried see wet, humidity 60-80%, moistening with the root layer is principle;
(5) control water transforms: before bulb expands, suitably control water, to realize that leaf growth to the conversion that bulb expands, prevents excessive growth;
(6) bulb expands water: enter normal water behind the transition phase and divide management, can not lack of water, otherwise influence output;
(7) cut off the water: plant occurs stopping to water after the lodging, divides excessive onion to rot to prevent water;
Fertilizing management:
(1) short root is carried seed manure: behind the slow seedling in conjunction with watering ammonium sulfate 10-15kg/ mu or the urea 10kg/ mu of topdressing;
(2) urge head fertile: the ammonium sulfate 10-15kg/ mu that topdresses before bulb expands, potassium sulphate 8kg/ mu; Leaf surface spraying concentration is potassium dihydrogen phosphate 3-4 time of 0.2-0.4%;
(3) the short painted fertilizer of onion: preceding about 15 days of harvest time, promptly bulb expands the Sheng phase and carries out foliage-spray 0.1-0.3% borate; Intertillage management: carry out 2-3 shallow intertillage before expanding to bulb behind slow seedling, the degree of depth is no more than 3cm.
CN2008100644018A 2008-04-28 2008-04-28 Method for cultivating onion in north Expired - Fee Related CN101258813B (en)

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Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
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Families Citing this family (13)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN102450142A (en) * 2010-10-19 2012-05-16 倪明源 Latest green Chinese onion cultivation technology
CN102498904A (en) * 2011-11-17 2012-06-20 四川大学 Spring onion fresh-keeping method
CN102626016B (en) * 2012-04-24 2013-05-22 中国科学院南京土壤研究所 Fertilizing method for overcoming production decline of continuous cropping chives
CN103650827A (en) * 2012-09-26 2014-03-26 王宝库 Standardized planting method for nuisanceless green Chinese onions
CN102948315B (en) * 2012-10-29 2015-03-25 安华芳 Planting method for preventing and controlling welsh onion dry tip symptom
CN103250528A (en) * 2013-04-02 2013-08-21 镇江瑞繁农艺有限公司 Harvesting and storage method for preventing rot of onion seedballs
CN103563637A (en) * 2013-11-11 2014-02-12 山西广发禽业有限公司 Green Chinese onion fostering and cultivation technology
CN103947418A (en) * 2014-04-24 2014-07-30 江苏善港生态农业科技有限公司 Onion planting method
CN104322245B (en) * 2014-09-30 2017-12-26 颍上县中军农业科技开发有限公司 A kind of implantation methods of yellow onion
CN105052484A (en) * 2015-08-03 2015-11-18 太仓市家欣农场专业合作社 High-quality high-yield and high-efficiency cultivation method for onions
CN105684712A (en) * 2016-02-19 2016-06-22 太仓市丰缘农场专业合作社 High-yield planting method for onions
CN106386359B (en) * 2016-10-07 2020-02-14 沈阳乐圃现代农业科技有限公司 Blueberry ecological production and culture method
CN106977347A (en) * 2017-04-16 2017-07-25 曲沃县微创客文化传媒工作室 A kind of implantation methods of onion

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